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Dupixent

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/30/2020
Drug Description

What Is Dupixent and how is it used?

Dupixent (dupilumab) injection is aninterleukin-4 receptor alpha-antagonist indicated for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis whose disease is not adequately controlled with topical prescription therapies or when those therapies are not advisable. Dupixent can be used with or without topical corticosteroids.

What Are Side Effects of Dupixent?

Common side effects of Dupixent include:

DESCRIPTION

Dupilumab, an interleukin-4 receptor alpha antagonist, is a human monoclonal antibody of the IgG4 subclass that binds to the IL-4Rα subunit and inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. Dupilumab has an approximate molecular weight of 147 kDa.

Dupilumab is produced by recombinant DNA technology in Chinese Hamster Ovary cell suspension culture.

DUPIXENT (dupilumab) Injection is supplied as a sterile, preservative-free, clear to slightly opalescent, colorless to pale yellow solution for subcutaneous injection. DUPIXENT is provided as a single-dose pre-filled syringe with needle shield in a 2.25 mL siliconized Type-1 clear glass syringe. The needle cap is not made with natural rubber latex. Each pre-filled syringe delivers 300 mg dupilumab in 2 mL which also contains L-arginine hydrochloride (10.5 mg), L-histidine (6.2 mg), polysorbate 80 (4 mg), sodium acetate (2 mg), sucrose (100 mg), and water for injection, pH 5.9.

Indications & Dosage

INDICATIONS

DUPIXENT is indicated for the following diseases:

Atopic Dermatitis

DUPIXENT is indicated for the treatment of patients aged 6 years and older with moderate-tosevere atopic dermatitis whose disease is not adequately controlled with topical prescription therapies or when those therapies are not advisable. DUPIXENT can be used with or without topical corticosteroids.

Asthma

DUPIXENT is indicated as an add-on maintenance treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma aged 12 years and older with an eosinophilic phenotype or with oral corticosteroid dependent asthma.

Limitation Of Use

DUPIXENT is not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm or status asthmaticus.

Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyposis

DUPIXENT is indicated as an add-on maintenance treatment in adult patients with inadequately controlled chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP).

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

DUPIXENT is administered by subcutaneous injection, either by pre-filled syringe or pre-filled pen. The DUPIXENT pre-filled pen is only for use in adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older.

Atopic Dermatitis

Dosing In Adults

The recommended dose of DUPIXENT for adult patients is an initial dose of 600 mg (two 300 mg injections), followed by 300 mg given every other week (Q2W).

Dosing In Pediatric Patients (6 To 17 Years Of Age)

The recommended dose of DUPIXENT for patients 6 to 17 years of age is specified in Table 1.

Table 1: Dose of DUPIXENT for Subcutaneous Administration in Pediatric Patients (6 to 17 Years of Age)

Body WeightInitial DoseSubsequent Doses
15 to less than 30 kg600 mg (two 300 mg injections)300 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W)
30 to less than 60 kg400 mg (two 200 mg injections)200 mg every other week (Q2W)
60 kg or more600 mg (two 300 mg injections)300 mg every other week (Q2W)

Concomitant Topical Therapies

DUPIXENT can be used with or without topical corticosteroids. Topical calcineurin inhibitors may be used, but should be reserved for problem areas only, such as the face, neck, intertriginous and genital areas.

Asthma

The recommended dose of DUPIXENT for adults and adolescents (12 years of age and older) is:

  • an initial dose of 400 mg (two 200 mg injections) followed by 200 mg given every other week or
  • an initial dose of 600 mg (two 300 mg injections) followed by 300 mg given every other week
  • for patients with oral corticosteroids-dependent asthma, or with co-morbid moderate-tosevere atopic dermatitis for which DUPIXENT is indicated, start with an initial dose of 600 mg followed by 300 mg given every other week

Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyposis

The recommended dose of DUPIXENT for adult patients is 300 mg given every other week.

Important Administration Instructions

DUPIXENT is intended for use under the guidance of a healthcare provider. A patient may selfinject DUPIXENT after training in subcutaneous injection technique using the pre-filled syringe or pre-filled pen. The DUPIXENT pre-filled pen is only for use in adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older. In adolescents 12 years of age and older, it is recommended that DUPIXENT be given by or under the supervision of an adult. Dupixent pre-filled syringe should be given by a caregiver in children 6-11 years of age. Provide proper training to patients and/or caregivers on the preparation and administration of DUPIXENT prior to use according to the “Instructions for Use”.

For atopic dermatitis and asthma patients taking an initial 600 mg dose, administer each of the two DUPIXENT 300 mg injections at different injection sites.

For atopic dermatitis and asthma patients taking an initial 400 mg dose, administer each of the two DUPIXENT 200 mg injections at different injection sites.

Administer subcutaneous injection into the thigh or abdomen, except for the 2 inches (5 cm) around the navel. The upper arm can also be used if a caregiver administers the injection.

Rotate the injection site with each injection. DO NOT inject DUPIXENT into skin that is tender, damaged, bruised, or scarred.

If an every other week dose is missed, instruct the patient to administer the injection within 7 days from the missed dose and then resume the patient's original schedule. If the missed dose is not administered within 7 days, instruct the patient to wait until the next dose on the original schedule.

If an every 4 week dose is missed, instruct the patient to administer the injection within 7 days from the missed dose and then resume the patient's original schedule. If the missed dose is not administered within 7 days, instruct the patient to administer the dose, starting a new schedule based on this date.

The DUPIXENT “Instructions for Use” contains more detailed instructions on the preparation and administration of DUPIXENT [see INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE].

Preparation For Use Of DUPIXENT

Before injection, remove DUPIXENT from the refrigerator and allow DUPIXENT to reach room temperature (45 minutes for the 300 mg/2 mL pre-filled syringe or pre-filled pen and 30 minutes for the 200 mg/1.14 mL pre-filled syringe) without removing the needle cap.

Inspect DUPIXENT visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. DUPIXENT is a clear to slightly opalescent, colorless to pale yellow solution. Do not use if the liquid contains visible particulate matter, is discolored or cloudy (other than clear to slightly opalescent, colorless to pale yellow). DUPIXENT does not contain preservatives; therefore, discard any unused product remaining in the pre-filled syringe or pre-filled pen.

HOW SUPPLIED

Dosage Forms And Strengths

DUPIXENT is a clear to slightly opalescent, colorless to pale yellow solution available as:

  • Injection: 300 mg/2 mL in a single-dose pre-filled syringe with needle shield
  • Injection: 200 mg/1.14 mL in a single-dose pre-filled syringe with needle shield
  • Injection: 300 mg/2 mL in a single-dose pre-filled pen

DUPIXENT (dupilumab) Injection is a clear to slightly opalescent, colorless to pale yellow solution, supplied in single-dose pre-filled syringes with needle shield or pre-filled pens. Each pre-filled syringe with needle shield is designed to deliver either 300 mg of DUPIXENT in 2 mL (NDC 0024-5914-00) or 200 mg of DUPIXENT in 1.14 mL solution (NDC 0024-5918-00). Each pre-filled pen is designed to deliver 300 mg of DUPIXENT in 2 mL solution (NDC 0024-5915-00).

DUPIXENT is available in cartons containing 2 pre-filled syringes with needle shield or 2 prefilled pens.

Pack Size300 mg/2 mL Pre-filled Syringe with Needle Shield200 mg/1.14 mL Pre-filled Syringe with Needle Shield
Pack of 2 syringesNDC 0024-5914-01NDC 0024-5918-01

Pack Size300 mg/2 mL Pre-filled Pen
Pack of 2 pensNDC 0024-5915-02

Storage And Handling

DUPIXENT is sterile and preservative-free. Discard any unused portion.

Store refrigerated at 36°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C) in the original carton to protect from light.

If necessary, DUPIXENT may be kept at room temperature up to 77°F (25°C) for a maximum of 14 days. Do not store above 77°F (25°C). After removal from the refrigerator, DUPIXENT must be used within 14 days or discarded.

Do not expose DUPIXENT to heat or direct sunlight.

Do NOT freeze. Do NOT shake.

Manufactured by: Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Tarrytown, NY 10591 U.S. License No. 1760. Revised: Jun 2020

QUESTION

Eczema (also atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis) is a general medical term for many types of skin inflammation. See Answer
Side Effects & Drug Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Hypersensitivity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Conjunctivitis and Keratitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adults With Atopic Dermatitis

Three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trials (Trials 1, 2, and 3) and one dose-ranging trial (Trial 4) evaluated the safety of DUPIXENT in subjects with moderate-tosevere atopic dermatitis. The safety population had a mean age of 38 years; 41% of subjects were female, 67% were white, 24% were Asian, and 6% were black; in terms of co-morbid conditions, 48% of the subjects had asthma, 49% had allergic rhinitis, 37% had food allergy, and 27% had allergic conjunctivitis. In these 4 trials, 1472 subjects were treated with subcutaneous injections of DUPIXENT, with or without concomitant topical corticosteroids (TCS).

A total of 739 subjects were treated with DUPIXENT for at least 1 year in the development program for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis.

Trials 1, 2, and 4 compared the safety of DUPIXENT monotherapy to placebo through Week 16. Trial 3 compared the safety of DUPIXENT + TCS to placebo + TCS through Week 52.

Weeks 0 To 16 (Trials 1 To 4)

In DUPIXENT monotherapy trials (Trials 1, 2, and 4) through Week 16, the proportion of subjects who discontinued treatment because of adverse events was 1.9% in both the DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W and placebo groups. Table 2 summarizes the adverse reactions that occurred at a rate of at least 1% in the DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W monotherapy groups, and in the DUPIXENT + TCS group, all at a higher rate than in their respective comparator groups during the first 16 weeks of treatment.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥1% of the DUPIXENT Monotherapy Group or the DUPIXENT + TCS Group in the Atopic Dermatitis Trials through Week 16

Adverse ReactionDUPIXENT MonotherapyaDUPIXENT + TCSb
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2Wc
N=529
n (%)
Placebo
N=517
n (%)
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2Wc + TCS
N=110
n (%)
Placebo + TCS
N=315
n (%)
Injection site reaction51 (10)28 (5)11 (10)18 (6)
Conjunctivitisd51 (10)12 (2)10 (9)15 (5)
Blepharitis2 (<1)1 (<1)5 (5)2 (1)
Oral herpes20 (4)8 (2)3 (3)5 (2)
Keratitise1 (<1)04 (4)0
Eye pruritus3 (1)1 (<1)2 (2)2 (1)
Other herpes simplex virus infectionf10 (2)6 (1)1 (1)1 (<1)
Dry eye1 (<1)02 (2)1 (<1)
a Pooled analysis of Trials 1, 2, and 4.
b Analysis of Trial 3 where subjects were on background TCS therapy.
c DUPIXENT 600 mg at Week 0, followed by 300 mg every two weeks.
d Conjunctivitis cluster includes conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis, viral conjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis, eye irritation, and eye inflammation.
e Keratitis cluster includes keratitis, ulcerative keratitis, allergic keratitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and ophthalmic herpes simplex.
f Other herpes simplex virus infection cluster includes herpes simplex, genital herpes, herpes simplex otitis externa, and herpes virus infection, but excludes eczema herpeticum.

