- What other names is Docosahexaenoic Acid known by?
- What is Docosahexaenoic Acid?
- How does Docosahexaenoic Acid work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Docosahexaenoic Acid.
Acide Docosahexaénoïque, Acide Gras d'Huile de Poisson, Acide Gras Oméga 3, Acide Gras N-3, Acide Gras W-3, Acido Docosahexaenoico, ADH, DHA, Fish Oil Fatty Acid, N-3 Fatty Acid, Neuromins, Omega 3, Oméga 3, Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, W-3 Fatty Acid.
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is a fatty acid found in the meat of cold-water fish, including mackerel, herring, tuna, halibut, salmon, cod liver, whale blubber, and seal blubber. It can also be made by algae.
Don't confuse DHA with EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). They are both in fish oil, but they are not the same. DHA can be converted into EPA in the body in very small amounts. See separate listings for fish oil and EPA.
DHA is used as a supplement for premature babies and as an ingredient in baby formula during the first year of life to promote better mental development. It is also used in infant formula to prevent lung diseases, allergic diseases such as eczema or hay fever, and diarrhea. This practice probably started because DHA is found naturally in breast milk. In some cases, DHA is used in combination with arachidonic acid.
DHA is also taken by mouth alone or along with EPA to improve mental function in healthy people or those with mental impairment. It is also used to improve mental function in people with dementia or age-related mental decline. It is also taken by mouth for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, aggressive behavior, Alzheimer's disease, autism, and to prevent relapse in schizophrenic patients who stop taking antipsychotic medication.
DHA is also taken by mouth for diabetes, coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, high levels of cholesterol and fats in the blood, high blood pressure, and cancer including breast and prostate cancer. It is also used for a type of fatty liver not related to drinking alcohol, obesity, ear infections, and learning problems in children.
Some people use DHA is for improving vision, preventing an eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), treating an eye condition called retinitis pigmentosa, and increasing DHA levels in people with cystic fibrosis.
DHA is taken by mouth in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for a variety of conditions, including the prevention and reversal of heart disease, stabilizing heart rhythm, preventing abnormal heart beats after heart surgery, painful menstrual periods, lupus, and certain kidney diseases. EPA and DHA are also used in combination for preventing migraine headaches in teenagers, Behcet's syndrome, psoriasis, Raynaud's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, bipolar disorder, and ulcerative colitis.
Possibly Effective for...
- Clogged arteries (coronary artery disease). Increased consumption of DHA in the diet might lower the risk of death in people with coronary artery disease.
- High cholesterol. Research suggests that taking 1.25 to 4 grams of DHA daily can lower triglyceride levels in people with high cholesterol or high triglyceride levels. It might also improve cholesterol levels in people with at least one risk factor for heart disease. However, DHA does not seem to lower total cholesterol in people with high cholesterol levels. Also, most research shows that it does not increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol, although some conflicting research exists. DHA might increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol. But this effect might not be clinically significant. DHA does not seem to improve cholesterol in children with high cholesterol levels.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Age-related mental decline. Most research shows that taking DHA alone or with other ingredients does not improve memory, forgetfulness, or learning ability in people with age-related mental decline or mild mental impairment. Also, in elderly people without mental decline, taking DHA does not improve learning or memory. However, one large clinical study shows that taking DHA might improve visual and spatial learning in people with age-related mental decline. The effect seems to be greatest for people with a family history of dementia or those taking statins.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Many children with ADHD have low levels of DHA in their blood. However, taking DHA does not seem to improve ADHD symptoms, although some early research suggests that DHA might help children with ADHD become less aggressive and get along better with others.
- Cancer. Research suggests that taking DHA along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with or without B vitamins, does not reduce the risk of getting any type of cancer in middle-aged and elderly people with heart disease. In fact taking the combination might increase the risk of cancer in women.
- Mental performance. Research suggests that taking DHA does not improve mental performance in healthy children, young women, or healthy adults. Also, taking DHA along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) does not improve mental function. One study shows that taking DHA can improve reading scores in children below the 20th percentile for reading. But it doesn't seem to improve reading scores in other children.
- Depression. Taking DHA by mouth does not seem to relieve or prevent depression symptoms in most people. It also doesn't seem to prevent depression from developing in people with hepatitis C who are undergoing a treatment that is linked with depression. But taking DHA may delay the development of depression in these patients. Also, early research suggests that taking DHA along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) might improve symptoms of depression in elderly people with mild mental impairment.
- Diabetes. Taking DHA by mouth does not seem to lower blood sugar or cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes. Also, levels of DHA in the blood of the pregnant mother do not appear to be associated with risk of type 1 diabetes in the child (90705).
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Increased intake of DHA as part of the diet is associated with a lower risk of developing vision loss due to aging. This may be related to the effects of DHA on color, or pigment, in a specific part of the eye, called the macula. However, when DHA is taken along with other vitamins and minerals known to prevent age-related vision loss, DHA does not seem to offer any improvement.
- Alzheimer's disease. Some research suggests that people who get more DHA from their diet have a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. However, research suggests that taking DHA supplement does not slow mental or functional decline in people with Alzheimer's disease.
- Atopic dermatitis (eczema). Adding DHA and the fatty acid arachidonic acid to infant formula does not seem to prevent the development of eczema compared to regular formula.
- Hypersensitivity. Research shows that giving hypersensitive women DHA supplements during pregnancy reduces the number of infants who experience nasal discharge and nasal congestion with or without fever after birth.
- Abnormal heart rhythm. Having higher levels of DHA in fat tissue does not seem to be linked with a lower risk of abnormal heart rhythm. However, research suggests that taking DHA along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) around the time of heart surgery reduces the risk of having abnormal heart rhythm after surgery.
- Autism. Early research suggests that taking DHA does not improve most symptoms of autism. But it might help with specific symptoms like social withdrawal and communication.
- Breast cancer. Early research suggests that taking DHA during chemotherapy treatment might help delay progression of the breast cancer and improve survival.
- Crohn's disease. Increased intake of DHA as part of the diet is linked with a lower risk of developing Crohn's disease.
- Cystic fibrosis. Early research suggests that taking DHA for up to one year does not improve lung function in people with cystic fibrosis.
- Dementia. Early research suggests that taking DHA for one year improves symptoms of dementia caused by a condition related to blood clots in the brain (thrombotic cerebrovascular diseases).
- Diarrhea. Early research shows that feeding infants formula with added DHA and the fatty acid arachidonic acid helps prevent the development of serious diarrhea compared to giving regular formula.
- Dyslexia. Taking DHA by mouth seems to improve night vision in children with dyslexia.
- Movement and coordination disorder (dyspraxia). Taking DHA by mouth together with evening primrose oil, thyme oil, and vitamin E (Efalex by Efamol Ltd.) seems to improve movement in children with dyspraxia.
- Hypertension. Research shows that eating a specific canola oil rich in DHA might reduce blood pressure by a small amount in people with at least one risk factor for heart disease.
- Improving infant development. Some research suggests that infants who do not receive DHA from breast milk or formula have delayed mental and visual development compared to those who receive enough DHA. Some researchers reasoned that giving DHA in formula might improve development. However, when they tested this theory, study results did not agree. The reason for the differences may be due to the way the studies were designed. For now, experts generally recommend breast-feeding instead of formula-feeding. However, if formula is used, some experts suggest a formula providing at least 0.2% of fats from DHA. Most research shows that taking DHA during pregnancy does not improve fetal development or infant development after birth. However, it might increase the weight and length of the baby at birth, as well as language development and ability to sleep after birth.
- Liver disease (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). Early research suggests that taking DHA for up to 2 years reduces the risk of severe fat accumulation in the liver in children with liver disease.
- Obesity. Early research shows that taking DHA reduces the dietary intake of carbohydrate and fat in overweight or obese women. But it does not seem to help with weight reduction in these people.
- Ear infection. Early research suggests that feeding infants formula with added DHA and the fatty acid arachidonic acid does not seem to prevent the development of ear infections compared to feeding regular formula.
- Prostate cancer. Results of two population studies show that higher dietary intake of DHA is linked with a reduced risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer and advanced prostate cancer. However, analyses of several population studies show that higher intake of DHA is linked with an increased risk of prostate cancer.
- Respiratory tract infections. Some research shows that giving preterm infants formula containing 1% DHA does not prevent serious respiratory tract infections compared to formula containing 0.35% DHA. However, some early research shows that giving full-term infants formula with added DHA and the fatty acid arachidonic acid reduces the risk of bronchitis, croup, stuffy nose, and cough compared to regular formula.
- Inherited condition that causes vision loss (retinitis pigmentosa). Research on the effectiveness of DHA for people with retinitis pigmentosa is inconsistent. Some research suggests that taking DHA for 4 years does not improve eye function in people with retinitis pigmentosa who are also taking vitamin A. However, other research shows that taking DHA for 4 years improves eye function in some people with this condition. But visual function does not seem to improve.
- Schizophrenia. Early research suggests that taking DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and alpha-lipoic acid for 2 years does not prevent symptoms from returning in people with schizophrenia who stop taking their medication.
- Stroke. Higher blood levels of DHA are linked with a reduced risk of stroke.
- Other conditions. word
DHA plays a key role in the development of eye and nerve tissues. DHA may also reduce the risk of heart and circulatory disease by decreasing the thickness of the blood, reducing inflammation (swelling), and lowering blood levels of triglycerides.
DHA is LIKELY SAFE for most adults and children when taken by mouth. It has been used safely in studies for up to 4 years. DHA can cause nausea, intestinal gas, bruising, and prolonged bleeding. Fish oils containing DHA can cause fishy taste, belching, nosebleeds, and loose stools. Taking DHA with meals can often decrease these side effects.
DHA is POSSIBLY SAFE when injected intravenously (by IV) along with the fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for a short period of time. DHA plus EPA has been safely given by IV for up to 14 days.
DHA is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in large amounts. When used in amounts greater than 3 gram per day, DHA-containing oils can thin the blood and increase the risk for bleeding. In women, this effect might occur at a lower dose of 1 gram per day.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: DHA is LIKELY SAFE when used appropriately during pregnancy and breast-feeding. DHA is commonly used during pregnancy and is an ingredient in some prenatal vitamins. DHA is a normal component of breast milk and is added as a supplement to some infant formulas. If it is taken by the mother during lactation, DHA levels increase in the breast milk.
