- What other names is Eicosapentaenoic Acid known by?
- What is Eicosapentaenoic Acid?
- How does Eicosapentaenoic Acid work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Eicosapentaenoic Acid.
Acide Eicosapentaénoïque, Acide Éthyle-Eicosapentaénoïque, Acide Gras Essentiel, Acide Gras d'Huile de Poisson, Acide Gras N-3, Acide Gras Omega, Acide Gras Oméga 3, Acide Gras Polyinsaturé, Acide Gras W3, Acido Eicosapentaenoico, EPA, E-EPA, Eicosapentanoic Acid, Essential Fatty Acid, Ethyl Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Ethyl-Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Ethyl-EPA, Fish Oil Fatty Acid, Icosapent Ethyl, N-3 Fatty Acid, Omega Fatty Acid, Omega 3, Oméga 3, Omega-3, Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, PUFA, W-3 Fatty Acid.
Eicosapentaenoic acid is taken by mouth for some heart-related conditions including clogged heart arteries (coronary artery disease), to prevent or treat heart attacks, and to reduce levels of blood fats called triglycerides in people with very high levels. It is also used for some mental conditions including schizophrenia, personality disorder, Alzheimer's disease, depression, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used to prevent loss of vision that occurs in older people (age-related macular degeneration; AMD), for psoriasis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, and diabetes. Eicosapentaenoic acid is also used for lung cancer, prostate cancer, to help maintain body weight in people with cancer, and to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy in people with cancer.
Women use eicosapentaenoic acid to reduce symptoms of menopause, to reduce high blood pressure during high-risk pregnancies, and to reduce the risk of an infant having delayed growth while still in the uterus.
Eicosapentaenoic acid is used in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil preparations for a variety of conditions, including preventing and reversing heart disease, and decreasing irregular heartbeats; as well as asthma, cancer, menstrual problems, hot flashes, hay fever, lung diseases, lupus, and kidney disease caused by an immune reaction. The combination is also used for migraine headache prevention in adolescents, skin infections, Behçet's syndrome, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, psoriasis, Raynaud's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
Eicosapentaenoic acid is used in combination with RNA and L-arginine after surgery to reduce infections, improve wound healing, and shorten recovery time. It is also used in combination with another fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, for high blood pressure.
Eicosapentaenoic acid is given intravenously (by IV), along with DHA, for psoriasis.
Don't confuse eicosapentaenoic acid with similar fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, as well as with oils like krill or fish oils, which contain both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Most available data involving eicosapentaenoic acid are from research and clinical experience with fish oil products containing variable combinations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. For more information, see the separate listings for Alpha-Linolenic Acid, DHA, Fish Oil, and Krill Oil.
Likely Effective for...
- High levels of blood fats called triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia). Research shows that taking a specific product containing eicosapentaenoic acid as ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid (Vascepa by Amarin) by mouth along with dieting and cholesterol-lowering drugs called "statins" reduces levels of triglycerides in people with very high levels. It might also improve cholesterol levels. This product is FDA-approved in adults with very high triglyceride levels.
Possibly Effective for...
- Clogged heart arteries (Coronary artery disease). People with coronary artery disease who consume more eicosapentaenoic acid as part of the diet seem to have a slightly reduced risk of death. Early research shows that taking 1800 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid daily reduces the risk of heart-related adverse events such as heart attacks in people with high cholesterol and coronary artery disease.
- Depression. Research suggests that taking pure eicosapentaenoic acid or fish oil containing at least 60% eicosapentaenoic acid reduces symptoms of depression. It might work best when used along with antidepressant drugs. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid also seems to help prevent the depression from developing in people being treated with a drug called interferon-alpha.
- Symptoms of menopause. Research shows that taking eicosapentaenoic acid reduces how often hot flashes occur. But eicosapentaenoic acid does not seem to reduce the intensity of the hot flashes or improve overall quality of life.
- A mood disorder called borderline personality disorder. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid seems to slightly lower aggressiveness and slightly relieve depression in women with this mood disorder.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- An eye disease called AMD (age-related macular degeneration). Eating more eicosapentaenoic acid as part of the diet does not seem to prevent AMD.
- Hay fever (allergic rhinitis). Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to relieve hay fever symptoms such as wheezing, cough, and nasal symptoms.
- Asthma. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to reduce asthma symptoms.
- Cystic fibrosis. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem so to improve symptoms of cystic fibrosis.
- Diabetes. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to reduce blood sugar or cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
- Pregnancy-related high blood pressure (eclampsia). Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to reduce high blood pressure in women with high-risk pregnancies.