Safety Through Week 52 (Trial 3)

In the DUPIXENT with concomitant TCS trial (Trial 3) through Week 52, the proportion of subjects who discontinued treatment because of adverse events was 1.8% in DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W + TCS group and 7.6% in the placebo + TCS group. Two subjects discontinued DUPIXENT because of adverse reactions: atopic dermatitis (1 subject) and exfoliative dermatitis (1 subject).

The safety profile of DUPIXENT + TCS through Week 52 was generally consistent with the safety profile observed at Week 16.

Adolescents With Atopic Dermatitis (12 To 17 Years Of Age)

The safety of DUPIXENT was assessed in a trial of 250 subjects 12 to 17 years of age with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (Trial 6). The safety profile of DUPIXENT in these subjects through Week 16 was similar to the safety profile from studies in adults with atopic dermatitis.

The long-term safety of DUPIXENT was assessed in an open-label extension study in subjects 12 to 17 years of age with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (Trial 7). The safety profile of DUPIXENT in subjects followed through Week 52 was similar to the safety profile observed at Week 16 in Trial 6. The long-term safety profile of DUPIXENT observed in adolescents was consistent with that seen in adults with atopic dermatitis.

Children With Atopic Dermatitis (6 To 11 Years Of Age)

The safety of DUPIXENT with concomitant TCS was assessed in a trial of 367 subjects 6 to 11 years of age with severe atopic dermatitis (Trial 8). The safety profile of DUPIXENT + TCS in these subjects through Week 16 was similar to the safety profile from trials in adults and adolescents with atopic dermatitis.

The long-term safety of DUPIXENT + TCS was assessed in an open-label extension study of 368 subjects 6 to 11 years of age with atopic dermatitis (Trial 7). Among subjects who entered this study, 110 (30%) had moderate and 72 (20%) had severe atopic dermatitis at the time of enrollment in Trial 7. The safety profile of DUPIXENT + TCS in subjects followed through Week 52 was similar to the safety profile observed through Week 16 in Trial 8. The long-term safety profile of DUPIXENT + TCS observed in pediatric subjects was consistent with that seen in adults and adolescents with atopic dermatitis [see Use In Specific Populations].

Asthma

A total of 2888 adult and adolescent subjects with moderate-to-severe asthma (AS) were evaluated in 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trials of 24 to 52 weeks duration (AS Trials 1, 2, and 3). Of these, 2678 had a history of 1 or more severe exacerbations in the year prior to enrollment despite regular use of medium to high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus an additional controller(s) (AS Trials 1 and 2). A total of 210 subjects with oral corticosteroiddependent asthma receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus up to two additional controllers were enrolled (AS Trial 3). The safety population (AS Trials 1 and 2) was 12-87 years of age, of which 63% were female, and 82% were white. DUPIXENT 200 mg or 300 mg was administered subcutaneously Q2W, following an initial dose of 400 mg or 600 mg, respectively.

In AS Trials 1 and 2, the proportion of subjects who discontinued treatment due to adverse events was 4% of the placebo group, 3% of the DUPIXENT 200 mg Q2W group, and 6% of the DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W group.

Table 3 summarizes the adverse reactions that occurred at a rate of at least 1% in subjects treated with DUPIXENT and at a higher rate than in their respective comparator groups in Asthma Trials 1 and 2.

Table 3: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥1% of the DUPIXENT Groups in Asthma Trials 1 and 2 and Greater than Placebo (6 Month Safety Pool)

Adverse ReactionAS Trials 1 and 2
DUPIXENT
200 mg Q2W
N=779
n (%)
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W
N=788
n (%)
Placebo
N=792
n (%)
Injection site reactionsa111 (14%)144 (18%)50 (6%)
Oropharyngeal pain13 (2%)19 (2%)7 (1%)
Eosinophiliab17 (2%)16 (2%)2 (<1%)
a Injection site reactions cluster includes erythema, edema, pruritus, pain, and inflammation.
b Eosinophilia = blood eosinophils ≥3,000 cells/mcL, or deemed by the investigator to be an adverse event. None met the criteria for serious eosinophilic conditions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Injection site reactions were most common with the loading (initial) dose.

The safety profile of DUPIXENT through Week 52 was generally consistent with the safety profile observed at Week 24.

Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyposis

A total of 722 adult subjects with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) were evaluated in 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trials of 24 to 52 weeks duration (CSNP Trials 1 and 2). The safety pool consisted of data from the first 24 weeks of treatment from both studies.

In the safety pool, the proportion of subjects who discontinued treatment due to adverse events was 5% of the placebo group and 2% of the DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W group.

Table 4 summarizes the adverse reactions that occurred at a rate of at least 1% in subjects treated with DUPIXENT and at a higher rate than in their respective comparator group in CSNP Trials 1 and 2.

Table 4: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥1% of the DUPIXENT Group in CRSwNP Trials 1 and 2 and Greater than Placebo (24 Week Safety Pool)

Adverse ReactionCSNP Trials 1 and 2
DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W
N=440
n (%)
Placebo
N=282
n (%)
Injection site reactionsa28 (6%)12 (4%)
Conjunctivitisb7 (2%)2 (1%)
Arthralgia14 (3%)5 (2%)
Gastritis7 (2%)2 (1%)
Insomnia6 (1%)0 (<1%)
Eosinophilia5 (1%)1 (<1%)
Toothache5 (1%)1 (<1%)
a Injection site reactions cluster includes injection site reaction, pain, bruising and swelling.
b Conjunctivitis cluster includes conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis, viral conjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis, eye irritation, and eye inflammation.

Specific Adverse Reactions

Conjunctivitis and Keratitis

During the 52-week treatment period of concomitant therapy atopic dermatitis trial (Trial 3), conjunctivitis was reported in 16% of the DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W + TCS group (20 per 100 subject-years) and in 9% of the placebo + TCS group (10 per 100 subject-years). In DUPIXENT atopic dermatitis monotherapy trials (Trials 1, 2, and 4) through Week 16, keratitis was reported in <1% of the DUPIXENT group (1 per 100 subject-years) and in 0% of the placebo group (0 per 100 subject-years). In the 52-week atopic dermatitis DUPIXENT + topical corticosteroids (TCS) atopic dermatitis trial (Trial 3), keratitis was reported in 4% of the DUPIXENT + TCS group (12 per 100 subject-years) and in 0% of the placebo + TCS group (0 per 100 subject-years). Most subjects with conjunctivitis or keratitis recovered or were recovering during the treatment period. Among asthma subjects, the frequency of conjunctivitis was similar between DUPIXENT and placebo. In the 52-week CRSwNP study (CSNP Trial 2), the frequency of conjunctivitis was 3% in the DUPIXENT subjects and 1% in the placebo subjects; all of these subjects recovered. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Eczema Herpeticum and Herpes Zoster

The rate of eczema herpeticum was similar in the placebo and DUPIXENT groups in the atopic dermatitis trials.

Herpes zoster was reported in <0.1% of the DUPIXENT groups (<1 per 100 subject-years) and in <1% of the placebo group (1 per 100 subject-years) in the 16-week atopic dermatitis monotherapy trials. In the 52-week DUPIXENT + TCS atopic dermatitis trial, herpes zoster was reported in 1% of the DUPIXENT + TCS group (1 per 100 subject-years) and 2% of the placebo + TCS group (2 per 100 subject-years). Among asthma subjects the frequency of herpes zoster was similar between DUPIXENT and placebo. Among CRSwNP subjects there were no reported cases of herpes zoster or eczema herpeticum.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity reactions were reported in <1% of DUPIXENT-treated subjects. These included serum sickness reaction, serum sickness-like reaction, generalized urticaria, rash, erythema nodosum, and anaphylaxis [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and Immunogenicity].

Eosinophils

DUPIXENT-treated subjects had a greater initial increase from baseline in blood eosinophil count compared to subjects treated with placebo. In subjects with atopic dermatitis, the mean and median increases in blood eosinophils from baseline to Week 4 were 100 and 0 cells/mcL respectively. In subjects with asthma, the mean and median increases in blood eosinophils from baseline to Week 4 were 130 and 10 cells/mcL respectively. In subjects with CRSwNP, the mean and median increases in blood eosinophils from baseline to Week 16 were 150 and 50 cells/mcL, respectively.

Across all indications, the incidence of treatment-emergent eosinophilia (≥500 cells/mcL) was similar in DUPIXENT and placebo groups. Treatment-emergent eosinophilia (≥5,000 cells/mcL) was reported in <2% of DUPIXENT-treated patients and <0.5% in placebo-treated patients. Blood eosinophil counts declined to near baseline levels during study treatment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Cardiovascular

In the 1-year placebo controlled trial in subjects with asthma (AS Trial 2), cardiovascular thromboembolic events (cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarctions, and non-fatal strokes) were reported in 1 (0.2%) of the DUPIXENT 200 mg Q2W group, 4 (0.6%) of the DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W group, and 2 (0.3%) of the placebo group.

In the 1-year placebo controlled trial in subjects with atopic dermatitis (Trial 3), cardiovascular thromboembolic events (cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarctions, and non-fatal strokes) were reported in 1 (0.9%) of the DUPIXENT + TCS 300 mg Q2W group, 0 (0.0%) of the DUPIXENT + TCS 300 mg QW group, and 1 (0.3%) of the placebo + TCS group.

In the 24-week placebo controlled trial in subjects with CRSwNP (CSNP Trial 1), cardiovascular thromboembolic events (cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarctions, and non-fatal strokes) were reported in 1 (0.7%) of the DUPIXENT group and 0 (0.0%) of the placebo group. In the 1-year placebo controlled trial in subjects with CRSwNP (CSNP Trial 2), there were no cases of cardiovascular thromboembolic events (cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarctions, and non-fatal strokes) reported in any treatment arm.

Immunogenicity

As with all therapeutic proteins, there is a potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to dupilumab in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.

Approximately 5% of subjects with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or CRSwNP who received DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W for 52 weeks developed antibodies to dupilumab; approximately 2% exhibited persistent ADA responses, and approximately 2% had neutralizing antibodies. Similar results were observed in pediatric subjects (6 to 11 years of age) with atopic dermatitis who received DUPIXENT 200 mg Q2W or 300 mg Q4W for 16 weeks.

Approximately 16% of adolescent subjects with atopic dermatitis who received DUPIXENT 300 mg or 200 mg Q2W for 16 weeks developed antibodies to dupilumab; approximately 3% exhibited persistent ADA responses, and approximately 5% had neutralizing antibodies.

Approximately 9% of subjects with asthma who received DUPIXENT 200 mg Q2W for 52 weeks developed antibodies to dupilumab; approximately 4% exhibited persistent ADA responses, and approximately 4% had neutralizing antibodies.

Regardless of age or population, approximately 2% to 4% of subjects in placebo groups were positive for antibodies to DUPIXENT; approximately 2% exhibited persistent ADA responses, and approximately 1% had neutralizing antibodies.

The antibody titers detected in both DUPIXENT and placebo subjects were mostly low. In subjects who received DUPIXENT, development of high titer antibodies to dupilumab was associated with lower serum dupilumab concentrations [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Two adult subjects who experienced high titer antibody responses developed serum sickness or serum sickness-like reactions during DUPIXENT therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Live Vaccines

Avoid use of live vaccines in patients treated with DUPIXENT.