Bleeding conditions: DHA alone does not seem to affect blood clotting. However, when taken with EPA as in fish oil, doses over 3 grams daily might increase the risk of bleeding.
Diabetes: DHA seems to increase blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes.
Low blood pressure: DHA can lower blood pressure. This might increase the risk of blood pressure becoming too low in people who already have low blood pressure.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
DHA might increase blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By increasing blood sugar, DHA might decrease the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
DHA can lower blood pressure. Taking DHA along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taking DHA alone does not seem to affect blood clotting. However, DHA is often combined with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA might slow blood clotting. Taking a combination of DHA and EPA along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- General: DHA is usually administered with EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) as fish oil. A wide range of doses have been used. A typical dose is 5 grams of fish oil containing 169-563 mg of EPA and 72-312 mg of DHA. Experts also recommend increasing your daily dietary intake of cold-water fish, including mackerel, herring, tuna, halibut, and salmon.
- For high cholesterol: DHA 1.25 to 4 grams daily for 6-7 weeks has been used. Also, DHA-enriched canola oil, taken daily for 4 weeks, has been used.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Agostoni, C., Harvie, A., McCulloch, D. L., Demellweek, C., Cockburn, F., Giovannini, M., Murray, G., Harkness, R. A., and Riva, E. A randomized trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants with phenylketonuria. Dev.Med Child Neurol. 2006;48(3):207-212. View abstract.
Agostoni, C., Massetto, N., Biasucci, G., Rottoli, A., Bonvissuto, M., Bruzzese, M. G., Giovannini, M., and Riva, E. Effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on fatty acid status and visual function in treated children with hyperphenylalaninemia. J Pediatr 2000;137(4):504-509. View abstract.
Agostoni, C., Verduci, E., Massetto, N., Fiori, L., Radaelli, G., Riva, E., and Giovannini, M. Long term effects of long chain polyunsaturated fats in hyperphenylalaninemic children. Arch Dis Child 2003;88(7):582-583. View abstract.
Agostoni, C., Zuccotti, G. V., Radaelli, G., Besana, R., Podesta, A., Sterpa, A., Rottoli, A., Riva, E., and Giovannini, M. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and time at achievement of gross motor milestones in healthy infants: a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(1):64-70. View abstract.
Aldamiz-Echevarria, L., Sanjurjo, P., Elorz, J., Prieto, J. A., Perez, C., Andrade, F., and Rodriguez-Soriano, J. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid administration on plasma lipid profile and metabolic parameters of children with methylmalonic acidaemia. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2006;29(1):58-63. View abstract.
Arterburn, L. M., Oken, H. A., Bailey, Hall E., Hamersley, J., Kuratko, C. N., and Hoffman, J. P. Algal-oil capsules and cooked salmon: nutritionally equivalent sources of docosahexaenoic acid. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108(7):1204-1209. View abstract.
Arterburn, L. M., Oken, H. A., Hoffman, J. P., Bailey-Hall, E., Chung, G., Rom, D., Hamersley, J., and McCarthy, D. Bioequivalence of Docosahexaenoic acid from different algal oils in capsules and in a DHA-fortified food. Lipids 2007;42(11):1011-1024. View abstract.
Auestad, N., Montalto, M. B., Hall, R. T., Fitzgerald, K. M., Wheeler, R. E., Connor, W. E., Neuringer, M., Connor, S. L., Taylor, J. A., and Hartmann, E. E. Visual acuity, erythrocyte fatty acid composition, and growth in term infants fed formulas with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for one year. Ross Pediatric Lipid Study. Pediatr Res 1997;41(1):1-10. View abstract.
Auestad, N., Scott, D. T., Janowsky, J. S., Jacobsen, C., Carroll, R. E., Montalto, M. B., Halter, R., Qiu, W., Jacobs, J. R., Connor, W. E., Connor, S. L., Taylor, J. A., Neuringer, M., Fitzgerald, K. M., and Hall, R. T. Visual, cognitive, and language assessments at 39 months: a follow-up study of children fed formulas containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to 1 year of age. Pediatrics 2003;112(3 Pt 1):e177-e183. View abstract.
Bazan, N. G. Cell survival matters: docosahexaenoic acid signaling, neuroprotection and photoreceptors. Trends Neurosci 2006;29(5):263-271. View abstract.
Bazan, N. G. Homeostatic regulation of photoreceptor cell integrity: significance of the potent mediator neuroprotectin D1 biosynthesized from docosahexaenoic acid: the Proctor Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis.Sci 2007;48(11):4866-4881. View abstract.
Bazan, N. G. Neuroprotectin D1-mediated anti-inflammatory and survival signaling in stroke, retinal degenerations, and Alzheimer's disease. J Lipid Res 2009;50 Suppl:S400-S405. View abstract.
Bazan, N. G. Neurotrophins induce neuroprotective signaling in the retinal pigment epithelial cell by activating the synthesis of the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic neuroprotectin D1. Adv.Exp Med Biol 2008;613:39-44. View abstract.
Bazan, N. G., Rodriguez de Turco, E. B., and Gordon, W. C. Pathways for the uptake and conservation of docosahexaenoic acid in photoreceptors and synapses: biochemical and autoradiographic studies. Can.J.Physiol Pharmacol. 1993;71(9):690-698. View abstract.
Beckermann, B., Beneke, M., and Seitz, I. [Comparative bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid and docasahexaenoic acid from triglycerides, free fatty acids and ethyl esters in volunteers]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990;40(6):700-704. View abstract.
Berson, E. L., Rosner, B., Sandberg, M. A., Weigel-DiFranco, C., Moser, A., Brockhurst, R. J., Hayes, K. C., Johnson, C. A., Anderson, E. J., Gaudio, A. R., Willett, W. C., and Schaefer, E. J. Clinical trial of docosahexaenoic acid in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A treatment. Arch.Ophthalmol. 2004;122(9):1297-1305. View abstract.
Biggemann, B., Laryea, M. D., Schuster, A., Griese, M., Reinhardt, D., and Bremer, H. J. Status of plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids and vitamin A and E in young children with cystic fibrosis. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1988;143:135-141. View abstract.
Birch, D. G. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. Retina 2005;25(8 Suppl):S52-S54. View abstract.
Birch, E. E., Birch, D. G., Hoffman, D. R., and Uauy, R. Dietary essential fatty acid supply and visual acuity development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis.Sci 1992;33(11):3242-3253. View abstract.
Birch, E. E., Hoffman, D. R., Uauy, R., Birch, D. G., and Prestidge, C. Visual acuity and the essentiality of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in the diet of term infants. Pediatr.Res. 1998;44(2):201-209. View abstract.
Birch, E., Birch, D., Hoffman, D., Hale, L., Everett, M., and Uauy, R. Breast-feeding and optimal visual development. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1993;30(1):33-38. View abstract.
Calder, P. C. The relationship between the fatty acid composition of immune cells and their function. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2008;79(3-5):101-108. View abstract.
Carlson, S. E., Ford, A. J., Werkman, S. H., Peeples, J. M., and Koo, W. W. Visual acuity and fatty acid status of term infants fed human milk and formulas with and without docosahexaenoate and arachidonate from egg yolk lecithin. Pediatr Res 1996;39(5):882-888. View abstract.
Cheatham, C. L., Colombo, J., and Carlson, S. E. N-3 fatty acids and cognitive and visual acuity development: methodologic and conceptual considerations. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(6 Suppl):1458S-1466S. View abstract.
Clandinin, M. T., Van Aerde, J. E., Merkel, K. L., Harris, C. L., Springer, M. A., Hansen, J. W., and Diersen-Schade, D. A. Growth and development of preterm infants fed infant formulas containing docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid. J Pediatr 2005;146(4):461-468. View abstract.
Clandinin, M. T., Van Aerde, J. E., Parrott, A., Field, C. J., Euler, A. R., and Lien, E. L. Assessment of the efficacious dose of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in preterm infant formulas: fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipids. Pediatr Res 1997;42(6):819-825. View abstract.
Cleary, M. A., Feillet, F., White, F. J., Vidailhet, M., Macdonald, A., Grimsley, A., Maurin, N., de Baulny, H. O., and Rutherford, P. J. Randomised controlled trial of essential fatty acid supplementation in phenylketonuria. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60(7):915-920. View abstract.
Cohen, J. T., Bellinger, D. C., Connor, W. E., and Shaywitz, B. A. A quantitative analysis of prenatal intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognitive development. Am J Prev Med 2005;29(4):366-374. View abstract.
Colombo, J., Kannass, K. N., Shaddy, D. J., Kundurthi, S., Maikranz, J. M., Anderson, C. J., Blaga, O. M., and Carlson, S. E. Maternal DHA and the development of attention in infancy and toddlerhood. Child Dev. 2004;75(4):1254-1267. View abstract.
Colter, A. L., Cutler, C., and Meckling, K. A. Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents: a case-control study. Nutr J 2008;7:8. View abstract.
Conquer, J. A., Martin, J. B., Tummon, I., Watson, L., and Tekpetey, F. Effect of DHA supplementation on DHA status and sperm motility in asthenozoospermic males. Lipids 2000;35(2):149-154. View abstract.
Conquer, J. A., Martin, J. B., Tummon, I., Watson, L., and Tekpetey, F. Fatty acid analysis of blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of normozoospermic vs. asthenozoospermic males. Lipids 1999;34(8):793-799. View abstract.
Courage, M. L., McCloy, U. R., Herzberg, G. R., Andrews, W. L., Simmons, B. S., McDonald, A. C., Mercer, C. N., and Friel, J. K. Visual acuity development and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes in full-term infants fed breast milk, commercial formula, or evaporated milk. J Dev.Behav Pediatr 1998;19(1):9-17. View abstract.
Courville, A. B., Harel, O., and Lammi-Keefe, C. J. Consumption of a DHA-containing functional food during pregnancy is associated with lower infant ponderal index and cord plasma insulin concentration. Br J Nutr 4-27-2011;1-5. View abstract.
Das, U. N. Essential fatty acids and their metabolites could function as endogenous HMG-CoA reductase and ACE enzyme inhibitors, anti-arrhythmic, anti-hypertensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and cardioprotective molecules. Lipids Health Dis 2008;7:37. View abstract.
Davidson, M. H., Maki, K. C., Kalkowski, J., Schaefer, E. J., Torri, S. A., and Drennan, K. B. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipoproteins in patients with combined hyperlipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 1997;16(3):236-243. View abstract.