- High blood pressure. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth with another fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, does not seem to reduce blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
- Delayed growth of an infant while still in the uterus. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to reduce the risk of an infant having delayed growth while still in the uterus.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Alzheimer's disease. Early research suggests that increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid in the diet doesn't help prevent Alzheimer's disease.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some research shows that low blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and other fatty acids are linked with ADHD in children. However, it's not known yet if taking eicosapentaenoic acid supplements can treat or prevent ADHD.
- Loss of body mass in people with cancer. Early research shows that taking a nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid (ProSure by Abbott Nutrition) by mouth while undergoing chemotherapy to treat lung cancer helps prevent the loss of lean body mass better than a nutritional supplement without eicosapentaenoic acid.
- Side effects of cancer treatment for lung cancer. Early research shows that taking a nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid (ProSure by Abbott Nutrition) by mouth while undergoing chemotherapy to treat lung cancer helps to reduce some side effects of the chemotherapy compared to a nutritional supplement without eicosapentaenoic acid. Tiredness and nerve pain seem to be reduced with eicosapentaenoic acid. But eicosapentaenoic acid does not seem to reduce other side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.
- Lung cancer. Early research shows that taking a nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid (ProSure by Abbott Nutrition) by mouth while undergoing chemotherapy to treat lung cancer does not improve response rate or increase survival compared to taking a nutritional supplement without eicosapentaenoic acid.
- Heart attack. Early research shows that taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth along with a drug called a "statin" after undergoing a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), which is used in people who have had a heart attack, reduces the risk of developing an irregular heart beat (arrhythmia) after the procedure compared to taking the "statin" alone. Also, taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth along with "statins" before undergoing PCI for chest pain reduces the risk of having a heart attack after the procedure.
- Psoriasis. Early research shows that taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth along or giving eicosapentaenoic acid intravenously (by IV) along with a drug called etretinate improves psoriasis symptoms better than etretinate alone.
- Preventing infection after surgery. Early research shows that giving eicosapentaenoic acid, RNA, and L-arginine as part of "tube feeding" after surgery reduces the potential for infections and improves recovery time compared to standard "tube feeding."
- Prostate cancer. It is not known if levels of eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood affect the risk of getting prostate cancer. Some research shows that a higher blood level of eicosapentaenoic acid is linked with a lower risk of getting prostate cancer. But other research shows there's no link.
- Schizophrenia. Research to date shows conflicting results about the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid in treating schizophrenia.
- Lung diseases.
- Menstrual disorders.
- Other conditions.
Eicosapentaenoic acid can prevent the blood from clotting easily. These fatty acids also reduce pain and swelling.
Eicosapentaenoic acid is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken appropriately. It is usually well tolerated. Some people, however, can experience side effects such as nausea; diarrhea; heartburn; skin rash; itching; nosebleed; and joint, back, and muscle pain. Fish oils containing eicosapentaenoic acid can cause fishy taste, belching, nosebleeds, nausea, and loose stools. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid with meals can often decrease these side effects.
When used in amounts greater than 3 grams per day, eicosapentaenoic acid is POSSIBLY UNSAFE, and can thin the blood and increase the risk for bleeding.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about using of eicosapentaenoic acid during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
High blood pressure: Eicosapentaenoic acid might lower blood pressure. In people who are already taking medications to lower their blood pressure, adding eicosapentaenoic acid might make blood pressure drop too low. If you have high blood pressure, discuss using eicosapentaenoic acid with your healthcare provider, before you start taking it.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Eicosapentaenoic acid might slow blood clotting. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) might slow blood clotting. Taking EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For reducing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death in people with coronary artery disease (clogged heart arteries): 0.6 grams of eicosapentaenoic acid three times daily.
- For depression: For treating depression, 0.5-1 gram of eicosapentaenoic acid (as ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) twice daily has been used along with antidepressant medication. In some cases eicosapentaenoic acid is taken with docosahexaenoic acid. The combination formulas containing at least 60% eicosapentaenoic acid seem to work best. For preventing depression in people receiving interferon-alpha treatment, 3.5 grams of eicosapentaenoic acid per day has been used for 2 weeks.
- For high levels of blood fats called triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia): A specific product containing eicosapentaenoic acid in the form of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid (Vascepa by Amarin) has been taken in doses of 2 grams twice daily along with dieting an possibly treatment with drugs called "statins."
- For borderline personality disorder): 1 gram of eicosapentaenoic acid (as ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) has been used daily for up to 8 weeks.