Non-Live Vaccines

Immune responses to vaccination were assessed in a study in which adult subjects with atopic dermatitis were treated once weekly for 16 weeks with 300 mg of dupilumab (twice the recommended dosing frequency). After 12 weeks of DUPIXENT administration, subjects were vaccinated with a Tdap vaccine (Adacel®) and a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Menomune®). Antibody responses to tetanus toxoid and serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide were assessed 4 weeks later. Antibody responses to both tetanus vaccine and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine were similar in dupilumab-treated and placebo-treated subjects. Immune responses to the other active components of the Adacel and Menomune vaccines were not assessed.

Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS

Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section

PRECAUTIONS

Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity reactions, including generalized urticaria, rash, erythema nodosum, and serum sickness or serum sickness-like reactions, were reported in less than 1% of subjects who received DUPIXENT in clinical trials. Two subjects in the atopic dermatitis development program experienced serum sickness or serum sickness-like reactions that were associated with high titers of antibodies to dupilumab.One subject in the asthma development program experienced anaphylaxis [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. If a clinically significant hypersensitivity reaction occurs, institute appropriate therapy and discontinue DUPIXENT [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

Conjunctivitis And Keratitis

Conjunctivitis and keratitis occurred more frequently in atopic dermatitis subjects who received DUPIXENT. Conjunctivitis was the most frequently reported eye disorder. Most subjects with conjunctivitis or keratitis recovered or were recovering during the treatment period [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

Among asthma subjects, the frequencies of conjunctivitis and keratitis were similar between DUPIXENT and placebo [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

In subjects with CRSwNP, the frequency of conjunctivitis was 2% in the DUPIXENT group compared to 1% in the placebo group in the 24-week safety pool; these subjects recovered. There were no cases of keratitis reported in the CRSwNP development program [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

Advise patients to report new onset or worsening eye symptoms to their healthcare provider.

Eosinophilic Conditions

Patients being treated for asthma may present with serious systemic eosinophilia sometimes presenting with clinical features of eosinophilic pneumonia or vasculitis consistent with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, conditions which are often treated with systemic corticosteroid therapy. These events may be associated with the reduction of oral corticosteroid therapy. Physicians should be alert to vasculitic rash, worsening pulmonary symptoms, cardiac complications, and/or neuropathy presenting in their patients with eosinophilia. Cases of eosinophilic pneumonia were reported in adult patients who participated in the asthma development program and cases of vasculitis consistent with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis have been reported with DUPIXENT in adult patients who participated in the asthma development program as well as in adult patients with co-morbid asthma in the CRSwNP development program. A causal association between DUPIXENT and these conditions has not been established.

Acute Asthma Symptoms Or Deteriorating Disease

DUPIXENT should not be used to treat acute asthma symptoms or acute exacerbations. Do not use DUPIXENT to treat acute bronchospasm or status asthmaticus. Patients should seek medical advice if their asthma remains uncontrolled or worsens after initiation of treatment with DUPIXENT.

Reduction Of Corticosteroid Dosage

Do not discontinue systemic, topical, or inhaled corticosteroids abruptly upon initiation of therapy with DUPIXENT. Reductions in corticosteroid dose, if appropriate, should be gradual and performed under the direct supervision of a physician. Reduction in corticosteroid dose may be associated with systemic withdrawal symptoms and/or unmask conditions previously suppressed by systemic corticosteroid therapy.

Patients With Co-Morbid Asthma

Advise patients with atopic dermatitis or CRSwNP who have co-morbid asthma not to adjust or stop their asthma treatments without consultation with their physicians.

Parasitic (Helminth) Infections

Patients with known helminth infections were excluded from participation in clinical studies. It is unknown if DUPIXENT will influence the immune response against helminth infections.

Treat patients with pre-existing helminth infections before initiating therapy with DUPIXENT. If patients become infected while receiving treatment with DUPIXENT and do not respond to antihelminth treatment, discontinue treatment with DUPIXENT until the infection resolves.

Patient Counseling Information

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION and Instructions for Use).

Pregnancy Registry

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to DUPIXENT during pregnancy. Encourage participation and advise patients about how they may enroll in the registry [see Use In Specific Populations].

Administration Instructions

Provide proper training to patients and/or caregivers on proper subcutaneous injection technique, including aseptic technique, and the preparation and administration of DUPIXENT prior to use. Advise patients to follow sharps disposal recommendations [see Instructions for Use].

Hypersensitivity

Advise patients to discontinue DUPIXENT and to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Conjunctivitis And Keratitis

Advise patients to consult their healthcare provider if new onset or worsening eye symptoms develop [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Eosinophilic Conditions

Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they present with clinical features of eosinophilic pneumonia or vasculitis consistent with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Not For Acute Asthma Symptoms Or Deteriorating Disease

Inform patients that DUPIXENT does not treat acute asthma symptoms or acute exacerbations. Inform patients to seek medical advice if their asthma remains uncontrolled or worsens after initiation of treatment with DUPIXENT [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Reduction In Corticosteroid Dosage

Inform patients to not discontinue systemic or inhaled corticosteroids except under the direct supervision of a physician. Inform patients that reduction in corticosteroid dose may be associated with systemic withdrawal symptoms and/or unmask conditions previously suppressed by systemic corticosteroid therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Patients With Co-Morbid Asthma

Advise patients with atopic dermatitis or CRSwNP who have co-morbid asthma not to adjust or stop their asthma treatment without talking to their physicians [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Animal studies have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic or mutagenic potential of dupilumab.

No effects on fertility parameters such as reproductive organs, menstrual cycle length, or sperm analysis were observed in sexually mature mice that were subcutaneously administered a homologous antibody against IL-4Rα at doses up to 200 mg/kg/week.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Exposure Registry

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to DUPIXENT during pregnancy.

Healthcare providers and patients may call 1-877-311-8972 or go to https://mothertobaby.org/ongoing-study/dupixent/ to enroll in or to obtain information about the registry.

Risk Summary

Available data from case reports and case series with DUPIXENT use in pregnant women have not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Human IgG antibodies are known to cross the placental barrier; therefore, DUPIXENT may be transmitted from the mother to the developing fetus. There are adverse effects on maternal and fetal outcomes associated with asthma in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations). In an enhanced pre- and post-natal developmental study, no adverse developmental effects were observed in offspring born to pregnant monkeys after subcutaneous administration of a homologous antibody against interleukin-4-receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) during organogenesis through parturition at doses up to 10-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) (see Data). The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo-fetal Risk

In women with poorly or moderately controlled asthma, evidence demonstrates that there is an increased risk of preeclampsia in the mother and prematurity, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in the neonate. The level of asthma control should be closely monitored in pregnant women and treatment adjusted as necessary to maintain optimal control.

Data

Animal Data

In an enhanced pre- and post-natal development toxicity study, pregnant cynomolgus monkeys were administered weekly subcutaneous doses of homologous antibody against IL-4Rα up to 10 times the MRHD (on a mg/kg basis of 100 mg/kg/week) from the beginning of organogenesis to parturition. No treatment-related adverse effects on embryo-fetal toxicity or malformations, or on morphological, functional, or immunological development were observed in the infants from birth through 6 months of age.

Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of dupilumab in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Maternal IgG is known to be present in human milk. The effects of local gastrointestinal exposure and limited systemic exposure to dupilumab on the breastfed infant are unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for DUPIXENT and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from DUPIXENT or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

Atopic Dermatitis

The safety and efficacy of DUPIXENT have been established in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis.

Use of DUPIXENT in this age group is supported by Trial 6 which included 251 adolescents ages 12 to 17 years old with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis and Trial 8 which included 367 children ages 6 to 11 years old with severe atopic dermatitis. The safety and efficacy were generally consistent between pediatric and adult patients [see ADVERSE REACTIONS and Clinical Studies].

Use is also supported by Trial 7, an open-label extension study that enrolled subjects who completed Trials 6 and 8. Trial 7 included 136 adolescents from Trial 6 and 110 children from Trial 8 with moderate atopic dermatitis at enrollment into the extension study. Trial 7 included 64 adolescents from Trial 6 and 72 children from Trial 8 with severe atopic dermatitis at enrollment. No new safety signals were identified in Trial 7 [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients <6 years of age with atopic dermatitis have not been established.

Asthma

A total of 107 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with moderate-to-severe asthma were enrolled in AS Trial 2 and received either 200 mg (N=21) or 300 mg (N=18) DUPIXENT (or matching placebo either 200 mg [N=34] or 300 mg [N=34]) Q2W. Asthma exacerbations and lung function were assessed in both adolescents and adults. For both the 200 mg and 300 mg Q2W doses, improvements in FEV1 (LS mean change from baseline at Week 12) were observed (0.36 L and 0.27 L, respectively). For the 200 mg Q2W dose, subjects had a reduction in the rate of severe exacerbations that was consistent with adults. Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients (<12 years of age) with asthma have not been established. Dupilumab exposure was higher in adolescent patients than that in adults at the respective dose level which was mainly accounted for by difference in body weight [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

The adverse event profile in adolescents was generally similar to the adults [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

CRSwNP

CRSwNP does not normally occur in children. Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients (<18 years of age) with CRSwNP have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Of the 1472 subjects with atopic dermatitis exposed to DUPIXENT in a dose-ranging study and placebo-controlled trials, 67 subjects were 65 years or older. Although no differences in safety or efficacy were observed between older and younger subjects, the number of subjects aged 65 and over is not sufficient to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Of the 1977 subjects with asthma exposed to DUPIXENT, a total of 240 subjects were 65 years or older. Efficacy and safety in this age group was similar to the overall study population. Of the 440 subjects with CRSwNP exposed to DUPIXENT, a total of 79 subjects were 65 years or older. Efficacy and safety in this age group were similar to the overall study population.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE

There is no specific treatment for DUPIXENT overdose. In the event of overdosage, monitor the patient for any signs or symptoms of adverse reactions and institute appropriate symptomatic treatment immediately.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

DUPIXENT is contraindicated in patients who have known hypersensitivity to dupilumab or any of its excipients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism Of Action

Dupilumab is a human monoclonal IgG4 antibody that inhibits interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) signaling by specifically binding to the IL-4Rα subunit shared by the IL-4 and IL-13 receptor complexes. Dupilumab inhibits IL-4 signaling via the Type I receptor and both IL-4 and IL-13 signaling through the Type II receptor.

Inflammation is an important component in the pathogenesis of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and CRSwNP. Multiple cell types that express IL-4Rα (e.g., mast cells, eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, goblet cells) and inflammatory mediators (e.g., histamine, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, cytokines, chemokines) are involved in inflammation. Blocking IL- 4Rα with dupilumab inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine-induced inflammatory responses, including the release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, and IgE; however, the mechanism of dupilumab action in asthma has not been definitively established.