De, Caterina R., Liao, J. K., and Libby, P. Fatty acid modulation of endothelial activation. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):213S-223S. View abstract.
Doornbos, B., van Goor, S. A., Dijck-Brouwer, D. A., Schaafsma, A., Korf, J., and Muskiet, F. A. Supplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population based sample. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol Psychiatry 2-1-2009;33(1):49-52. View abstract.
Egert, S., Fobker, M., Andersen, G., Somoza, V., Erbersdobler, H. F., and Wahrburg, U. Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on parameters of glucose metabolism in healthy volunteers. Ann Nutr Metab 2008;53(3-4):182-187. View abstract.
Egert, S., Kannenberg, F., Somoza, V., Erbersdobler, H. F., and Wahrburg, U. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA have differential effects on LDL fatty acid composition but similar effects on serum lipid profiles in normolipidemic humans. J Nutr 2009;139(5):861-868. View abstract.
Engler, M. M., Engler, M. B., Malloy, M. J., Paul, S. M., Kulkarni, K. R., and Mietus-Snyder, M. L. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on lipoprotein subclasses in hyperlipidemic children (the EARLY study). Am J Cardiol 4-1-2005;95(7):869-871. View abstract.
Engler, M. M., Engler, M. B., Malloy, M., Chiu, E., Besio, D., Paul, S., Stuehlinger, M., Morrow, J., Ridker, P., Rifai, N., and Mietus-Snyder, M. Docosahexaenoic acid restores endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: results from the EARLY study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;42(12):672-679. View abstract.
Erkkila, A. T., Matthan, N. R., Herrington, D. M., and Lichtenstein, A. H. Higher plasma docosahexaenoic acid is associated with reduced progression of coronary atherosclerosis in women with CAD. J Lipid Res 2006;47(12):2814-2819. View abstract.
Farooqui, A. A., Horrocks, L. A., and Farooqui, T. Modulation of inflammation in brain: a matter of fat. J Neurochem. 2007;101(3):577-599. View abstract.
Fedor, D. and Kelley, D. S. Prevention of insulin resistance by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Curr Opin.Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009;12(2):138-146. View abstract.
Fekete, K., Marosvolgyi, T., Jakobik, V., and Decsi, T. Methods of assessment of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in humans: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(6):2070S-2084S. View abstract.
Fleith, M. and Clandinin, M. T. Dietary PUFA for preterm and term infants: review of clinical studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2005;45(3):205-229. View abstract.
Freemantle, E., Vandal, M., Tremblay-Mercier, J., Tremblay, S., Blachere, J. C., Begin, M. E., Brenna, J. T., Windust, A., and Cunnane, S. C. Omega-3 fatty acids, energy substrates, and brain function during aging. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2006;75(3):213-220. View abstract.
Gale, C. R., Marriott, L. D., Martyn, C. N., Limond, J., Inskip, H. M., Godfrey, K. M., Law, C. M., Cooper, C., West, C., and Robinson, S. M. Breastfeeding, the use of docosahexaenoic acid-fortified formulas in infancy and neuropsychological function in childhood. Arch Dis Child 2010;95(3):174-179. View abstract.
Gawrisch, K., Soubias, O., and Mihailescu, M. Insights from biophysical studies on the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids for function of G-protein coupled membrane receptors. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2008;79(3-5):131-134. View abstract.
Geppert, J., Kraft, V., Demmelmair, H., and Koletzko, B. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in vegetarians effectively increases omega-3 index: a randomized trial. Lipids 2005;40(8):807-814. View abstract.
Geppert, J., Kraft, V., Demmelmair, H., and Koletzko, B. Microalgal docosahexaenoic acid decreases plasma triacylglycerol in normolipidaemic vegetarians: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr 2006;95(4):779-786. View abstract.
Gil, A., Ramirez, M., and Gil, M. Role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57 Suppl 1:S31-S34. View abstract.
Giovannini, M., Verduci, E., Salvatici, E., Fiori, L., and Riva, E. Phenylketonuria: dietary and therapeutic challenges. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2007;30(2):145-152. View abstract.
Gorjao, R., Verlengia, R., Lima, T. M., Soriano, F. G., Boaventura, M. F., Kanunfre, C. C., Peres, C. M., Sampaio, S. C., Otton, R., Folador, A., Martins, E. F., Curi, T. C., Portiolli, E. P., Newsholme, P., and Curi, R. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil supplementation on human leukocyte function. Clin Nutr 2006;25(6):923-938. View abstract.
Green, J. T., Orr, S. K., and Bazinet, R. P. The emerging role of group VI calcium-independent phospholipase A2 in releasing docosahexaenoic acid from brain phospholipids. J Lipid Res 2008;49(5):939-944. View abstract.
Grenyer, B. F., Crowe, T., Meyer, B., Owen, A. J., Grigonis-Deane, E. M., Caputi, P., and Howe, P. R. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol Psychiatry 10-1-2007;31(7):1393-1396. View abstract.
Grimsgaard, S., Bonaa, K. H., Hansen, J. B., and Myhre, E. S. Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on hemodynamics in humans. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1998;68(1):52-59. View abstract.
Grynberg, A. Hypertension prevention: from nutrients to (fortified) foods to dietary patterns. Focus on fatty acids. J Hum Hypertens 2005;19 Suppl 3:S25-S33. View abstract.
Haggarty, P. Effect of placental function on fatty acid requirements during pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58(12):1559-1570. View abstract.
Halvorsen, D. S., Hansen, J. B., Grimsgaard, S., Bonaa, K. H., Kierulf, P., and Nordoy, A. The effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on monocyte phagocytosis in man. Lipids 1997;32(9):935-942. View abstract.
Hamazaki, T., Sawazaki, S., Asaoka, E., Itomura, M., Mizushima, Y., Yazawa, K., Kuwamori, T., and Kobayashi, M. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil does not affect serum lipid concentrations of normolipidemic young adults. J.Nutr. 1996;126(11):2784-2789. View abstract.
Hamazaki, T., Sawazaki, S., Nagasawa, T., Nagao, Y., Kanagawa, Y., and Yazawa, K. Administration of docosahexaenoic acid influences behavior and plasma catecholamine levels at times of psychological stress. Lipids 1999;34 Suppl:S33-S37. View abstract.
Hammond, B. G., Mayhew, D. A., Kier, L. D., Mast, R. W., and Sander, W. J. Safety assessment of DHA-rich microalgae from Schizochytrium sp. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2002;35(2 Pt 1):255-265. View abstract.
Hanebutt, F. L., Demmelmair, H., Schiessl, B., Larque, E., and Koletzko, B. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) transfer across the placenta. Clin Nutr 2008;27(5):685-693. View abstract.
Hansen, J. B., Grimsgaard, S., Nilsen, H., Nordoy, A., and Bonaa, K. H. Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fatty acid absorption, incorporation into serum phospholipids and postprandial triglyceridemia. Lipids 1998;33(2):131-138. View abstract.
Hansen, J., Grimsgaard, S., Nordoy, A., and Bonaa, K. H. Dietary supplementation with highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid does not influence PAI-1 activity. Thromb.Res. 4-15-2000;98(2):123-132. View abstract.
Hassan, I. R. and Gronert, K. Acute changes in dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have a pronounced impact on survival following ischemic renal injury and formation of renoprotective docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1. J Immunol. 3-1-2009;182(5):3223-3232. View abstract.
Hayashi, H., Tanaka, Y., Hibino, H., Umeda, Y., Kawamitsu, H., Fujimoto, H., and Amakawa, T. Beneficial effect of salmon roe phosphatidylcholine in chronic liver disease. Curr Med Res Opin. 1999;15(3):177-184. View abstract.
Heird, W. C. and Lapillonne, A. The role of essential fatty acids in development. Annu Rev Nutr 2005;25:549-571. View abstract.
Helland, I. B., Saugstad, O. D., Smith, L., Saarem, K., Solvoll, K., Ganes, T., and Drevon, C. A. Similar effects on infants of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids supplementation to pregnant and lactating women. Pediatrics 2001;108(5):E82. View abstract.
Hoffman, D. R., Birch, E. E., Birch, D. G., Uauy, R., Castaneda, Y. S., Lapus, M. G., and Wheaton, D. H. Impact of early dietary intake and blood lipid composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on later visual development. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000;31(5):540-553. View abstract.
Hoffman, D. R., Locke, K. G., Wheaton, D. H., Fish, G. E., Spencer, R., and Birch, D. G. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. Am.J.Ophthalmol. 2004;137(4):704-718. View abstract.
Hoffman, D. R., Theuer, R. C., Castaneda, Y. S., Wheaton, D. H., Bosworth, R. G., O'Connor, A. R., Morale, S. E., Wiedemann, L. E., and Birch, E. E. Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk. J.Nutr. 2004;134(9):2307-2313. View abstract.
Hoffman, D. R., Wheaton, D. K., James, K. J., Tuazon, M., Diersen-Schade, D. A., Harris, C. L., Stolz, S., and Berseth, C. L. Docosahexaenoic acid in red blood cells of term infants receiving two levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2006;42(3):287-292. View abstract.
Horby, Jorgensen M., Holmer, G., Lund, P., Hernell, O., and Michaelsen, K. F. Effect of formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid on fatty acid status and visual acuity in term infants. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1998;26(4):412-421. View abstract.
Horrocks, L. A. and Farooqui, A. A. Docosahexaenoic acid in the diet: its importance in maintenance and restoration of neural membrane function. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2004;70(4):361-372. View abstract.
Innis, S. M. Perinatal biochemistry and physiology of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Pediatr 2003;143(4 Suppl):S1-S8. View abstract.
Innis, S. M., Adamkin, D. H., Hall, R. T., Kalhan, S. C., Lair, C., Lim, M., Stevens, D. C., Twist, P. F., Diersen-Schade, D. A., Harris, C. L., Merkel, K. L., and Hansen, J. W. Docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid enhance growth with no adverse effects in preterm infants fed formula. J.Pediatr. 2002;140(5):547-554. View abstract.
Innis, S. M., Akrabawi, S. S., Diersen-Schade, D. A., Dobson, M. V., and Guy, D. G. Visual acuity and blood lipids in term infants fed human milk or formulae. Lipids 1997;32(1):63-72. View abstract.
Innis, S. M., Gilley, J., and Werker, J. Are human milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids related to visual and neural development in breast-fed term infants? J Pediatr 2001;139(4):532-538. View abstract.