- For symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes: 500 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (as ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) three times daily has been used for up to 8 weeks.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Kris-Etherton, P. M., Taylor, D. S., Yu-Poth, S., Huth, P., Moriarty, K., Fishell, V., Hargrove, R. L., Zhao, G., and Etherton, T. D. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):179S-188S. View abstract.
Sanders, T. A. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in Europe. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):176S-178S. View abstract.
Simopoulos, A. P. Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poult.Sci 2000;79(7):961-970. View abstract.
Sublette, M. E., Ellis, S. P., Geant, A. L., and Mann, J. J. Meta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in clinical trials in depression. J.Clin.Psychiatry 2011;72(12):1577-1584. View abstract.
Akedo I, Ishikawa H, Nakamura T, et al. Three cases with familial adenomatous polyposis diagnosed as having malignant lesions in the course of a long-term trial using docosahexanoic acid (DHA)-concentrated fish oil capsules (abstract). Jpn J Clin Oncol 1998;28:762-5. View abstract.
Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Kastelein JJ, Stein E, Isaacsohn JL, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Efficacy and safety of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (from the ANCHOR study). Am J Cardiol. 2012 Oct 1;110(7):984-92. View abstract.
Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Kastelein JJ, Isaacsohn JL, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in patients with very high triglyceride levels (from the Multi-center, plAcebo-controlled, Randomized, double-blINd, 12-week study with an open-label Extension [MARINE] trial). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Sep 1;108(5):682-90. View abstract.
Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Pharmacokinetics of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Plasma and Red Blood Cells After Multiple Oral Dosing With Icosapent Ethyl in Healthy Subjects. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2014 Mar;3(2):101-108. View abstract.
Bulstra-Ramakers MT, Huisjes HJ, Visser GH. The effects of 3g eicosapentaenoic acid daily on recurrence of intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy induced hypertension. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995;102:123-6. View abstract.
Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity: pouring oil on troubled waters or another fishy tale? Nutr Res 2001;21:309-41.
Cawood AL, Ding R, Napper FL, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from highly concentrated n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters is incorporated into advanced atherosclerotic plaques and higher plaque EPA is associated with decreased plaque inflammation and increased stability. Atherosclerosis. 2010;212(1):252-9. View abstract.
Chavarro JE, Stampfer MJ, Li H, et al. A prospective study of polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:1364-70. View abstract.
Cho E, Hung S, Willet W, et al. Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:209-18.. View abstract.
Daly JM, Lieberman MD, Goldfine J, et al. Enteral nutrition with supplemental arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients after operation: immunologic, metabolic and clinical outcome. Surgery 1992;112:56-67. View abstract.
Doi M, Nosaka K, Miyoshi T, Iwamoto M, Kajiya M, Okawa K, Nakayama R, Takagi W, Takeda K, Hirohata S, Ito H. Early eicosapentaenoic acid treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention reduces acute inflammatory responses and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomized, controlled study. Int J Cardiol. 2014 Oct 20;176(3):577-82. View abstract.
Dokholyan RS, Albert CM, Appel LJ, et al. A trial of omega-3 fatty acids for prevention of hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:1041-3. View abstract.
Emsley R, Myburgh C, Oosthuizen P, van Rensburg SJ. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid as supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:1596-8. View abstract.
Erkkila AT, Lehto S, Pyorala K, Uusitupa MI. n-3 Fatty acids and 5-y risks of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:65-71.. View abstract.
FDA. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Letter regarding dietary supplement health claim for omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/95s0316/95s-0316-Rpt0272-38-Appendix-D-Reference-F-FDA-vol205.pdf. (Accessed February 7, 2017).
Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:2071-4. View abstract.
Finnegan YE, Howarth D, Minihane AM, et al. Plant and marine derived (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in moderately hyperlipidemic humans. J Nutr 2003;133:2210-3.. View abstract.
Fu YQ, Zheng JS, Yang B, Li D. Effect of individual omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Epidemiol. 2015;25(4):261-74. View abstract.
Grosso G, Pajak A, Marventano S, Castellano S, Galvano F, Bucolo C, Drago F, Caraci F. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One. 2014 May 7;9(5):e96905. View abstract.
Joy CB, Mumby-Croft R, Joy LA. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD001257. View abstract.
Kemen M, Senkal M, Homann HH, et al. Early postoperative enteral nutrition with arginine-omega-3 fatty acids and ribonucleic acid-supplemented diet vs placebo in cancer patients: an immunologic evaluation of impact. Crit Care Med 1995;23:652-9. View abstract.
Kris-Ehterton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, et al. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002;106:2747-57. View abstract.