Pharmacodynamics

Consistent with inhibition of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, dupilumab treatment decreased certain biomarkers. In asthma subjects, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and circulating concentrations of eotaxin-3, total IgE, allergen specific IgE, TARC, and periostin were decreased relative to placebo. These reductions in biomarkers were comparable for the 300 mg Q2W and 200 mg Q2W regimens. These markers were near maximal suppression after 2 weeks of treatment, except for IgE which declined more slowly. These effects were sustained throughout treatment. The median percent reduction from baseline in total IgE concentrations with dupilumab treatments was 52% at Week 24 (AS Trial 1) and 70% at Week 52 (AS Trial 2). For FeNO, the mean percent reduction from baseline at Week 2 was 35% and 24% in AS Trials 1 and 2 respectively, and in the overall safety population, the mean FeNO level decreased to 20 ppb.

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of dupilumab is similar in subjects with atopic dermatitis, asthma, and CRSwNP.

Absorption

Following an initial subcutaneous (SC) dose of 600 mg, 400 mg, or 300 mg, dupilumab reached peak mean ± SD concentrations (Cmax) of 70.1±24.1 mcg/mL, 41.8±12.4 mcg/mL, or 30.5±9.39 mcg/mL respectively, by approximately 1 week post dose. Steady-state concentrations were achieved by Week 16 following the administration of 600 mg starting dose and 300 mg dose either weekly (twice the recommended dosing frequency) or Q2W, or 400 mg starting dose and 200 mg dose Q2W, or 300 mg Q2W without a loading dose. Across clinical trials, the mean ± SD steady-state trough concentrations ranged from 60.3±35.1 mcg/mL to 80.2±35.3 mcg/mL for 300 mg administered Q2W, from 173±75.9 mcg/mL to 193±77.0 mcg/mL for 300 mg administered weekly, and from 29.2±18.7 to 36.5±22.2 mg/L for 200 mg administered Q2W. The bioavailability of dupilumab following a SC dose is similar between AD, asthma, and CRSwNP patients, ranging between 61% and 64%.

Distribution

The estimated total volume of distribution was approximately 4.8±1.3 L.

Elimination

The metabolic pathway of dupilumab has not been characterized. As a human monoclonal IgG4 antibody, dupilumab is expected to be degraded into small peptides and amino acids via catabolic pathways in the same manner as endogenous IgG. After the last steady-state dose of 300 mg Q2W, 300 mg QW, or 200 mg Q2W dupilumab, the median times to non-detectable concentration (<78 ng/mL) are 10-12, 13, and 9 weeks, respectively.

Dose Linearity

Dupilumab exhibited nonlinear target-mediated pharmacokinetics with exposures increasing in a greater than dose-proportional manner. The systemic exposure increased by 30-fold when the dose increased 8-fold following a single dose of dupilumab from 75 mg to 600 mg (i.e., 0.25- times to 2-times the recommended dose).

Weight

Dupilumab trough concentrations were lower in subjects with higher body weight.

Age

Based on population pharmacokinetic analysis, age did not affect dupilumab clearance.

Immunogenicity

Development of antibodies to dupilumab was associated with lower serum dupilumab concentrations. A few subjects who had high antibody titers also had no detectable serum dupilumab concentrations.

Specific Populations

Geriatric Patients

In subjects who are 65 years and older, the mean ± SD steady-state trough concentrations of dupilumab were 69.4±31.4 mcg/mL and 166±62.3 mcg/mL, respectively, for 300 mg administered Q2W and weekly, and 39.7±21.7 mcg/mL for 200 mg administered Q2W.

Pediatric Patients

Atopic Dermatitis

For adolescents 12 to 17 years of age with atopic dermatitis receiving every other week dosing (Q2W) with either 200 mg (<60 kg) or 300 mg (≥60 kg), the mean ± SD steady-state trough concentration of dupilumab was 54.5±27.0 mcg/mL.

For children 6 to 11 years of age with atopic dermatitis receiving every other week dosing (Q2W) with 200 mg (≥30 kg) or every four week dosing (Q4W) with 300 mg (<30 kg), mean ± SD steady-state trough concentration was 86.0±34.6 mcg/mL and 98.7±33.2 mcg/mL, respectively.

Asthma

A total of 107 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with asthma were enrolled in AS Trial 2. The mean ± SD steady-state trough concentrations of dupilumab were 107±51.6 mcg/mL and 46.7±26.9 mcg/mL, respectively, for 300 mg or 200 mg administered Q2W.

Renal Or Hepatic Impairment

No formal trial of the effect of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of dupilumab was conducted.

Drug Interaction Studies

An effect of dupilumab on the PK of co-administered medications is not expected. Based on the population analysis, commonly co-administered medications had no effect on DUPIXENT pharmacokinetics in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma.

Cytochrome P450 Substrates

The effects of dupilumab on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (metabolized by CYP3A4), warfarin (metabolized by CYP2C9), omeprazole (metabolized by CYP2C19), metoprolol (metabolized by CYP2D6), and caffeine (metabolized by CYP1A2) were evaluated in a study with 12-13 evaluable subjects with atopic dermatitis (a SC loading dose of 600 mg followed by 300 mg SC weekly for six weeks). No clinically significant changes in AUC were observed. The largest effect was observed for metoprolol (CYP2D6) with an increase in AUC of 29%.

Clinical Studies

Atopic Dermatitis

Adults With Atopic Dermatitis

Three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (Trials 1, 2, and 3; NCT02277743, 02277769, and 02260986 respectively) enrolled a total of 2119 subjects 18 years of age and older with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) not adequately controlled by topical medication(s). Disease severity was defined by an Investigator’s Global Assessment (IGA) score ≥3 in the overall assessment of AD lesions on a severity scale of 0 to 4, an Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score ≥16 on a scale of 0 to 72, and a minimum body surface area involvement of ≥10%. At baseline, 59% of subjects were male, 67% were white, 52% of subjects had a baseline IGA score of 3 (moderate AD), and 48% of subjects had a baseline IGA of 4 (severe AD). The baseline mean EASI score was 33 and the baseline weekly averaged Peak Pruritus Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was 7 on a scale of 0-10.

In all three trials, subjects in the DUPIXENT group received subcutaneous injections of DUPIXENT 600 mg at Week 0, followed by 300 mg every other week (Q2W). In the monotherapy trials (Trials 1 and 2), subjects received DUPIXENT or placebo for 16 weeks.

In the concomitant therapy trial (Trial 3), subjects received DUPIXENT or placebo with concomitant topical corticosteroids (TCS) and as needed topical calcineurin inhibitors for problem areas only, such as the face, neck, intertriginous and genital areas for 52 weeks.

All three trials assessed the primary endpoint, the change from baseline to Week 16 in the proportion of subjects with an IGA 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear) and at least a 2-point improvement. Other endpoints included the proportion of subjects with EASI-75 (improvement of at least 75% in EASI score from baseline), and reduction in itch as defined by at least a 4- point improvement in the Peak Pruritus NRS from baseline to Week 16.

Clinical Response At Week 16 (Trials 1, 2, And 3)

The results of the DUPIXENT monotherapy trials (Trials 1 and 2) and the DUPIXENT with concomitant TCS trial (Trial 3) are presented in Table 5.

Table 5: Efficacy Results of DUPIXENT With or Without Concomitant TCS at Week 16 (FAS)

Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W
PlaceboDUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W
PlaceboDUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W + TCS
Placebo + TCS
Number of subjects randomized (FAS)a224224233236106315
  IGA 0 or 1b,c38%10%36%9%39%12%
  EASI-75c51%15%44%12%69%23%
  EASI-90c36%8%30%7%40%11%
Number of subjects with baseline Peak Pruritus NRS score ≥4213212225221102299
  Peak Pruritus NRS
(≥4-point improvement)c
41%12%36%10%59%20%
a Full Analysis Set (FAS) includes all subjects randomized.
b Responder was defined as a subject with an IGA 0 or 1 (“clear” or “almost clear”) and a reduction of ≥2 points on a 0-4 IGA scale.
c Subjects who received rescue treatment or with missing data were considered as non-responders.

Figure 1: Proportion of Subjects with ≥4-point Improvement on the Peak Pruritus NRS in Trial 1a and Trial 2a Studies (FAS)b

Proportion of Subjects with =4-point Improvement on the Peak Pruritus NRS in Trial 1a and Trial 2a Studies (FAS)b - Illustration
a In the primary analyses of the efficacy endpoints, subjects who received rescue treatment or with missing data were considered non-responders.
b Full Analysis Set (FAS) includes all subjects randomized.

In Trial 3, of the 421 subjects, 353 had been on study for 52 weeks at the time of data analysis. Of these 353 subjects, responders at Week 52 represent a mixture of subjects who maintained their efficacy from Week 16 (e.g., 53% of DUPIXENT IGA 0 or 1 responders at Week 16 remained responders at Week 52) and subjects who were non-responders at Week 16 who later responded to treatment (e.g., 24% of DUPIXENT IGA 0 or 1 non-responders at Week 16 became responders at Week 52). Results of supportive analyses of the 353 subjects in the DUPIXENT with concomitant TCS trial (Trial 3) are presented in Table 6.

Table 6: Efficacy Results (IGA 0 or 1) of DUPIXENT with Concomitant TCS at Week 16 and 52

DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W + TCS
Placebo + TCS
Number of Subjectsa89264
Responderb,c at Week 16 and 5222%7%
Responder at Week 16 but Non-responder at Week 5220%7%
Non-responder at Week 16 and Responder at Week 5213%6%
Non-responder at Week 16 and 5244%80%
Overall Responderb,c Rate at Week 5236%13%
a In Trial 3, of the 421 randomized and treated subjects, 68 subjects (16%) had not been on study for 52 weeks at the time of data analysis.
b Responder was defined as a subject with an IGA 0 or 1 (“clear” or “almost clear”) and a reduction of ≥2 points on a 0-4 IGA scale.
c Subjects who received rescue treatment or with missing data were considered as non-responders.

Treatment effects in subgroups (weight, age, gender, race, and prior treatment, including immunosuppressants) in Trials 1, 2, and 3 were generally consistent with the results in the overall study population.

In Trials 1, 2, and 3, a third randomized treatment arm of DUPIXENT 300 mg QW did not demonstrate additional treatment benefit over DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W.

Subjects in Trials 1 and 2 who had an IGA 0 or 1 with a reduction of ≥2 points were rerandomized into Trial 5. Trial 5 evaluated multiple DUPIXENT monotherapy dose regimens for maintaining treatment response. The study included subjects randomized to continue with DUPIXENT 300 mg Q2W (62 subjects) or switch to placebo (31 subjects) for 36 weeks. IGA 0 or 1 responses at Week 36 were as follows: 33 (53%) in the Q2W group and 3 (10%) in the placebo group.

Adolescents With Atopic Dermatitis (12 To 17 Years Of Age)

The efficacy and safety of DUPIXENT monotherapy in adolescent subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Trial 6; NCT03054428) in 251 adolescent subjects 12 to 17 years of age, with moderate-to-severe AD defined by an IGA score ≥3 (scale of 0 to 4), an EASI score ≥16 (scale of 0 to 72), and a minimum BSA involvement of ≥10%. Eligible subjects enrolled into this trial had previous inadequate response to topical medication.

Subjects in the DUPIXENT group with baseline weight of <60 kg received an initial dose of 400 mg at Week 0, followed by 200 mg Q2W for 16 weeks. Subjects with baseline weight of ≥60 kg received an initial dose of 600 mg at Week 0, followed by 300 mg Q2W for 16 weeks. Subjects were permitted to receive rescue treatment at the discretion of the investigator. Subjects who received rescue treatment were considered non-responders.