Innis, S. M., Nelson, C. M., Rioux, M. F., and King, D. J. Development of visual acuity in relation to plasma and erythrocyte omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in healthy term gestation infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60(3):347-352. View abstract.
Jans, L. A., Giltay, E. J., and Van der Does, A. J. The efficacy of n-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA (fish oil) for perinatal depression. Br J Nutr 2010;104(11):1577-1585. View abstract.
Jensen, C. L., Voigt, R. G., Llorente, A. M., Peters, S. U., Prager, T. C., Zou, Y. L., Rozelle, J. C., Turcich, M. R., Fraley, J. K., Anderson, R. E., and Heird, W. C. Effects of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed term infants. J Pediatr 2010;157(6):900-905. View abstract.
Jensen, C. L., Voigt, R. G., Prager, T. C., Zou, Y. L., Fraley, J. K., Rozelle, J. C., Turcich, M. R., Llorente, A. M., Anderson, R. E., and Heird, W. C. Effects of maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on visual function and neurodevelopment in breastfed term infants. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82(1):125-132. View abstract.
Johnson, E. J. and Schaefer, E. J. Potential role of dietary n-3 fatty acids in the prevention of dementia and macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(6 Suppl):1494S-1498S. View abstract.
Johnson, E. J., Chung, H. Y., Caldarella, S. M., and Snodderly, D. M. The influence of supplemental lutein and docosahexaenoic acid on serum, lipoproteins, and macular pigmentation. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(5):1521-1529. View abstract.
Johnson, E. J., McDonald, K., Caldarella, S. M., Chung, H. Y., Troen, A. M., and Snodderly, D. M. Cognitive findings of an exploratory trial of docosahexaenoic acid and lutein supplementation in older women. Nutr Neurosci 2008;11(2):75-83. View abstract.
Jorgensen, M. H., Hernell, O., Lund, P., Holmer, G., and Michaelsen, K. F. Visual acuity and erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid status in breast-fed and formula-fed term infants during the first four months of life. Lipids 1996;31(1):99-105. View abstract.
Jude, S., Martel, E., Vincent, F., Besson, P., Couet, C., Ogilvie, G. K., Pinault, M., De, Chalendar C., Bougnoux, P., Richard, S., Champeroux, P., Crozatier, B., and Le Guennec, J. Y. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids modify blood and cardiac phospholipids and reduce protein kinase-C-delta and protein kinase-C-epsilon translocation. Br J Nutr 2007;98(6):1143-1151. View abstract.
Judge, M. P., Harel, O., and Lammi-Keefe, C. J. A docosahexaenoic acid-functional food during pregnancy benefits infant visual acuity at four but not six months of age. Lipids 2007;42(2):117-122. View abstract.
Judge, M. P., Harel, O., and Lammi-Keefe, C. J. Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at age 9 mo. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85(6):1572-1577. View abstract.
Jumpsen, J. A., Brown, N. E., Thomson, A. B., Paul Man, S. F., Goh, Y. K., Ma, D., and Clandinin, M. T. Fatty acids in blood and intestine following docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in adults with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst.Fibros. 2006;5(2):77-84. View abstract.
Kelley, D. S., Siegel, D., Fedor, D. M., Adkins, Y., and Mackey, B. E. DHA supplementation decreases serum C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in hypertriglyceridemic men. J Nutr 2009;139(3):495-501. View abstract.
Kelley, D. S., Siegel, D., Vemuri, M., and Mackey, B. E. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86(2):324-333. View abstract.
Kelley, D. S., Taylor, P. C., Nelson, G. J., and Mackey, B. E. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and immunocompetence in young healthy men. Lipids 1998;33(6):559-566. View abstract.
Kelley, D. S., Taylor, P. C., Nelson, G. J., Schmidt, P. C., Ferretti, A., Erickson, K. L., Yu, R., Chandra, R. K., and Mackey, B. E. Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy men. Lipids 1999;34(4):317-324. View abstract.
Kennedy, D. O., Jackson, P. A., Elliott, J. M., Scholey, A. B., Robertson, B. C., Greer, J., Tiplady, B., Buchanan, T., and Haskell, C. F. Cognitive and mood effects of 8 weeks' supplementation with 400 mg or 1000 mg of the omega-3 essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in healthy children aged 10-12 years. Nutr Neurosci 2009;12(2):48-56. View abstract.
Kew, S., Mesa, M. D., Tricon, S., Buckley, R., Minihane, A. M., and Yaqoob, P. Effects of oils rich in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on immune cell composition and function in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79(4):674-681. View abstract.
Khedr, E. M., Farghaly, W. M., Amry, Sel, and Osman, A. A. Neural maturation of breastfed and formula-fed infants. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93(6):734-738. View abstract.
Kim, J. G. and Parthasarathy, S. Oxidation and the spermatozoa. Semin.Reprod.Endocrinol 1998;16(4):235-239. View abstract.
Kimura, S., Saito, H., Minami, M., Togashi, H., Nakamura, N., Ueno, K., Shimamura, K., Nemoto, M., and Parvez, H. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuated hypertension and vascular dementia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neurotoxicol.Teratol. 2002;24(5):683-693. View abstract.
Koch, C., Dolle, S., Metzger, M., Rasche, C., Jungclas, H., Ruhl, R., Renz, H., and Worm, M. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation in atopic eczema: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Br J Dermatol 2008;158(4):786-792. View abstract.
Koletzko, B., Beblo, S., Demmelmair, H., and Hanebutt, F. L. Omega-3 LC-PUFA supply and neurological outcomes in children with phenylketonuria (PKU). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2009;48 Suppl 1:S2-S7. View abstract.
Koletzko, B., Larque, E., and Demmelmair, H. Placental transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). J Perinat.Med 2007;35 Suppl 1:S5-11. View abstract.
Kris-Etherton, P. M., Taylor, D. S., Yu-Poth, S., Huth, P., Moriarty, K., Fishell, V., Hargrove, R. L., Zhao, G., and Etherton, T. D. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):179S-188S. View abstract.
Kroes, R., Schaefer, E. J., Squire, R. A., and Williams, G. M. A review of the safety of DHA45-oil. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41(11):1433-1446. View abstract.
Lagarde, M., Bernoud, N., Brossard, N., Lemaitre-Delaunay, D., Thies, F., Croset, M., and Lecerf, J. Lysophosphatidylcholine as a preferred carrier form of docosahexaenoic acid to the brain. J.Mol.Neurosci. 2001;16(2-3):201-204. View abstract.
Lapillonne, A., Brossard, N., Claris, O., Reygrobellet, B., and Salle, B. L. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition in term infants fed human milk or a formula enriched with a low eicosapentanoic acid fish oil for 4 months. Eur J Pediatr 2000;159(1-2):49-53. View abstract.
Larque, E., Demmelmair, H., Berger, B., Hasbargen, U., and Koletzko, B. In vivo investigation of the placental transfer of (13)C-labeled fatty acids in humans. J Lipid Res 2003;44(1):49-55. View abstract.
Larque, E., Krauss-Etschmann, S., Campoy, C., Hartl, D., Linde, J., Klingler, M., Demmelmair, H., Cano, A., Gil, A., Bondy, B., and Koletzko, B. Docosahexaenoic acid supply in pregnancy affects placental expression of fatty acid transport proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(4):853-861. View abstract.
Lauritzen, L., Jorgensen, M. H., Olsen, S. F., Straarup, E. M., and Michaelsen, K. F. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants. Reprod.Nutr Dev. 2005;45(5):535-547. View abstract.
Lee, J. Y., Plakidas, A., Lee, W. H., Heikkinen, A., Chanmugam, P., Bray, G., and Hwang, D. H. Differential modulation of Toll-like receptors by fatty acids: preferential inhibition by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Lipid Res 2003;44(3):479-486. View abstract.
Lien, E. L. Toxicology and safety of DHA. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2009;81(2-3):125-132. View abstract.
Llorente, A. M., Jensen, C. L., Voigt, R. G., Fraley, J. K., Berretta, M. C., and Heird, W. C. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on postpartum depression and information processing. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 2003;188(5):1348-1353. View abstract.
Lloyd-Still, J. D., Powers, C. A., Hoffman, D. R., Boyd-Trull, K., Lester, L. A., Benisek, D. C., and Arterburn, L. M. Bioavailability and safety of a high dose of docosahexaenoic acid triacylglycerol of algal origin in cystic fibrosis patients: a randomized, controlled study. Nutrition 2006;22(1):36-46. View abstract.
Lopez-Alarcon, M., Bernabe-Garcia, M., Del, Prado M., Rivera, D., Ruiz, G., Maldonado, J., and Villegas, R. Docosahexaenoic acid administered in the acute phase protects the nutritional status of septic neonates. Nutrition 2006;22(7-8):731-737. View abstract.
Lopez-Alarcon, M., Furuya-Meguro, M. M., Garcia-Zuniga, P. A., and Tadeo-Pulido, I. [The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on the loss of appetite in pediatric patients with pneumonia]. Rev Med Inst.Mex.Seguro.Soc 2006;44(1):5-11. View abstract.
Lukiw, W. J. and Bazan, N. G. Docosahexaenoic acid and the aging brain. J Nutr 2008;138(12):2510-2514. View abstract.
Lukiw, W. J. Docosahexaenoic acid and amyloid-beta peptide signaling in Alzheimer's disease. World Rev Nutr Diet 2009;99:55-70. View abstract.
Lukiw, W. J., Cui, J. G., Marcheselli, V. L., Bodker, M., Botkjaer, A., Gotlinger, K., Serhan, C. N., and Bazan, N. G. A role for docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1 in neural cell survival and Alzheimer disease. J Clin Invest 2005;115(10):2774-2783. View abstract.
Maki, K. C., Van Elswyk, M. E., McCarthy, D., Hess, S. P., Veith, P. E., Bell, M., Subbaiah, P., and Davidson, M. H. Lipid responses to a dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplement in men and women with below average levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Am Coll Nutr 2005;24(3):189-199. View abstract.
Maki, K. C., Van Elswyk, M. E., McCarthy, D., Seeley, M. A., Veith, P. E., Hess, S. P., Ingram, K. A., Halvorson, J. J., Calaguas, E. M., and Davidson, M. H. Lipid responses in mildly hypertriglyceridemic men and women to consumption of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched eggs. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2003;73(5):357-368. View abstract.