Kuhnt K, Fuhrmann C, Köhler M, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Dietary echium oil increases long-chain n-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid, in blood fractions and alters biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease independently of age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2014 Apr;144(4):447-60. View abstract.
Kuhnt K, Weiß S, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans. Lipids Health Dis. 2016 Feb 18;15:32. View abstract.
Kurita A, Takashima H, Ando H, Kumagai S, Waseda K, Gosho M, Amano T. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on peri-procedural (type IVa) myocardial infarction following elective coronary stenting. J Cardiol. 2015 Aug;66(2):114-9. View abstract.
Lucas M, Asselin G, Merette C, et al. Effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on hot flashes and quality of life among middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Menopause 2009;16:357-66. View abstract.
Mayser P, Mrowietz U, Arenberger P, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid-based lipid infusion in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:539-47. View abstract.
Mischoulon D, Nierenberg AA, Schettler PJ, Kinkead BL, Fehling K, Martinson MA, Hyman Rapaport M. A double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial comparing eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid for depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Jan;76(1):54-61. View abstract.
Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, et al. Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1085-94. View abstract.
Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:940-6. View abstract.
Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:477-9.. View abstract.
Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:913-9.. View abstract.
Picado C, Castillo JA, Schinca N, et al. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study. Thorax 1988;43:93-7. View abstract.
Prisco D, Paniccia R, Bandinelli B, et al. Effect of medium-term supplementation with a moderate dose of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood pressure in mild hypertensive patients. Thromb Res 1998;1:105-12. View abstract.
Sacks FM, Hebert P, Appel LJ, et al. Short report: the effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in phase I of the trials of hypertension prevention. J Hypertens 1994;12:209-13. View abstract.
Sakakibara H, Hirose K, Matsushita K, et al. Effect of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid ethylster MND-21, on generation of leukotrienes by calcium ionophore-activated leukocytes in bronchial asthma. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1995;33:395-402. View abstract.
Sánchez-Lara K, Turcott JG, Juárez-Hernández E, Nuñez-Valencia C, Villanueva G, Guevara P, De la Torre-Vallejo M, Mohar A, Arrieta O. Effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid on nutritional and clinical outcomes in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: randomised trial. Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;33(6):1017-23. View abstract.
Saynor R, Gillott T. Changes in blood lipids and fibrinogen with a note on safety in a long term study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids in subjects receiving fish oil supplements and followed for seven years. Lipids 1992;27:533-8. View abstract.
Senkal M, Kemen M, Homann HH, et al. Modulation of postoperative immune response by enteral nutrition with a diet enriched with arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer. Eur J Surg 1995;161:115-22. View abstract.
Simopoulos AP. Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:560S-9S. View abstract.
Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, et al. Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:761-8. View abstract.
Su KP, Lai HC, Yang HT, Su WP, Peng CY, Chang JP, Chang HC, Pariante CM. Omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of interferon-alpha-induced depression: results from a randomized, controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Oct 1;76(7):559-66. View abstract.
Tepaske R, Velthuis H, Oudemans-van Straaten HM, et al. Effect of preoperative oral immune-enhancing nutritional supplement on patients at high risk of infection after cardiac surgery: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;358:696-701. View abstract.
Terano T, Hirai A, Hamazaki T, et al. Effect of oral administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid on platelet function, blood viscosity and red cell deformability in healthy human subjects. Atherosclerosis 1983;46:321-31.. View abstract.
Thien FC, Mencia-Huerta J, Lee TH. Dietary fish oil effects on seasonal hay fever and asthma in pollen- sensitive subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:1138-43. View abstract.
Thies F, Nebe-von-Caron G, Powell JR, et al. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged >55 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:539-48. View abstract.
Thies N. The effect of 12 months' treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid in five children with cystic fibrosis. J Paediatr Child Health 1997;33:349-51. View abstract.
Toft I, Bonaa KH, Ingebretsen OC, et al. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in essential hypertension. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:911-8. View abstract.
Vandongen R, Mori TA, Burke V, et al. Effects on blood pressure of omega 3 fats in subjects at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension 1993;22:371-9. View abstract.
Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, et al. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:1007-15.. View abstract.
Yao JK, Magan S, Sonel AF, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid on platelet serotonin responsivity in patients with schizophrenia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004;71:171-6. View abstract.
Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 2007;369:1090-8. View abstract.
Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR. Omega-3 Fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:167-9.. View abstract.
Zuijdgeest-Van Leeuwen SD, Dagnelie PC, Wattimena JL, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester supplementation: in cachectic cancer patients and healthy subjects: effects on lipolysis and lipid oxidation. Clin Nutr 2000;19:417-23. View abstract.