In Trial 6, the mean age was 14.5 years, the median weight was 59.4 kg, 41% of subjects were female, 63% were White, 15% were Asian, and 12% were Black. At baseline 46% of subjects had an IGA score of 3 (moderate AD), 54% had an IGA score of 4 (severe AD), the mean BSA involvement was 57%, and 42% had received prior systemic immunosuppressants. Also, at baseline the mean EASI score was 36, and the weekly averaged Peak Pruritus NRS was 8 on a scale of 0-10. Overall, 92% of subjects had at least one co-morbid allergic condition; 66% had allergic rhinitis, 54% had asthma, and 61% had food allergies.

The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects with an IGA 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear) and at least a 2-point improvement from baseline to Week 16. Other evaluated outcomes included the proportion of subjects with EASI-75 or EASI-90 (improvement of at least 75% or 90% in EASI from baseline, respectively), and reduction in itch as measured by the Peak Pruritus NRS (≥4-point improvement).

The efficacy results at Week 16 for Trial 6 are presented in Table 7.

Table 7: Efficacy Results of DUPIXENT in Trial 6 at Week 16 (FAS)a

DUPIXENTd
200 mg (<60 kg) or 300 mg (≥60 kg) Q2W
N=82a
Placebo
N=85a
IGA 0 or 1b,c24%2%
EASI-75c42%8%
EASI-90c23%2%
Peak Pruritus NRS (≥4-point improvement)c37%5%
a Full Analysis Set (FAS) includes all subjects randomized.
b Responder was defined as a subject with an IGA 0 or 1 (“clear” or “almost clear”) and a reduction of ≥2 points on a 0-4 IGA scale.
c Subjects who received rescue treatment or with missing data were considered as non-responders (59% and 21% in the placebo and DUPIXENT arms, respectively).
d At Week 0, subjects received 400 mg (baseline weight <60 kg) or 600 mg (baseline weight ≥60 kg) of DUPIXENT.

A greater proportion of subjects randomized to DUPIXENT achieved an improvement in the Peak Pruritus NRS compared to placebo (defined as ≥4-point improvement at Week 4). See Figure 2.

Figure 2: Proportion of Adolescent Subjects with ≥4-point Improvement on the Peak Pruritus NRS in Trial 6a (FAS)b

Proportion of Adolescent Subjects with =4-point Improvement on the Peak Pruritus NRS in Trial 6a (FAS)b - Illustration
a In the primary analyses of the efficacy endpoints, subjects who received rescue treatment or with missing data were considered non-responders.
b Full Analysis Set (FAS) includes all subjects randomized.

Children With Atopic Dermatitis (6 To 11 Years Of Age)

The efficacy and safety of DUPIXENT use concomitantly with TCS in pediatric subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Trial 8; NCT03345914) in 367 subjects 6 to 11 years of age, with AD defined by an IGA score of 4 (scale of 0 to 4), an EASI score ≥21 (scale of 0 to 72), and a minimum BSA involvement of ≥15%. Eligible subjects enrolled into this trial had previous inadequate response to topical medication. Enrollment was stratified by baseline weight (<30 kg; ≥30 kg).

Subjects in the DUPIXENT Q4W + TCS group received an initial dose of 600 mg on Day 1, followed by 300 mg Q4W from Week 4 to Week 12, regardless of weight. Subjects in the DUPIXENT Q2W + TCS group with baseline weight of <30 kg received an initial dose of 200 mg on Day 1, followed by 100 mg Q2W from Week 2 to Week 14, and subjects with baseline weight of ≥30 kg received an initial dose of 400 mg on Day 1, followed by 200 mg Q2W from Week 2 to Week 14. Subjects were permitted to receive rescue treatment at the discretion of the investigator. Subjects who received rescue treatment were considered non-responders.

In Trial 8, the mean age was 8.5 years, the median weight was 29.8 kg, 50% of subjects were female, 69% were White, 17% were Black, and 8% were Asian. At baseline, the mean BSA involvement was 58%, and 17% had received prior systemic non-steroidal immunosuppressants. Also, at baseline the mean EASI score was 37.9, and the weekly average of daily worst itch score was 7.8 on a scale of 0-10. Overall, 92% of subjects had at least one co-morbid allergic condition; 64% had food allergies, 63% had other allergies, 60% had allergic rhinitis, and 47% had asthma.

The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects with an IGA 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear) at Week 16. Other evaluated outcomes included the proportion of subjects with EASI-75 or EASI- 90 (improvement of at least 75% or 90% in EASI from baseline, respectively), and reduction in itch as measured by the Peak Pruritus NRS (≥4-point improvement).

Table 8 presents the results by baseline weight strata for the approved dose regimens.

Table 8: Efficacy Results of DUPIXENT with Concomitant TCS in Trial 8 at Week 16 (FAS)a

DUPIXENT
300 mg Q4Wd
+ TCS
(N=61)
Placebo
+ TCS
(N=61)
DUPIXENT
200 mg Q2We
+ TCS
(N=59)
Placebo
+ TCS
(N=62)
<30 kg<30 kg≥30 kg≥30 kg
IGA 0 or 1b,c30%13%39%10%
EASI-75c75%28%75%26%
EASI-90c46%7%36%8%
Peak Pruritus NRS (≥4-point improvement)c54%12%61%13%
a Full Analysis Set (FAS) includes all subjects randomized.
b Responder was defined as a subject with an IGA 0 or 1 (“clear” or “almost clear”).
c Subjects who received rescue treatment or with missing data were considered as non-responders.
d At Day 1, subjects received 600 mg of DUPIXENT.
e At Day 1, subjects received 200 mg (baseline weight <30 kg) or 400 mg (baseline weight ≥30 kg) of DUPIXENT.

A greater proportion of subjects randomized to DUPIXENT + TCS achieved an improvement in the Peak Pruritus NRS compared to placebo + TCS (defined as ≥4-point improvement at Week 16). See Figure 3.

Figure 3: Proportion of Pediatric Subjects with ≥4-point Improvement on the Peak Pruritus NRS at Week 16 in Trial 8a (FAS)b

Proportion of Pediatric Subjects with =4-point Improvement on the Peak Pruritus NRS at Week 16 in Trial 8a (FAS)b - Illustration
a In the primary analyses of the efficacy endpoints, subjects who received rescue treatment or with missing data were considered non-responders.
b Full Analysis Set (FAS) includes all subjects randomized.

Asthma

The asthma development program included three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-center trials (AS Trials 1, 2, and 3) of 24 to 52 weeks in treatment duration which enrolled a total of 2888 subjects (12 years of age and older). Subjects enrolled in AS Trials 1 and 2 were required to have a history of 1 or more asthma exacerbations that required treatment with systemic corticosteroids or emergency department visit or hospitalization for the treatment of asthma in the year prior to trial entry. Subjects enrolled in AS Trial 3 required dependence on daily oral corticosteroids in addition to regular use of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus an additional controller(s). In all 3 trials, subjects were enrolled without requiring a minimum baseline blood eosinophil count. In AS Trials 2 and 3 subjects with screening blood eosinophil level of >1500 cells/mcL (<1.3%) were excluded. DUPIXENT was administered as add-on to background asthma treatment. Subjects continued background asthma therapy throughout the duration of the studies, except in AS Trial 3 in which OCS dose was tapered as described below.

AS Trial 1

AS Trial 1 was a 24-week dose-ranging study which included 776 subjects (18 years of age and older). DUPIXENT compared with placebo was evaluated in adult subjects with moderate-tosevere asthma on a medium or high-dose inhaled corticosteroid and a long acting beta agonist. Subjects were randomized to receive either 200 mg (N=150) or 300 mg (N=157) DUPIXENT every other week (Q2W) or 200 mg (N=154) or 300 mg (N=157) DUPIXENT every 4 weeks following an initial dose of 400 mg, 600 mg or placebo (N=158), respectively. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to Week 12 in FEV1 (L) in subjects with baseline blood eosinophils ≥300 cells/mcL. Other endpoints included percent change from baseline in FEV1 and annualized rate of severe asthma exacerbation events during the 24-week placebo controlled treatment period. Results were evaluated in the overall population and subgroups based on baseline blood eosinophil count (≥300 cells/mcL and <300 cells/mcL). Additional secondary endpoints included responder rates in the patient reported Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ- 5) and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, Standardized Version (AQLQ(S)) scores.

AS Trial 2

AS Trial 2 was a 52-week study which included 1902 subjects (12 years of age and older). DUPIXENT compared with placebo was evaluated in 107 adolescent and 1795 adult subjects with moderate-to-severe asthma on a medium or high-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a minimum of one and up to two additional controller medications. Subjects were randomized to receive either 200 mg (N=631) or 300 mg (N=633) DUPIXENT Q2W (or matching placebo for either 200 mg [N=317] or 300 mg [N=321] Q2W) following an initial dose of 400 mg, 600 mg or placebo respectively. The primary endpoints were the annualized rate of severe exacerbation events during the 52-week placebo controlled period and change from baseline in prebronchodilator FEV1 at Week 12 in the overall population (unrestricted by minimum baseline blood eosinophils count). Additional secondary endpoints included annualized severe exacerbation rates and FEV1 in patients with different baseline levels of blood eosinophils as well as responder rates in the ACQ-5 and AQLQ(S) scores.

AS Trial 3

AS Trial 3 was a 24-week oral corticosteroid-reduction study in 210 subjects with asthma who required daily oral corticosteroids in addition to regular use of high dose inhaled corticosteroids plus an additional controller. After optimizing the OCS dose during the screening period, subjects received 300 mg DUPIXENT (N=103) or placebo (N=107) once Q2W for 24 weeks following an initial dose of 600 mg or placebo. Subjects continued to receive their existing asthma medicine during the study; however, their OCS dose was reduced every 4 weeks during the OCS reduction phase (Week 4-20), as long as asthma control was maintained. The primary endpoint was the percent reduction of oral corticosteroid dose at Weeks 20 to 24 compared with the baseline dose, while maintaining asthma control in the overall population (unrestricted by minimum baseline blood eosinophils count). Additional secondary endpoints included the annualized rate of severe exacerbation events during treatment period and responder rate in the ACQ-5 and AQLQ(S) scores.

The demographics and baseline characteristics of these 3 trials are provided in Table 9 below.