Makrides, M., Gibson, R. A., McPhee, A. J., Collins, C. T., Davis, P. G., Doyle, L. W., Simmer, K., Colditz, P. B., Morris, S., Smithers, L. G., Willson, K., and Ryan, P. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants fed high-dose docosahexaenoic acid: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1-14-2009;301(2):175-182. View abstract.
Makrides, M., Gibson, R. A., McPhee, A. J., Yelland, L., Quinlivan, J., and Ryan, P. Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 10-20-2010;304(15):1675-1683. View abstract.
Makrides, M., Gibson, R. A., Udell, T., and Ried, K. Supplementation of infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids does not influence the growth of term infants. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81(5):1094-1101. View abstract.
Makrides, M., Neumann, M. A., Simmer, K., and Gibson, R. A. A critical appraisal of the role of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on neural indices of term infants: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2000;105(1 Pt 1):32-38. View abstract.
Makrides, M., Neumann, M. A., Simmer, K., and Gibson, R. A. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids do not influence growth of term infants: A randomized clinical trial. Pediatrics 1999;104(3 Pt 1):468-475. View abstract.
Makrides, M., Simmer, K., Goggin, M., and Gibson, R. A. Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid correlates with the visual response of healthy, term infants. Pediatr.Res. 1993;33(4 Pt 1):425-427. View abstract.
Malcolm, C. A., Hamilton, R., McCulloch, D. L., Montgomery, C., and Weaver, L. T. Scotopic electroretinogram in term infants born of mothers supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 2003;44(8):3685-3691. View abstract.
Marangell, L. B., Suppes, T., Ketter, T. A., Dennehy, E. B., Zboyan, H., Kertz, B., Nierenberg, A., Calabrese, J., Wisniewski, S. R., and Sachs, G. Omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: clinical and research considerations. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2006;75(4-5):315-321. View abstract.
Martins, J. G. EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Nutr 2009;28(5):525-542. View abstract.
Mazurak, V. C., Lien, V., Field, C. J., Goruk, S. D., Pramuk, K., and Clandinin, M. T. Long-chain polyunsaturated fat supplementation in children with low docosahexaenoic acid intakes alters immune phenotypes compared with placebo. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2008;46(5):570-579. View abstract.
McNamara, R. K., Able, J., Jandacek, R., Rider, T., Tso, P., Eliassen, J. C., Alfieri, D., Weber, W., Jarvis, K., DelBello, M. P., Strakowski, S. M., and Adler, C. M. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation increases prefrontal cortex activation during sustained attention in healthy boys: a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(4):1060-1067. View abstract.
McNamara, R. K., Jandacek, R., Rider, T., Tso, P., Dwivedi, Y., and Pandey, G. N. Selective deficits in erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid composition in adult patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. J Affect.Disord 2010;126(1-2):303-311. View abstract.
Mebarek, S., Ermak, N., Benzaria, A., Vicca, S., Dubois, M., Nemoz, G., Laville, M., Lacour, B., Vericel, E., Lagarde, M., and Prigent, A. F. Effects of increasing docosahexaenoic acid intake in human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte activation and monocyte apoptosis. Br J Nutr 2009;101(6):852-858. View abstract.
Meyer, B. J., Hammervold, T., Rustan, A. C., and Howe, P. R. Dose-dependent effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids in statin-treated hyperlipidaemic subjects. Lipids 2007;42(2):109-115. View abstract.
Michael-Titus, A. T. Omega-3 fatty acids and neurological injury. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2007;77(5-6):295-300. View abstract.
Mickleborough, T. D., Tecklenburg, S. L., Montgomery, G. S., and Lindley, M. R. Eicosapentaenoic acid is more effective than docosahexaenoic acid in inhibiting proinflammatory mediator production and transcription from LPS-induced human asthmatic alveolar macrophage cells. Clin Nutr 2009;28(1):71-77. View abstract.
Miller, C., Yamaguchi, R. Y., and Ziboh, V. A. Guinea pig epidermis generates putative anti-inflammatory metabolites from fish oil polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 1989;24(12):998-1003. View abstract.
Milte, C. M., Coates, A. M., Buckley, J. D., Hill, A. M., and Howe, P. R. Dose-dependent effects of docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil on erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid and blood lipid levels. Br J Nutr 2008;99(5):1083-1088. View abstract.
Mischoulon, D., Best-Popescu, C., Laposata, M., Merens, W., Murakami, J. L., Wu, S. L., Papakostas, G. I., Dording, C. M., Sonawalla, S. B., Nierenberg, A. A., Alpert, J. E., and Fava, M. A double-blind dose-finding pilot study of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for major depressive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18(9):639-645. View abstract.
Mitmesser, S. H. and Jensen, C. L. Roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the term infant: developmental benefits. Neonatal Netw. 2007;26(4):229-234. View abstract.
Moore, S. A. Polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and release by brain-derived cells in vitro. J Mol Neurosci 2001;16(2-3):195-200. View abstract.
Moore, S. A., Hurt, E., Yoder, E., Sprecher, H., and Spector, A. A. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts involves peroxisomal retroconversion of tetracosahexaenoic acid. J.Lipid Res. 1995;36(11):2433-2443. View abstract.
Mori, T. A., Bao, D. Q., Burke, V., Puddey, I. B., and Beilin, L. J. Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Hypertension 1999;34(2):253-260. View abstract.
Mori, T. A., Watts, G. F., Burke, V., Hilme, E., Puddey, I. B., and Beilin, L. J. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on vascular reactivity of the forearm microcirculation in hyperlipidemic, overweight men. Circulation 9-12-2000;102(11):1264-1269. View abstract.
Mori, T. A., Woodman, R. J., Burke, V., Puddey, I. B., Croft, K. D., and Beilin, L. J. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in treated-hypertensive type 2 diabetic subjects. Free Radic.Biol Med 10-1-2003;35(7):772-781. View abstract.
Mucke, L. and Pitas, R. E. Food for thought: essential fatty acid protects against neuronal deficits in transgenic mouse model of AD. Neuron 9-2-2004;43(5):596-599. View abstract.
Mukherjee, P. K., Chawla, A., Loayza, M. S., and Bazan, N. G. Docosanoids are multifunctional regulators of neural cell integrity and fate: significance in aging and disease. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2007;77(5-6):233-238. View abstract.
Mullen, A., Loscher, C. E., and Roche, H. M. Anti-inflammatory effects of EPA and DHA are dependent upon time and dose-response elements associated with LPS stimulation in THP-1-derived macrophages. J Nutr Biochem 2010;21(5):444-450. View abstract.
Neff, L. M., Culiner, J., Cunningham-Rundles, S., Seidman, C., Meehan, D., Maturi, J., Wittkowski, K. M., Levine, B., and Breslow, J. L. Algal docosahexaenoic acid affects plasma lipoprotein particle size distribution in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr 2011;141(2):207-213. View abstract.
Nestel, P., Shige, H., Pomeroy, S., Cehun, M., Abbey, M., and Raederstorff, D. The n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase systemic arterial compliance in humans. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;76(2):326-330. View abstract.
Nobili, V., Bedogni, G., Alisi, A., Pietrobattista, A., Rise, P., Galli, C., and Agostoni, C. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial. Arch Dis Child 2011;96(4):350-353. View abstract.
O'Brien, D. M., Kristal, A. R., Jeannet, M. A., Wilkinson, M. J., Bersamin, A., and Luick, B. Red blood cell delta15N: a novel biomarker of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(3):913-919. View abstract.
O'Shea, K. M., Khairallah, R. J., Sparagna, G. C., Xu, W., Hecker, P. A., Robillard-Frayne, I., Des, Rosiers C., Kristian, T., Murphy, R. C., Fiskum, G., and Stanley, W. C. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids alter cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid composition and delay Ca2+-induced permeability transition. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2009;47(6):819-827. View abstract.
Otto, S. J., van Houwelingen, A. C., and Hornstra, G. The effect of supplementation with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid derived from single cell oils on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids of pregnant women in the second trimester. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2000;63(5):323-328. View abstract.
Park, Y. and Harris, W. S. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearance. J Lipid Res 2003;44(3):455-463. View abstract.
Park, Y., Jones, P. G., and Harris, W. S. Triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein margination: a potential surrogate for whole-body lipoprotein lipase activity and effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(1):45-50. View abstract.
Pastor, N., Soler, B., Mitmesser, S. H., Ferguson, P., and Lifschitz, C. Infants fed docosahexaenoic acid- and arachidonic acid-supplemented formula have decreased incidence of bronchiolitis/bronchitis the first year of life. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2006;45(9):850-855. View abstract.
Pifferi, F., Jouin, M., Alessandri, J. M., Haedke, U., Roux, F., Perriere, N., Denis, I., Lavialle, M., and Guesnet, P. n-3 Fatty acids modulate brain glucose transport in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2007;77(5-6):279-286. View abstract.
Plourde, M., Chouinard-Watkins, R., Vandal, M., Zhang, Y., Lawrence, P., Brenna, J. T., and Cunnane, S. C. Plasma incorporation, apparent retroconversion and beta-oxidation of 13C-docosahexaenoic acid in the elderly. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2011;8:5. View abstract.
Querques, G., Benlian, P., Chanu, B., Portal, C., Coscas, G., Soubrane, G., and Souied, E. H. Nutritional AMD treatment phase I (NAT-1): feasibility of oral DHA supplementation in age-related macular degeneration. Eur J Ophthalmol 2009;19(1):100-106. View abstract.
Quinn, J. F., Raman, R., Thomas, R. G., Yurko-Mauro, K., Nelson, E. B., Van, Dyck C., Galvin, J. E., Emond, J., Jack, C. R., Jr., Weiner, M., Shinto, L., and Aisen, P. S. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. JAMA 11-3-2010;304(17):1903-1911. View abstract.
Ramakrishnan, U., Stein, A. D., Parra-Cabrera, S., Wang, M., Imhoff-Kunsch, B., Juarez-Marquez, S., Rivera, J., and Martorell, R. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on gestational age and size at birth: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Mexico. Food Nutr Bull 2010;31(2 Suppl):S108-S116. View abstract.
Rambjor, G. S., Walen, A. I., Windsor, S. L., and Harris, W. S. Eicosapentaenoic acid is primarily responsible for hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in humans. Lipids 1996;31 Suppl:S45-S49. View abstract.
Rees, A. M., Austin, M. P., and Parker, G. B. Omega-3 fatty acids as a treatment for perinatal depression: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2008;42(3):199-205. View abstract.
Rodriguez, A., Raederstorff, D., Sarda, P., Lauret, C., Mendy, F., and Descomps, B. Preterm infant formula supplementation with alpha linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003;57(6):727-734. View abstract.
Rogers, P. J., Appleton, K. M., Kessler, D., Peters, T. J., Gunnell, D., Hayward, R. C., Heatherley, S. V., Christian, L. M., McNaughton, S. A., and Ness, A. R. No effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (EPA and DHA) supplementation on depressed mood and cognitive function: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2008;99(2):421-431. View abstract.
Rondanelli, M., Opizzi, A., Faliva, M., Mozzoni, M., Antoniello, N., Cazzola, R., Savare, R., Cerutti, R., Grossi, E., and Cestaro, B. Effects of a diet integration with an oily emulsion of DHA-phospholipids containing melatonin and tryptophan in elderly patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Nutr.Neurosci. 2012;15(2):46-54. View abstract.
Ryan, A. S. and Nelson, E. B. Assessing the effect of docosahexaenoic acid on cognitive functions in healthy, preschool children: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2008;47(4):355-362. View abstract.
Sanders, T. A. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in Europe. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):176S-178S. View abstract.
Sanders, T. A., Gleason, K., Griffin, B., and Miller, G. J. Influence of an algal triacylglycerol containing docosahexaenoic acid (22 : 6n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-6) on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women. Br J Nutr 2006;95(3):525-531. View abstract.
SanGiovanni, J. P., Chew, E. Y., Agron, E., Clemons, T. E., Ferris, F. L., III, Gensler, G., Lindblad, A. S., Milton, R. C., Seddon, J. M., Klein, R., and Sperduto, R. D. The relationship of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with incident age-related macular degeneration: AREDS report no. 23. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(9):1274-1279. View abstract.
SanGiovanni, J. P., Parra-Cabrera, S., Colditz, G. A., Berkey, C. S., and Dwyer, J. T. Meta-analysis of dietary essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as they relate to visual resolution acuity in healthy preterm infants. Pediatrics 2000;105(6):1292-1298. View abstract.
Sawazaki, S., Hamazaki, T., Yazawa, K., and Kobayashi, M. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on plasma catecholamine concentrations and glucose tolerance during long-lasting psychological stress: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 1999;45(5):655-665. View abstract.
Schaefer, E. J., Bongard, V., Beiser, A. S., Lamon-Fava, S., Robins, S. J., Au, R., Tucker, K. L., Kyle, D. J., Wilson, P. W., and Wolf, P. A. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(11):1545-1550. View abstract.
Schwellenbach, L. J., Olson, K. L., McConnell, K. J., Stolcpart, R. S., Nash, J. D., and Merenich, J. A. The triglyceride-lowering effects of a modest dose of docosahexaenoic acid alone versus in combination with low dose eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary artery disease and elevated triglycerides. J Am Coll Nutr 2006;25(6):480-485. View abstract.
Scott, D. T., Janowsky, J. S., Carroll, R. E., Taylor, J. A., Auestad, N., and Montalto, M. B. Formula supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: are there developmental benefits? Pediatrics 1998;102(5):E59. View abstract.
Sempels, C. and Sienaert, P. [The role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of bipolar disorders: the current situation]. Tijdschr.Psychiatr. 2007;49(9):639-647. View abstract.
Siddiqui, R. A., Harvey, K., and Stillwell, W. Anticancer properties of oxidation products of docosahexaenoic acid. Chem Phys Lipids 2008;153(1):47-56. View abstract.
Siddiqui, R. A., Shaikh, S. R., Sech, L. A., Yount, H. R., Stillwell, W., and Zaloga, G. P. Omega 3-fatty acids: health benefits and cellular mechanisms of action. Mini.Rev Med Chem 2004;4(8):859-871. View abstract.
Silvers, K. M., Woolley, C. C., Hamilton, F. C., Watts, P. M., and Watson, R. A. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in the treatment of depression. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2005;72(3):211-218. View abstract.
Simopoulos, A. P. Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poult.Sci 2000;79(7):961-970. View abstract.
Smithers, L. G., Collins, C. T., Simmonds, L. A., Gibson, R. A., McPhee, A., and Makrides, M. Feeding preterm infants milk with a higher dose of docosahexaenoic acid than that used in current practice does not influence language or behavior in early childhood: a follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(3):628-634. View abstract.
Smithers, L. G., Gibson, R. A., and Makrides, M. Maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy does not affect early visual development in the infant: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93(6):1293-1299. View abstract.
Smithers, L. G., Gibson, R. A., McPhee, A., and Makrides, M. Higher dose of docosahexaenoic acid in the neonatal period improves visual acuity of preterm infants: results of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88(4):1049-1056. View abstract.
Stanke-Labesque, F., Moliere, P., Bessard, J., Laville, M., Vericel, E., and Lagarde, M. Effect of dietary supplementation with increasing doses of docosahexaenoic acid on neutrophil lipid composition and leukotriene production in human healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr 2008;100(4):829-833. View abstract.
Stark, K. D. and Holub, B. J. Differential eicosapentaenoic acid elevations and altered cardiovascular disease risk factor responses after supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;79(5):765-773. View abstract.
Stein, A. D., Wang, M., Martorell, R., Neufeld, L. M., Flores-Ayala, R., Rivera, J. A., and Ramakrishnan, U. Growth to age 18 months following prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid differs by maternal gravidity in Mexico. J Nutr 2011;141(2):316-320. View abstract.
Strokin, M., Sergeeva, M., and Reiser, G. Role of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in prostanoid production in brain: perspectives for protection in neuroinflammation. Int.J.Dev.Neurosci. 2004;22(7):551-557. View abstract.
Terano, T., Fujishiro, S., Ban, T., Yamamoto, K., Tanaka, T., Noguchi, Y., Tamura, Y., Yazawa, K., and Hirayama, T. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves the moderately severe dementia from thrombotic cerebrovascular diseases. Lipids 1999;34 Suppl:S345-S346. View abstract.
Theobald, H. E., Chowienczyk, P. J., Whittall, R., Humphries, S. E., and Sanders, T. A. LDL cholesterol-raising effect of low-dose docosahexaenoic acid in middle-aged men and women. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;79(4):558-563. View abstract.
Theobald, H. E., Goodall, A. H., Sattar, N., Talbot, D. C., Chowienczyk, P. J., and Sanders, T. A. Low-dose docosahexaenoic acid lowers diastolic blood pressure in middle-aged men and women. J Nutr 2007;137(4):973-978. View abstract.
Thies, F., Miles, E. A., Nebe-von-Caron, G., Powell, J. R., Hurst, T. L., Newsholme, E. A., and Calder, P. C. Influence of dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults. Lipids 2001;36(11):1183-1193. View abstract.
Thies, F., Nebe-von-Caron, G., Powell, J. R., Yaqoob, P., Newsholme, E. A., and Calder, P. C. Dietary supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid or fish oil decreases T lymphocyte proliferation in healthy older humans. J Nutr 2001;131(7):1918-1927. View abstract.
Tian, H., Lu, Y., Sherwood, A. M., Hongqian, D., and Hong, S. Resolvins E1 and D1 in choroid-retinal endothelial cells and leukocytes: biosynthesis and mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis.Sci 2009;50(8):3613-3620. View abstract.
Uauy, R., Hoffman, D. R., Peirano, P., Birch, D. G., and Birch, E. E. Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development. Lipids 2001;36(9):885-895. View abstract.
van Goor, S. A., Dijck-Brouwer, D. A., Doornbos, B., Erwich, J. J., Schaafsma, A., Muskiet, F. A., and Hadders-Algra, M. Supplementation of DHA but not DHA with arachidonic acid during pregnancy and lactation influences general movement quality in 12-week-old term infants. Br J Nutr 2010;103(2):235-242. View abstract.
Vedin, I., Cederholm, T., Freund, Levi Y., Basun, H., Garlind, A., Faxen, Irving G., Jonhagen, M. E., Vessby, B., Wahlund, L. O., and Palmblad, J. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cytokine release from blood mononuclear leukocytes: the OmegAD study. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(6):1616-1622. View abstract.
Werkman, S. H. and Carlson, S. E. A randomized trial of visual attention of preterm infants fed docosahexaenoic acid until nine months. Lipids 1996;31(1):91-97. View abstract.
Woodman, R. J., Mori, T. A., Burke, V., Puddey, I. B., Barden, A., Watts, G. F., and Beilin, L. J. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on platelet, fibrinolytic and vascular function in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Atherosclerosis 2003;166(1):85-93. View abstract.
Woodman, R. J., Mori, T. A., Burke, V., Puddey, I. B., Watts, G. F., Best, J. D., and Beilin, L. J. Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid increases LDL particle size in treated hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2003;26(1):253. View abstract.
Wright, K., Coverston, C., Tiedeman, M., and Abegglen, J. A. Formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA): a critical review of the research. J Spec.Pediatr Nurs 2006;11(2):100-112. View abstract.
Wu, W. H., Lu, S. C., Wang, T. F., Jou, H. J., and Wang, T. A. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism, and in vivo oxidative stress in postmenopausal vegetarian women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60(3):386-392. View abstract.
Wurtman, R. J., Cansev, M., Sakamoto, T., and Ulus, I. H. Administration of docosahexaenoic acid, uridine and choline increases levels of synaptic membranes and dendritic spines in rodent brain. World Rev.Nutr.Diet. 2009;99:71-96. View abstract.
Ximenes da, Silva A., Lavialle, F., Gendrot, G., Guesnet, P., Alessandri, J. M., and Lavialle, M. Glucose transport and utilization are altered in the brain of rats deficient in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Neurochem. 2002;81(6):1328-1337. View abstract.
Young, G. and Conquer, J. Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Reprod.Nutr Dev. 2005;45(1):1-28. View abstract.
Young, G. S., Maharaj, N. J., and Conquer, J. A. Blood phospholipid fatty acid analysis of adults with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Lipids 2004;39(2):117-123. View abstract.
Ziboh, V. A. The significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cutaneous biology. Lipids 1996;31 Suppl:S249-S253. View abstract.
Aggressive prostate cancer: high blood levels of omega-3s doubled the risk, but high levels of trans-fatty acids cut risk in half. Oncology (Williston Park). 2011 May;25(6):544, 546. View abstract.