Table 9: Demographics and Baseline Characteristics of Asthma Trials

ParameterTrial 1
(N=776)
Trial 2
(N=1902)
Trial 3
(N=210)
Mean age (years) (SD)49 (13)48 (15)51 (13)
% Female636361
% White788394
Duration of Asthma (years), mean (± SD)22 (15)21 (15)20 (14)
Never smoked (%)778181
Mean exacerbations in previous year (± SD)2.2 (2.1)2.1 (2.2)2.1 (2.2)
High dose ICS use (%)505289
Pre-dose FEV1 (L) at baseline (± SD)1.84 (0.54)1.78 (0.60)1.58 (0.57)
Mean percent predicted FEV1 at baseline (%) (± SD)61 (11)58 (14)52 (15)
% Reversibility (± SD)27 (15)26 (22)19 (23)
Atopic Medical History % Overall (AD %, NP %, AR %)73
(8, 11, 62)
78
(10, 13, 69)
72
(8, 21, 56)
Mean FeNO ppb (± SD)39 (35)35 (33)38 (31)
Mean total IgE IU/mL (± SD)435 (754)432 (747)431 (776)
Mean baseline blood Eosinophil count (± SD) cells/mcL350 (430)360 (370)350 (310)
ICS = inhaled corticosteroid; FEV1 = Forced expiratory volume in 1 second; AD = atopic dermatitis; NP = nasal polyposis; AR = allergic rhinitis; FeNO = fraction of exhaled nitric oxide

Exacerbations

AS Trials 1 and 2 evaluated the frequency of severe asthma exacerbations defined as deterioration of asthma requiring the use of systemic corticosteroids for at least 3 days or hospitalization or emergency room visit due to asthma that required systemic corticosteroids. In the primary analysis population (subjects with baseline blood eosinophil count of ≥300 cells/mcL in AS Trial 1 and the overall population in AS Trial 2), subjects receiving either DUPIXENT 200 mg or 300 mg Q2W had significant reductions in the rate of asthma exacerbations compared to placebo. In the overall population in AS Trial 2, the rate of severe exacerbations was 0.46 and 0.52 for DUPIXENT 200 mg Q2W and 300 mg Q2W, respectively, compared to matched placebo rates of 0.87 and 0.97. The rate ratio of severe exacerbations compared to placebo was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.66) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.68) for DUPIXENT 200 mg Q2W and 300 mg Q2W, respectively. Results in subjects with baseline blood eosinophil counts ≥300 cells/mcL in AS Trials 1 and 2 are shown in Table 10.

Response rates by baseline blood eosinophils for AS Trial 2 are shown in Figure 4. Pre-specified subgroup analyses of AS Trials 1 and 2 demonstrated that there were greater reductions in severe exacerbations in subjects with higher baseline blood eosinophil levels. In AS Trial 2, reductions in exacerbations were significant in the subgroup of subjects with baseline blood eosinophils ≥150 cells/mcL. In subjects with baseline blood eosinophil count <150 cells/mcL, similar severe exacerbation rates were observed between DUPIXENT and placebo.

In AS Trial 2, the estimated rate ratio of exacerbations leading to hospitalizations and/or emergency room visits versus placebo was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.28, 1.03) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.32, 1.70) with DUPIXENT 200 mg or 300 mg Q2W, respectively.

Table 10: Rate of Severe Exacerbations in AS Trials 1 and 2

TrialTreatmentBaseline Blood EOS ≥300 cells/mcL
(primary analysis population, Trial 1)
NRate
(95% CI)
Rate Ratio
(95% CI)
AS Trial 1DUPIXENT
200 mg Q2W
650.30
(0.13, 0.68)
0.29
(0.11, 0.76)
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W
640.20
(0.08, 0.52)
0.19
(0.07, 0.56)
Placebo681.04
(0.57, 1.90)
AS Trial 2DUPIXENT
200 mg Q2W
2640.37
(0.29, 0.48)
0.34
(0.24, 0.48)
Placebo1481.08
(0.85, 1.38)
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W
2770.40
(0.32, 0.51)
0.33
(0.23, 0.45)
Placebo1421.24
(0.97, 1.57)

Figure 4: Relative Risk in Annualized Event Rate of Severe Exacerbations across Baseline Blood Eosinophil Count (cells/mcL) in AS Trial 2

Relative Risk in Annualized Event Rate of Severe Exacerbations across Baseline Blood Eosinophil Count (cells/mcL) in AS Trial 2 - Illustration

The time to first exacerbation was longer for the subjects receiving DUPIXENT compared to placebo in AS Trial 2 (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Kaplan Meier Incidence Curve for Time to First Severe Exacerbation in Subjects with Baseline Blood Eosinophils ≥300 cells/mcL (AS Trial 2)a

Kaplan Meier Incidence Curve for Time to First Severe Exacerbation in Subjects with Baseline Blood Eosinophils =300 cells/mcL (AS Trial 2)a - Illustration
a At the time of the database lock, not all patients had completed Week 52

Lung Function

Significant increases in pre-bronchodilator FEV1 were observed at Week 12 for AS Trials 1 and 2 in the primary analysis populations (subjects with baseline blood eosinophil count of ≥300 cells/mcL in AS Trial 1 and the overall population in AS Trial 2). In the overall population in AS Trial 2, the FEV1 LS mean change from baseline was 0.32 L (21%) and 0.34 L (23%) for DUPIXENT 200 mg Q2W and 300 mg Q2W, respectively, compared to matched placebo means of 0.18 L (12%) and 0.21 L (14%). The mean treatment difference versus placebo was 0.14 L (95% CI: 0.08, 0.19) and 0.13 L (95% CI: 0.08, 0.18) for DUPIXENT 200 mg Q2W and 300 mg Q2W, respectively. Results in subjects with baseline blood eosinophil counts ≥300 cells/mcL in AS Trials 1 and 2 are shown in Table 11.

Improvements in FEV1 by baseline blood eosinophils for AS Trial 2 are shown in Figure 6. Subgroup analysis of AS Trials 1 and 2 demonstrated greater improvement in subjects with higher baseline blood eosinophils.

Table 11: Mean Change from Baseline and vs Placebo in Pre-Bronchodilator FEV1 at Week 12 in AS Trials 1 and 2

TrialTreatmentBaseline Blood EOS ≥300 cells/mcL
(primary analysis population, Trial 1)
NLS Mean Change from baseline
L (%)
LS Mean Difference vs. placebo
(95% CI)
AS Trial 1DUPIXENT
200 mg Q2W
650.43 (25.9)0.26
(0.11, 0.40)
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W
640.39 (25.8)0.21
(0.06, 0.36)
Placebo680.18 (10.2)
AS Trial 2DUPIXENT
200 mg Q2W
2640.43 (29.0)0.21
(0.13, 0.29)
Placebo1480.21 (15.6)
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W
2770.47 (32.5)0.24
(0.16, 0.32)
Placebo1420.22 (14.4)

Figure 6: LS Mean Difference in Change from Baseline vs Placebo to Week 12 in Pre-Bronchodilator FEV1 across Baseline Blood Eosinophil Counts (cells/mcL) in AS Trial 2

LS Mean Difference in Change from Baseline vs Placebo to Week 12 in Pre-Bronchodilator FEV1 across Baseline Blood Eosinophil Counts (cells/mcL) in AS Trial 2 - Illustration

Mean changes in FEV1 over time in AS Trial 2 are shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Mean Change from Baseline in Pre-Bronchodilator FEV1 (L) Over Time in Subjects with Baseline Blood Eosinophils ≥300 cells/mcL (AS Trial 2)

Mean Change from Baseline in Pre-Bronchodilator FEV1 (L) Over Time in Subjects with Baseline Blood Eosinophils =300 cells/mcL (AS Trial 2) - Illustration

Additional Secondary Endpoints

ACQ-5 and AQLQ(S) were assessed in AS Trial 2 at 52 weeks. The responder rate was defined as an improvement in score of 0.5 or more (scale range 0-6 for ACQ-5 and 1-7 for AQLQ(S)).

  • The ACQ-5 responder rate for DUPIXENT 200 mg and 300 mg Q2W in the overall population was 69% vs 62% placebo (odds ratio 1.37; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.86) and 69% vs 63% placebo (odds ratio 1.28; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.73), respectively; and the AQLQ(S) responder rates were 62% vs 54% placebo (odds ratio 1.61; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.21) and 62% vs 57% placebo (odds ratio 1.33; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.81), respectively.
  • The ACQ-5 responder rate for DUPIXENT 200 mg and 300 mg Q2W in subjects with baseline blood eosinophils ≥300 cells/mcL was 75% vs 67% placebo (odds ratio: 1.46; 95% CI: 0.90, 2.35) and 71% vs 64% placebo (odds ratio: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.88, 2.19), respectively; and the AQLQ(S) responder rates were 71% vs 55% placebo (odds ratio: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.24, 3.32) and 65% vs 55% placebo (odds ratio: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.85), respectively.
Oral Corticosteroid Reduction (AS Trial 3)

AS Trial 3 evaluated the effect of DUPIXENT on reducing the use of maintenance oral corticosteroids. The baseline mean oral corticosteroid dose was 12 mg in the placebo group and 11 mg in the group receiving DUPIXENT. The primary endpoint was the percent reduction from baseline of the final oral corticosteroid dose at Week 24 while maintaining asthma control.

Compared with placebo, subjects receiving DUPIXENT achieved greater reductions in daily maintenance oral corticosteroid dose, while maintaining asthma control. The mean percent reduction in daily OCS dose from baseline was 70% (median 100%) in subjects receiving DUPIXENT (95% CI: 60%, 80%) compared to 42% (median 50%) in subjects receiving placebo (95% CI: 33%, 51%). Reductions of 50% or higher in the OCS dose were observed in 82 (80%) subjects receiving DUPIXENT compared to 57 (53%) in those receiving placebo. The proportion of subjects with a mean final dose less than 5 mg at Weeks 24 was 72% for DUPIXENT and 37% for placebo (odds ratio 4.48 95% CI: 2.39, 8.39). A total of 54 (52%) subjects receiving DUPIXENT versus 31 (29%) subjects in the placebo group had a 100% reduction in their OCS dose.

In this 24-week trial, asthma exacerbations (defined as a temporary increase in oral corticosteroid dose for at least 3 days) were lower in subjects receiving DUPIXENT compared with those receiving placebo (annualized rate 0.65 and 1.60 for the DUPIXENT and placebo group, respectively; rate ratio 0.41 [95% CI 0.26, 0.63]) and improvement in pre-bronchodilator FEV1 from baseline to Week 24 was greater in subjects receiving DUPIXENT compared with those receiving placebo (LS mean difference for DUPIXENT versus placebo of 0.22 L [95% CI: 0.09 to 0.34 L]). Effects on lung function and on oral steroid and exacerbation reduction were similar irrespective of baseline blood eosinophil levels. The ACQ-5 and AQLQ(S) were also assessed in AS Trial 3 and showed improvements similar to those in AS Trial 2.

Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyposis

The chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) development program included two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, placebo-controlled studies (CSNP Trial 1 and CSNP Trial 2) in 724 subjects aged 18 years and older on background intranasal corticosteroids (INCS). These studies included subjects with CRSwNP despite prior sino-nasal surgery or treatment with, or who were ineligible to receive or were intolerant to, systemic corticosteroids in the past 2 years. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis were not included in these trials. Rescue with systemic corticosteroids or surgery was allowed during the studies at the investigator’s discretion. In CSNP Trial 1, a total of 276 subjects were randomized to receive either 300 mg DUPIXENT (N=143) or placebo (N=133) every other week for 24 weeks. In CSNP Trial 2, 448 subjects were randomized to receive either 300 mg DUPIXENT (N=150) every other week for 52 weeks, 300 mg DUPIXENT (N=145) every other week until week 24 followed by 300 mg DUPIXENT every 4 weeks until week 52, or placebo (N=153). All subjects had evidence of sinus opacification on the Lund Mackay (LMK) sinus CT scan and 73% to 90% of subjects had opacification of all sinuses. Subjects were stratified based on their histories of prior surgery and co-morbid asthma/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug exacerbated respiratory disease (NSAID-ERD).A total of 63% of subjects reported previous sinus surgery, with a mean number of 2.0 prior surgeries, 74% used systemic corticosteroids in the previous 2 years with a mean number of 1.6 systemic corticosteroid courses in the previous 2 years, 59% had co-morbid asthma, and 28% had NSAID-ERD.