Agren JJ, Hanninen O, Julkunen A, et al. Fish diet, fish oil and docosahexaenoic acid rich oil lower fasting and postprandial plasma lipid levels. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:765-71. View abstract.
Akedo I, Ishikawa H, Nakamura T, et al. Three cases with familial adenomatous polyposis diagnosed as having malignant lesions in the course of a long-term trial using docosahexanoic acid (DHA)-concentrated fish oil capsules (abstract). Jpn J Clin Oncol 1998;28:762-5. View abstract.
Alicandro G, Faelli N, Gagliardini R, Santini B, Magazzù G, Biffi A, Risé P, Galli C, Tirelli AS, Loi S, Valmarana L, Cirilli N, Palmas T, Vieni G, Bianchi ML, Agostoni C, Colombo C. A randomized placebo-controlled study on high-dose oral algal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis.Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2013 Feb;88(2):163-9. view abstract.
Andreeva VA, Touvier M, Kesse-Guyot E, et al. B vitamin and/or ?-3 fatty acid supplementation and cancer: ancillary findings from the supplementation with folate, vitamins B6 and B12, and/or omega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(7):540-7. View abstract.
Atwell K, Collins CT, Sullivan TR, Ryan P, Gibson RA, Makrides M, McPhee AJ. Respiratory hospitalisation of infants supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid as preterm neonates. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Jan;49(1):E17-22.View abstract.
Benton D, Donohoe RT, Clayton DE, Long SJ. Supplementation with DHA and the psychological functioning of young adults. Br J Nutr. 2013 Jan 14;109(1):155-61. View abstract.
Birch EE, Carlson SE, Hoffman DR, Fitzgerald-Gustafson KM, Fu VL, Drover JR, Castañeda YS, Minns L, Wheaton DK, Mundy D, Marunycz J, Diersen-Schade DA. The DIAMOND (DHA Intake And Measurement Of Neural Development) Study: a double-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial of the maturation of infant visual acuity as a function of the dietary level of docosahexaenoic acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr;91(4):848-59. View abstract.
Birch EE, Garfield S, Hoffman DR, et al. A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 2000;42:174-81. View abstract.
Bonjour JP. Biotin in human nutrition. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1985;447:97-104. View abstract.
Bougnoux P, Hajjaji N, Ferrasson MN, Giraudeau B, Couet C, Le Floch O. Improving outcome of chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer by docosahexaenoic acid: a phase II trial. Br J Cancer. 2009 Dec 15;101(12):1978-85. View abstract.
Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity: pouring oil on troubled waters or another fishy tale? Nutr Res 2001;21:309-41.
Carlson SE, Colombo J, Gajewski BJ, Gustafson KM, Mundy D, Yeast J, Georgieff MK, Markley LA, Kerling EH, Shaddy DJ. DHA supplementation and pregnancy outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr;97(4):808-15. View abstract.
Carlson SE, Werkman SH. A randomized trial of visual attention of preterm infants fed docosahexaenoic acid until two months. Lipids 1996;31:85-90. View abstract.
Chan SS, Luben R, Olsen A, Tjonneland A, Kaaks R, Lindgren S, Grip O, Bergmann MM, Boeing H, Hallmans G, Karling P, Overvad K, Venø SK, van Schaik F, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Oldenburg B, Khaw KT, Riboli E, Hart AR. Association between high dietary intake of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and reduced risk of Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Apr;39(8):834-42. View abstract.
Cheruku SR, Montgomery-Downs HE, Farkas SL, et al. Higher maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy is associated with more mature neonatal sleep-state patterning. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:608-13. View abstract.
Chew EY, Clemons TE, SanGiovanni JP, et al. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Research Group. Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2013;309(19):2005-2015. View abstract.
Cho E, Hung S, Willet W, et al. Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:209-18.. View abstract.
Collins CT, Makrides M, Gibson RA, et al. Pre- and post-term growth in pre-term infants supplemented with higher-dose DHA: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2011;105:1635-43. View abstract.
Conquer JA, Holub BJ. Supplementation with an algae source of docosahexaenoic acid increases (n-3) fatty acid status and alters selected risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjects. J Nutr 1996;126:3032-9. View abstract.
Decsi T, Koletzko B. N-3 fatty acids and pregnancy outcomes. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2005;8:161-6. View abstract.
Decsi, T., Campoy, C., and Koletzko, B. Effect of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy: the Nuheal trial. Adv.Exp Med Biol 2005;569:109-113. View abstract.
Dijck-Brouwer DA, Hadders-Algra M, Bouwstra H, et al. Lower fetal status of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and essential fatty acids is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005;72:21-8. View abstract.
Drover JR, Felius J, Hoffman DR, Castañeda YS, Garfield S, Wheaton DH, Birch EE. A randomized trial of DHA intake during infancy: school readiness and receptive vocabulary at 2-3.5 years of age. Early Hum Dev. 2012 Nov;88(11):885-91. View abstract.
Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation 2012;25(4);3-4
Emsley R, Chiliza B, Asmal L, du Plessis S, Phahladira L, van Niekerk E, van Rensburg SJ, Harvey BH. A randomized, controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids plus an antioxidant for relapse prevention after antipsychotic discontinuation in first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2014 Sep;158(1-3):230-5. View abstract.
Erkkila AT, Lehto S, Pyorala K, Uusitupa MI. n-3 Fatty acids and 5-y risks of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:65-71.. View abstract.
Escamilla-Nuñez MC, Barraza-Villarreal A, Hernández-Cadena L, Navarro-Olivos E, Sly PD, Romieu I. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and respiratory symptoms in children. Chest. 2014 Aug;146(2):373-82. View abstract.
FDA. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Letter regarding dietary supplement health claim for omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/95s0316/95s-0316-Rpt0272-38-Appendix-D-Reference-F-FDA-vol205.pdf. (Accessed February 7, 2017).
Finnegan YE, Howarth D, Minihane AM, et al. Plant and marine derived (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in moderately hyperlipidemic humans. J Nutr 2003;133:2210-3.. View abstract.
Fradet V, Cheng I, Casey G, et al. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids, cyclooxygenase-2 genetic variation, and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Apr 1;15(7):2559-66. View abstract.
Fu YQ, Zheng JS, Yang B, Li D. Effect of individual omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Epidemiol. 2015;25(4):261-74. View abstract.
Gamoh S, Hashimoto M, Sugioka K, et al. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves reference memory-related learning ability in young rats. Neuroscience 1999;93:237-41. View abstract.
García-Layana A, Recalde S, Alamán AS, Robredo PF. Effects of lutein and docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation on macular pigment optical density in a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients. 2013 Feb 15;5(2):543-51. View abstract.
Gibson RA. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and infant development (editorial). Lancet 1999;354:1919.
Gould JF, Makrides M, Colombo J, Smithers LG. Randomized controlled trial of maternal omega-3 long-chain PUFA supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood development of attention, working memory, and inhibitory control. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr;99(4):851-9. View abstract.
Grimsgaard S, Bonaa KH, Hansen JB, Nordoy A. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:649-59. View abstract.
Grosso G, Pajak A, Marventano S, Castellano S, Galvano F, Bucolo C, Drago F, Caraci F. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One. 2014 May 7;9(5):e96905. View abstract.
Hamazaki T, Hirayama S. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:838. View abstract.
Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Itomura M, et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults. A placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Clin Invest 1996;97:1129-33. View abstract.
Harden CJ, Dible VA, Russell JM, Garaiova I, Plummer SF, Barker ME, Corfe BM. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women. Nutr Res. 2014 Jan;34(1):17-24. View abstract.
Harper CR, Jacobson TA. Beyond the Mediterranean diet: the role of omega-3 Fatty acids in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Prev Cardiol 2003;6:136-46. View abstract.
Hawkes JS, Bryan DL, Makrides M, et al. A randomized trial of supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-rich tuna oil and its effects on the human milk cytokines interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:754-60. View abstract.
Hirayama S, Hamazaki T, Terasawa K. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:467-73. View abstract.
Hoffman DR, Hughbanks-Wheaton DK, Pearson NS, Fish GE, Spencer R, Takacs A, Klein M, Locke KG, Birch DG. Four-year placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (DHAX trial): a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Jul;132(7):866-73. View abstract.
Hughbanks-Wheaton DK, Birch DG, Fish GE, Spencer R, Pearson NS, Takacs A, Hoffman DR. Safety assessment of docosahexaenoic acid in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa: the 4-year DHAX trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Jul 11;55(8):4958-66. View abstract.
Imhoff-Kunsch B, Stein AD, Villalpando S, Martorell R, Ramakrishnan U. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation from mid-pregnancy to parturition influenced breast milk fatty acid concentrations at 1 month postpartum in Mexican women. J Nutr. 2011 Feb;141(2):321-6. View abstract.
Ito Y, Suzuki K, Imai H, et al. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on atrophic gastritis in a Japanese population. Cancer Lett 2001;163:171-8. View abstract.
Jones PJ, Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Charest A, Baril-Gravel L, West SG, Liu X, Fleming JA, McCrea CE, Kris-Etherton PM. DHA-enriched high-oleic acid canola oil improves lipid profile and lowers predicted cardiovascular disease risk in the canola oil multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100(1):88-97. View abstract.
Judge MP, Cong X, Harel O, Courville AB, Lammi-Keefe CJ. Maternal consumption of a DHA-containing functional food benefits infant sleep patterning: an early neurodevelopmental measure. Early Hum Dev. 2012 Jul;88(7):531-7. View abstract.
Kimura S, Tamayama M, Minami M, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits blood viscosity in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 1998;100:351-61.. View abstract.
Kris-Ehterton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, et al. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002;106:2747-57. View abstract.
Lapillonne A, Pastor N, Zhuang W, Scalabrin DMF. Infants fed formula with added long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have reduced incidence of respiratory illnesses and diarrhea during the first year of life. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:168. View abstract.
Lauritzen L, Hoppe C, Straarup EM, Michaelsen KF. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation and growth during the first 2.5 years of life. Pediatr Res 2005;58:235-42. View abstract.
Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:204-16. View abstract.
Leng GC, Smith FB, Fowkes FG, et al. Relationship between plasma essential fatty acids and smoking, serum lipids, blood pressure and haemostatic and rheological factors. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1994;51:101-8. View abstract.
Lucas A, Stafford M, Morley R, et al. Efficacy and safety of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant-formula milk: a randomized trial. Lancet 1999;354:1948-54. View abstract.
Makrides M, Gould JF, Gawlik NR, Yelland LN, Smithers LG, Anderson PJ, Gibson RA. Four-year follow-up of children born to women in a randomized trial of prenatal DHA supplementation. JAMA. 2014 May 7;311(17):1802-4. View abstract.
Makrides M, Neumann M, Simmer K, Pater J, and Gibson R. Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy? Lancet 1995;345(8963):1463-1468. View abstract.
Malcolm CA, McCulloch DL, Montgomery C, et al. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and visual evoked potential development in term infants: a double blind, prospective, randomised trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2003;88:F383-90. View abstract.
Marangell LB, Martinez JM, Zboyan HA, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:996-8.. View abstract.
Mayser P, Mrowietz U, Arenberger P, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid-based lipid infusion in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:539-47. View abstract.
Merz-Demlow BE, Duncan AM, Wangen KE, et al. Soy isoflavones improve plasma lipids in normocholesterolemic, premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1462-9. View abstract.
Mischoulon D, Nierenberg AA, Schettler PJ, Kinkead BL, Fehling K, Martinson MA, Hyman Rapaport M. A double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial comparing eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid for depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Jan;76(1):54-61. View abstract.
Montgomery C, Speake BK, Cameron A, et al. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and fetal accretion. Br J Nutr 2003;90:135-45. View abstract.
Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, et al. Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1085-94. View abstract.
Moriguchi T, Greiner RS, Salem N Jr. Behavioral deficits associated with dietary induction of decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid concentration. J Neurochem 2000;75:2563-73. View abstract.
Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:940-6. View abstract.
Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Yassini-Ardakani M, Karamati M, Shariati-Bafghi SE. Eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid in mild-to-moderate depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Jul;23(7):636-44. View abstract.
Mozurkewich EL, Clinton CM, Chilimigras JL, Hamilton SE, Allbaugh LJ, Berman DR, Marcus SM, Romero VC, Treadwell MC, Keeton KL, Vahratian AM, Schrader RM, Ren J, Djuric Z. The Mothers, Omega-3, and Mental Health Study: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;208(4):313.e1-9. View abstract.
Mulder KA, King DJ, Innis SM. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in infants before birth identified using a randomized trial of maternal DHA supplementation in pregnancy. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 10;9(1):e83764. View abstract.
Nelson GJ, Schmidt PS, Bartolini GL, et al. The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on platelet function, platelet fatty acid composition, and blood coagulation in humans. Lipids 1997;32:1129-36. View abstract.
Nobili V, Alisi A, Della Corte C, Risé P, Galli C, Agostoni C, Bedogni G. Docosahexaenoic acid for the treatment of fatty liver: randomised controlled trial in children. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Nov;23(11):1066-70. View abtract.
Nobili V, Bedogni G, Donati B, Alisi A, Valenti L. The I148M variant of PNPLA3 reduces the response to docosahexaenoic acid in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Med Food. 2013 Oct;16(10):957-60. View abstract.
Norrish AE, Skeaff CM, Arribas GL, et al. Prostate cancer risk and consumption of fish oils: a dietary biomarker-based, case-control study. Br J Cancer 1999;81:1238-42. View abstract.
Pedersen HS, Mulvad G, Seidelin KN, et al. N-3 fatty acids as a risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke. Lancet 1999;353:812-3. View abstract.
Phang M, Lincz LF, Garg ML. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid supplementations reduce platelet aggregation and hemostatic markers differentially in men and women. J Nutr. 2013 Apr;143(4):457-63. View abstract.
Picado C, Castillo JA, Schinca N, et al. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study. Thorax 1988;43:93-7. View abstract.
Prisco D, Paniccia R, Bandinelli B, et al. Effect of medium-term supplementation with a moderate dose of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood pressure in mild hypertensive patients. Thromb Res 1998;1:105-12. View abstract.
Qawasmi A, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Leckman JF, Bloch MH. Meta-analysis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of formula and infant cognition. Pediatrics 2012;129(6):1141-9. View abstract.
Richardson AJ, Burton JR, Sewell RP, Spreckelsen TF, Montgomery P. Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, cognition and behavior in children aged 7-9 years: a randomized, controlled trial (the DOLAB Study). PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e43909. View abstract.
Rix TA, Joensen AM, Riahi S, Lundbye-Christensen S, Overvad K, Schmidt EB. Marine n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and development of atrial fibrillation: a Danish cohort study. Heart. 2013 Oct;99(20):1519-24. View abstract.
Rodrigo R, Korantzopoulos P, Cereceda M, Asenjo R, Zamorano J, Villalabeitia E, Baeza C, Aguayo R, Castillo R, Carrasco R, Gormaz JG. A randomized controlled trial to prevent post-operative atrial fibrillation by antioxidant reinforcement. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Oct 15;62(16):1457-65. View abstract.
Sacks FM, Hebert P, Appel LJ, et al. Short report: the effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in phase I of the trials of hypertension prevention. J Hypertens 1994;12:209-13. View abstract.
SanGiovanni JP, Berkey CS, Dwyer JT, Colditz GA. Dietary essential fatty acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and visual resolution acuity in healthy fullterm infants: a systematic review. Early Hum Dev 2000;57:165-88. View abstract.
Sanjurjo P, Ruiz-Sanz JI, Jimeno P, et al. Supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid in the last trimester of pregnancy: maternal-fetal biochemical findings. J Perinat Med 2004;32:132-6. View abstract.
Saynor R, Gillott T. Changes in blood lipids and fibrinogen with a note on safety in a long term study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids in subjects receiving fish oil supplements and followed for seven years. Lipids 1992;27:533-8. View abstract.
Simopoulos AP. Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:560S-9S. View abstract.
Singhal A, Lanigan J, Storry C, Low S, Birbara T, Lucas A, Deanfield J. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation, vascular function and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial in young adults. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013 Jul 1;2(4):e000283. View abstract.
Sinn N, Milte CM, Street SJ, Buckley JD, Coates AM, Petkov J, Howe PR. Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2012 Jun;107(11):1682-93. View abstract.
Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D, et al. A randomized trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2003;101:469-79. View abstract.
Sørensen IM, Joner G, Jenum PA, Eskild A, Stene LC. Serum long chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) in the pregnant mother are independent of risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012 Jul;28(5):431-8. View abstract.
Stein AD, Wang M, Rivera JA, Martorell R, Ramakrishnan U. Auditory- and visual-evoked potentials in Mexican infants are not affected by maternal supplementation with 400 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid in the second half of pregnancy. J Nutr. 2012 Aug;142(8):1577-81. View abstract.
Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, et al. Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:761-8. View abstract.
Stonehouse W, Conlon CA, Podd J, Hill SR, Minihane AM, Haskell C, Kennedy D. DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May;97(5):1134-43. View abstract.
Stordy BJ. Dark adaptation, motor skills, docosahexaenoic acid, and dyslexia. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:323S-6S. View abstract.
Stough C, Downey L, Silber B, Lloyd J, Kure C, Wesnes K, Camfield D. The effects of 90-day supplementation with the omega-3 essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on cognitive function and visual acuity in a healthy aging population. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Apr;33(4):824.e1-3. View abstract.
Strain JJ, Yeates AJ, van Wijngaarden E, Thurston SW, Mulhern MS, McSorley EM, Watson GE, Love TM, Smith TH, Yost K, Harrington D, Shamlaye CF, Henderson J, Myers GJ, Davidson PW. Prenatal exposure to methyl mercury from fish consumption and polyunsaturated fatty acids: associations with child development at 20 mo of age in an observational study in the Republic of Seychelles. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar;101(3):530-7. View abstract.
Su KP, Lai HC, Yang HT, Su WP, Peng CY, Chang JP, Chang HC, Pariante CM. Omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of interferon-alpha-induced depression: results from a randomized, controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Oct 1;76(7):559-66. View abstract.
Thies F, Nebe-von-Caron G, Powell JR, et al. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged >55 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:539-48. View abstract.
Toft I, Bonaa KH, Ingebretsen OC, et al. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in essential hypertension. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:911-8. View abstract.
Uauy R, Hoffman DR, Mena P, et al. Term infant studies of DHA and ARA supplementation on neurodevelopment: Results of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr 2003;143:S17-25. View abstract.
van den Ham EC, van Houwelingen AC, Hornstra G. Evaluation of the relation between n-3 and n-6 fatty acid status and parity in nonpregnant women from the Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:622-7. View abstract.
Vandongen R, Mori TA, Burke V, et al. Effects on blood pressure of omega 3 fats in subjects at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension 1993;22:371-9. View abstract.
Verduci E, Agostoni C, Radaelli G, Banderali G, Riva E, Giovannini M. Blood lipids profile in hyperlipidemic children undergoing different dietary long chain polyunsaturated supplementations: a preliminary clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 May;65(3):375-9. View abstract.
Voigt RG, Llorente AM, Jensen CL, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr 2001;139:189-96. View abstract.
Voigt RG, Mellon MW, Katusic SK, Weaver AL, Matern D, Mellon B, Jensen CL, Barbaresi WJ. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with autism. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Jun;58(6):715-22. View abstract.
Wainwright P. Nutrition and behaviour: the role of n-3 fatty acids in cognitive function. Br J Nutr 2000;83:337-9. View abstract.
Wheaton DH, Hoffman DR, Locke KG, et al. Biological safety assessment of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in a randomized clinical trial for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121:1269-78. View abstract.
Willatts P, Forsyth S, Agostoni C, Casaer P, Riva, E, Boehm G. Effects of long-chain PUFA supplementation in infant formula on cognitive function in later childhood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(suppl):536S-42S. View abstract.
Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, et al. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:1007-15.. View abstract.
Yaemsiri S, Sen S, Tinker LF, Robinson WR, Evans RW, Rosamond W, Wasserthiel-Smoller S, He K. Serum fatty acids and incidence of ischemic stroke among postmenopausal women. Stroke. 2013 Oct;44(10):2710-7. View abstract.
Yui K, Koshiba M, Nakamura S, Kobayashi Y. Effects of large doses of arachidonic acid added to docosahexaenoic acid on social impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 Apr;32(2):200-6. View abstract.
Yurko-Mauro K, McCarthy D, Rom D, Nelson EB, Ryan AS, Blackwell A, Salem N Jr, Stedman M; MIDAS Investigators. Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive decline. Alzheimers Dement. 2010 Nov;6(6):456-64. View abstract.