The co-primary efficacy endpoints were change from baseline to Week 24 in bilateral endoscopic nasal polyps score (NPS; 0-8 scale) as graded by central blinded readers, and change from baseline to Week 24 in nasal congestion/obstruction score averaged over 28 days (NC; 0-3 scale), as determined by subjects using a daily diary. For NPS, polyps on each side of the nose were graded on a categorical scale (0=no polyps; 1=small polyps in the middle meatus not reaching below the inferior border of the middle turbinate; 2=polyps reaching below the lower border of the middle turbinate; 3=large polyps reaching the lower border of the inferior turbinate or polyps medial to the middle turbinate; 4=large polyps causing complete obstruction of the inferior nasal cavity). The total score was the sum of the right and left scores. Nasal congestion was rated daily by the subjects on a 0 to 3 categorical severity scale (0=no symptoms; 1=mild symptoms; 2=moderate symptoms; 3=severe symptoms).

In both studies, key secondary end-points at Week 24 included change from baseline in: LMK sinus CT scan score, daily loss of smell, and 22-item sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT-22). The LMK sinus CT scan score evaluated the opacification of each sinus using a 0 to 2 scale (0=normal; 1=partial opacification; 2=total opacification) deriving a maximum score of 12 per side and a total maximum score of 24 (higher scores indicate more opacification). Loss of smell was scored reflectively by the patient every morning on a 0-3 scale (0=no symptoms, 1=mild symptoms, 2=moderate symptoms, 3=severe symptoms). SNOT-22 includes 22 items assessing symptoms and symptom impact associated with CRSwNP with each item scored from 0 (no problem) to 5 (problem as bad as it can be) with a global score ranging from 0 to 110. SNOT-22 had a 2 week recall period. In the pooled efficacy results, the reduction in the proportion of subjects rescued with systemic corticosteroids and/or sino-nasal surgery (up to Week 52) were evaluated.

The demographics and baseline characteristics of these 2 trials are provided in Table 12 below.

Table 12: Demographics and Baseline Characteristics of CRSwNP Trials

ParameterCSNP
Trial 1
(N=276)
CSNP
Trial 2
(N=448)
Mean age (years) (SD)50 (13)52 (12)
% Male5762
Mean CRSwNP duration (years) (SD)11 (9)11 (10)
Patients with ≥ 1 prior surgery (%)7258
Patients with systemic corticosteroid use in the previous 2 years (%)6580
Mean Bilateral endoscopic NPSa (SD), range 0-85.8 (1.3)6.1 (1.2)
Mean Nasal congestion (NC) scorea (SD), range 0-32.4 (0.6)2.4 (0.6)
Mean LMK sinus CT total scorea (SD), range 0-2419 (4.4)18 (3.8)
Mean loss of smell scorea (AM), (SD) range 0-32.7 (0.5)2.8 (0.5)
Mean SNOT-22 total scorea (SD), range 0-11049.4 (20.2)51.9 (20.9)
Mean blood eosinophils (cells/mcL) (SD)440 (330)430 (350)
Mean total IgE IU/mL (SD)212 (276)240 (342)
Atopic Medical History
% Overall
75%82%
Asthma (%)5860
NSAID-ERD (%)3027
aHigher scores indicate greater disease severity
SD = standard deviation; AM = morning; NPS = nasal polyps score; SNOT-22 = 22-item sino-nasal outcome test;
NSAID-ERD = asthma/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug exacerbated respiratory disease

Clinical Response (CSNP Trial 1 and CSNP Trial 2)

The results for primary endpoints in CRSwNP studies are presented in Table 13.

Table 13: Results of the Primary Endpoints in CRSwNP Trials

CSNP Trial 1CSNP Trial 2
Placebo
(n=133)
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W
(n=143)
LS mean difference vs.
Placebo
(95% CI)
Placebo
(n=153)
DUPIXENT
300 mg Q2W
(n=295)
LS mean difference vs.
Placebo
(95% CI)
Primary Endpoints at Week 24
ScoresBaseline meanLS mean changeBaseline meanLS mean changeBaseline meanLS mean changeBaseline meanLS mean change
NPS5.860.175.64-1.89-2.06
(-2.43, -1.69)
5.960.106.18-1.71-1.80
(-2.10, -1.51)
NC2.45-0.452.26-1.34-0.89
(-1.07, -0.71)
2.38-0.382.46-1.25-0.87
(-1.03, -0.71)
A reduction in score indicates improvement.
NPS = nasal polyps score; NC = nasal congestion/obstruction

Statistically significant efficacy was observed in CSNP Trial 2 with regard to improvement in bilateral endoscopic NPS score at week 24 and week 52 (see Figure 8).

Figure 8: LS Mean Change from Baseline in Bilateral Nasal Polyps Score (NPS) up to Week 52 in CSNP Trial 2 - ITT Population

LS Mean Change from Baseline in Bilateral Nasal Polyps Score (NPS) up to Week 52 in CSNP Trial 2 - ITT Population - Illustration

Similar results were seen in CSNP Trial 1 at Week 24. In the post-treatment period when subjects were off DUPIXENT, the treatment effect diminished over time (see Figure 9).

Figure 9: LS Mean Change from Baseline in Bilateral Nasal Polyps Score (NPS) up to Week 48 in CSNP Trial 1 - ITT Population

LS Mean Change from Baseline in Bilateral Nasal Polyps Score (NPS) up to Week 48 in CSNP Trial 1 - ITT Population - Illustration

At Week 52, the LS mean difference for nasal congestion in the DUPIXENT group versus placebo was -0.98 (95% CI -1.17, -0.79). In both studies, significant improvements in nasal congestion were observed as early as the first assessment at Week 4. The LS mean difference for nasal congestion at Week 4 in the DUPIXENT group versus placebo was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.30) in CSNP Trial 1 and -0.37 (95% CI: -0.46, -0.27) in CSNP Trial 2.

A significant decrease in the LMK sinus CT scan score was observed. The LS mean difference for LMK sinus CT scan score at Week 24 in the DUPIXENT group versus placebo was -7.44 (95% CI: -8.35, -6.53) in CSNP Trial 1 and -5.13 (95% CI: -5.80, -4.46) in CSNP Trial 2. At Week 52, in CSNP Trial 2 the LS mean difference for LMK sinus CT scan score in the DUPIXENT group versus placebo was -6.94 (95% CI: -7.87, -6.01).

Dupilumab significantly improved the loss of smell compared to placebo. The LS mean difference for loss of smell at Week 24 in the DUPIXENT group versus placebo was -1.12 (95% CI: -1.31, -0.93) in CSNP Trial 1 and -0.98 (95% CI: -1.15, -0.81) in CSNP Trial 2. At Week 52, the LS mean difference for loss of smell in the DUPIXENT group versus placebo was -1.10 (95% CI -1.31, -0.89). In both studies, significant improvements in daily loss of smell severity were observed as early as the first assessment at Week 4.

Dupilumab significantly decreased sino-nasal symptoms as measured by SNOT-22 compared to placebo. The LS mean difference for SNOT-22 at Week 24 in the DUPIXENT group versus placebo was -21.12 (95% CI: -25.17, -17.06) in CSNP Trial 1 and -17.36 (95% CI: -20.87, - 13.85) in CSNP Trial 2. At Week 52, the LS mean difference in the DUPIXENT group versus placebo was -20.96 (95% CI -25.03, -16.89).

In the pre-specified multiplicity-adjusted pooled analysis of two studies, treatment with DUPIXENT resulted in significant reduction of systemic corticosteroid use and need for sino-nasal surgery versus placebo (HR of 0.24; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.35) (see Figure 10). The proportion of subjects who required systemic corticosteroids was reduced by 74% (HR of 0.26; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.38). The total number of systemic corticosteroid courses per year was reduced by 75% (RR of 0.25; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.37). The proportion of subjects who required surgery was reduced by 83% (HR of 0.17; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.46).

Figure 10: Kaplan Meier Curve for Time to First Systemic Corticosteroid Use and/or Sino-Nasal Surgery During Treatment Period - ITT population CSNP Trial 1 and CSNP Trial 2 Pooled

Kaplan Meier Curve for Time to First Systemic Corticosteroid Use and/or Sino-Nasal Surgery During Treatment Period - ITT population CSNP Trial 1 and CSNP Trial 2 Pooled - Illustration

The effects of DUPIXENT on the primary endpoints of NPS and nasal congestion and the key secondary endpoint of LMK sinus CT scan score were consistent in patients with prior surgery and without prior surgery.

In subjects with co-morbid asthma, improvements in pre-bronchodilator FEV1 were similar to patients in the asthma program.

Medication Guide

PATIENT INFORMATION

DUPIXENT®
(DU-pix-ent)
(dupilumab) injection, for subcutaneous use

What is DUPIXENT?

DUPIXENT is a prescription medicine used:

    • to treat people aged 6 years and older with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (eczema) that is not well controlled with prescription therapies used on the skin (topical), or who cannot use topical therapies. DUPIXENT can be used with or without topical corticosteroids.
    • with other asthma medicines for the maintenance treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma in people aged 12 years and older whose asthma is not controlled with their current asthma medicines. DUPIXENT helps prevent severe asthma attacks (exacerbations) and can improve your breathing. DUPIXENT may also help reduce the amount of oral corticosteroids you need while preventing severe asthma attacks and improving your breathing.
    • with other medicines for the maintenance treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) in adults whose disease is not controlled.
  • DUPIXENT is not used to treat sudden breathing problems.
  • DUPIXENT works by blocking two proteins that contribute to a type of inflammation that plays a major role in atopic dermatitis, asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis.
  • It is not known if DUPIXENT is safe and effective in children with atopic dermatitis under 6 years of age.
  • It is not known if DUPIXENT is safe and effective in children with asthma under 12 years of age.
  • It is not known if DUPIXENT is safe and effective in children with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis under 18 years of age.

Do not use DUPIXENT if you are allergic to dupilumab or to any of the ingredients in DUPIXENT. See the end of this leaflet for a complete list of ingredients in DUPIXENT.

Before using DUPIXENT, tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:

Pregnancy Exposure Registry. There is a pregnancy exposure registry for women who take DUPIXENT during pregnancy.

The purpose of this registry is to collect information about the health of you and your baby. Your healthcare provider can enroll you in this registry. You may also enroll yourself or get more information about the registry by calling 1-877-311-8972 or going to https://mothertobaby.org/ongoing-study/dupixent/.

  • have eye problems
  • have a parasitic (helminth) infection
  • are scheduled to receive any vaccinations. You should not receive a “live vaccine” if you are treated with DUPIXENT.
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known whether DUPIXENT will harm your unborn baby.
  • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known whether DUPIXENT passes into your breast milk.

Tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

Especially tell your healthcare provider if you:

  • are taking oral, topical, or inhaled corticosteroid medicines
  • have asthma and use an asthma medicine
  • have atopic dermatitis or CRSwNP, and also have asthma

Do not change or stop your corticosteroid medicine or other asthma medicine without talking to your healthcare provider. This may cause other symptoms that were controlled by the corticosteroid medicine or other asthma medicine to come back.

How should I use DUPIXENT?

  • See the detailed “Instructions for Use” that comes with DUPIXENT for information on how to prepare and inject DUPIXENT and how to properly store and throw away (dispose of) used DUPIXENT pre-filled syringes and pre-filled pens.
  • Use DUPIXENT exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider.
  • Your healthcare provider will tell you how much DUPIXENT to inject and how often to inject it.
  • DUPIXENT comes as a single-dose pre-filled syringe with needle shield or as a pre-filled pen.
  • DUPIXENT is given as an injection under the skin (subcutaneous injection).
  • If your healthcare provider decides that you or a caregiver can give the injections of DUPIXENT, you or your caregiver should receive training on the right way to prepare and inject DUPIXENT. Do not try to inject DUPIXENT until you have been shown the right way by your healthcare provider. In children 12 years of age and older, it is recommended that DUPIXENT be given by or under the supervision of an adult. In children younger than 12 years of age, DUPIXENT should be given by a caregiver.
  • If your dose schedule is every other week and you miss a dose of DUPIXENT: Give the DUPIXENT injection within 7 days from the missed dose, then continue with your original schedule. If the missed dose is not given within 7 days, wait until the next scheduled dose to give your DUPIXENT injection.
  • If your dose schedule is every 4 weeks and you miss a dose of DUPIXENT: Give the DUPIXENT injection within 7 days from the missed dose, then continue with your original schedule. If the missed dose is not given within 7 days, start a new every 4 week dose schedule from the time you remember to take your DUPIXENT injection.
  • If you inject more DUPIXENT than prescribed, call your healthcare provider right away.
  • Your healthcare provider may prescribe other medicines to use with DUPIXENT. Use the other prescribed medicines exactly as your healthcare provider tells you to.

What are the possible side effects of DUPIXENT?

DUPIXENT can cause serious side effects, including:

  • Allergic reactions (hypersensitivity), including a severe reaction known as anaphylaxis. Stop using DUPIXENT and tell your healthcare provider or get emergency help right away if you get any of the following symptoms:
    • breathing problems
    • fever
    • general ill feeling
    • swollen lymph nodes
    • swelling of the face, mouth, and tongue
    • hives
    • itching
    • fainting, dizziness, feeling lightheaded (low blood pressure)
    • joint pain
    • skin rash
  • Eye problems. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any new or worsening eye problems, including eye pain or changes in vision.
  • Inflammation of your blood vessels. Rarely, this can happen in people with asthma who receive DUPIXENT. This may happen in people who also take a steroid medicine by mouth that is being stopped or the dose is being lowered. It is not known whether this is caused by DUPIXENT. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have:
    • rash
    • shortness of breath
    • persistent fever
    • chest pain
    • a feeling of pins and needles or numbness of your arms or legs

The most common side effects of DUPIXENT include:

  • injection site reactions
  • eye and eyelid inflammation, including redness, swelling, and itching
  • pain in the throat (oropharyngeal pain)
  • cold sores in your mouth or on your lips
  • high count of a certain white blood cell (eosinophilia)
  • trouble sleeping (insomnia)
  • toothache
  • gastritis
  • joint pain (arthralgia)

Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.

These are not all of the possible side effects of DUPIXENT.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

General information about the safe and effective use of DUPIXENT.

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Patient Information leaflet. Do not use DUPIXENT for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give DUPIXENT to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about DUPIXENT that is written for health professionals.

What are the ingredients in DUPIXENT?

Active ingredient: dupilumab

Inactive ingredients: L-arginine hydrochloride, L-histidine, polysorbate 80, sodium acetate, sucrose, and water for injection.

Instructions for Use

DUPIXENT®
(DU-pix-ent)
(dupilumab)
injection, for subcutaneous use
Single-Dose Pre-filled Pen (300 mg/2 mL)

This “Instructions for Use” contains information on how to inject DUPIXENT.

Read this Instructions for Use before using the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen. Do not inject yourself or someone else until you have been shown how to inject DUPIXENT. Your healthcare provider can show you or your caregiver how to prepare and inject a dose of DUPIXENT before you try to do it yourself for the first time. Keep this Instructions for Use. Call your healthcare provider if you have any questions.

This DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen is only for use in adults and children aged 12 years and older.

This DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen is a single-dose device. It contains 300 mg of DUPIXENT for injection under the skin (subcutaneous injection).

The parts of the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen are shown below:

The parts of the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen are shown below: - Illustration

Important Information

  • Read all of the instructions carefully before using the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen.
  • Ask your healthcare provider how often you will need to inject the medicine.
  • In adolescents 12 years of age and older, it is recommended that DUPIXENT be administered by or under supervision of an adult.
  • Choose a different injection site for each injection.
  • Do not press or touch the Yellow Needle Cover with your fingers.
  • Do not inject through clothes.
  • Do not remove the Green Cap until just before you give the injection.
  • Do not try to put the Green Cap back on the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen.
  • Throw away (dispose of) the used DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen right away after use.
  • Do not re-use a DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen.

Storing DUPIXENT

  • Store unused DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pens in the refrigerator between 36°F and 46°F (2°C and 8°C).
  • Store DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pens in the original carton to protect from light.
  • If necessary, you may keep DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pens at room temperature up to 77°F (25°C) for up to 14 days.
  • Do not store DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pens at room temperature more than 77°F.
  • After removing a DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen from the refrigerator, it must be used within 14 days or thrown away (disposed of).
  • Do not shake the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen at any time.
  • Do not heat the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen.
  • Do not freeze the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen.
  • Do not put the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen into direct sunlight.
  • Keep DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pens and all medicines out of the reach of children.

A. Get ready to inject

A1. Gather supplies

Find a clean, flat work surface. Make sure you have the following supplies:

Supplies needed - Illustration

A2. Check the Pen

Do not use the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen if it has been damaged. - Illustration

  • Do not use the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen if it has been damaged.
  • Do not use the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen if the Green Cap is missing or not securely attached.
  • Do not use the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen if the Window is yellow before use.

Do not use the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen if the Window is yellow before use. - Illustration

A3. Look at the Label

Check to be sure that you have the correct Medicine and dose. - Illustration

Check the expiration date. - Illustration

  • Check to be sure that you have the correct Medicine and dose.
  • Check the expiration date.
  • Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not use the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen if the expiration date has passed.

A4. Check the Medicine

Look at the Medicine through the Window: it should be clear and colorless to pale yellow. - Illustration

  • Look at the Medicine through the Window: it should be clear and colorless to pale yellow.
  • Note: You may see an air bubble, this is normal.
  • Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not use the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen if the liquid is discolored or cloudy, or if it contains visible flakes or particles.

A5. Wait 45 minutes

Lay the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen on a flat surface and let it warm up at room temperature less than 77°F (25°C) for at least 45 minutes. - Illustration

  • Lay the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen on a flat surface and let it warm up at room temperature less than 77°F (25°C) for at least 45 minutes.
  • Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not heat the DUPIXENT Prefilled Pen in a microwave, hot water or direct sunlight.

B. Choose and prepare your injection site

B1. Wash your hands well with soap and water

Wash your hands well with soap and water - Illustration

B2. Choose an injection site

Choose an injection site - Illustration

  • Thigh
  • Stomach except for the 2 inches (5 cm) around your belly button (navel).
  • A caregiver can also inject in the outer area of the upper arm.
  • Choose a different site for each injection.
  • Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not inject into skin that is tender, damaged, has bruises or scars, or into areas with visible veins.
  • Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not inject through clothes.

B3. Prepare the injection site

Clean the injection site with an alcohol wipe. - Illustration

  • Clean the injection site with an alcohol wipe.
  • Let your skin dry before injecting.
  • Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not touch the injection site again or blow on it before the injection.

C. Give the injection

C1. Remove Green Cap

Remove the Green Cap by pulling it straight off, as shown. Do not twist the Green Cap off. - Illustration

  • Remove the Green Cap by pulling it straight off, as shown. Do not twist the Green Cap off.
  • Do not remove the Green Cap until you are ready to inject.
  • Do not press or touch the Yellow Needle Cover with your fingers. The Needle is inside.
  • Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not put the Green Cap back on the DUPIXENT Prefilled Pen after you have removed it.

C2. Place

Hold the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen as shown so that you can see the Window. Place the Yellow Needle Cover on your skin. - Illustration

  • Hold the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen as shown so that you can see the Window. Place the Yellow Needle Cover on your skin.
  • Place the Yellow Needle Cover on your skin at approximately a 90-degree angle.

C3. Press down → Watch Window turn fully yellow → Then count to 5

Press down ? Watch Window turn fully yellow ? Then count to 5 - Illustration

Press and hold the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen firmly against your skin until you cannot see the Yellow Needle Cover.

  • There will be a “click” when the injection starts, and
  • The Window will start to turn yellow.
  • Keep pressing the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen against your skin.

Keep pressing the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen against your skin and watch the window:

  • The Window will turn completely yellow, and
  • You will hear a 2nd “click”.
  • Keep pressing the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen against your skin.

Keep pressing the DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen against your skin and count to 5 to make sure you get your full dose.

C4. Remove

After you have completed your injection pull straight up to remove DUPIXENT Prefilled Pen from the skin. The Yellow Needle Cover will cover the needle. - Illustration

  • After you have completed your injection pull straight up to remove DUPIXENT Prefilled Pen from the skin. The Yellow Needle Cover will cover the needle.
  • If you see any blood at the site, lightly dab a cotton ball or gauze pad.
  • Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not rub your skin after the injection.

If the Window does not turn completely Yellow, remove the pen and call your healthcare provider.

  • Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not give yourself a second dose without speaking to your healthcare provider.

D. Dispose of used DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen

How to Dispose of (throw away) DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pen

Put your used DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pens, and Green Caps in a FDA-cleared sharps disposal container right away after use.

Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not dispose of (throw away) DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pens and Green Caps in your household trash.

If you do not have a FDA-cleared sharps disposal container, you may use a household container that is:

  • made of a heavy-duty plastic,
  • can be closed with a tightfitting, puncture-resistant lid, without sharps being able to come out,
  • upright and stable during use,
  • leak-resistant, and
  • properly labeled to warn of hazardous waste inside the container.

When your sharps disposal container is almost full, you will need to follow your community guidelines for the right way to dispose of your sharps disposal container. There may be state or local laws about how you should throw away used DUPIXENT Pre-filled Pens.

For more information about safe sharps disposal, and for specific information about sharps disposal in the state that you live in, go to the FDA’s website at: http://www.fda.gov/safesharpsdisposal

Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not dispose of your used sharps disposal container in your household trash unless your community guidelines permit this.

Warnings symbol - IllustrationDo not recycle your used sharps disposal container.

Do not recycle your used sharps disposal container. - Illustration

Keep your sharps disposal container out of the reach of children.

This Instructions for Use has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

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