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ELISA Tests (cont.)

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What are the types of ELISA tests? What is a direct ELISA?

There are four types or kinds of ELISA tests:

  • Direct ELISA: attachment of an antigen to a polystyrene plate followed by an enzyme-labeled antibody that can react with the antigen and a substrate that can be measured
  • Indirect ELISA: attachment of an antigen to a polystyrene plate followed by an unlabeled or primary antibody followed by an enzyme-labeled antibody that can react with both the primary antibody and substrate
  • Sandwich ELISA: A capture antibody is attached to the polystyrene plate, then antigen is added that specifically attaches or captures the antigen. A second antibody, also specific for the antigen but not the same as the capture antibody is added and "sandwiches" the antigen. This second antibody is then followed by an enzyme-labeled antibody specific for the second antibody that can react with a substrate that can be measured
  • Competitive ELISA: This test is like the sandwich ELISA but involves the addition of competing antibodies or proteins when the second antibody is added. This results in a decrease in the substrate signal that is generated. This test is considered to give good, highly specific results.

What are the advantages of ELISA testing?

ELISA tests are generally good and accurate tests. They are considered highly sensitive and specific (accurate) and compare favorably with other methods used for the detection of substances in the body. The ELISA testing method is more straightforward and easier to perform than older laboratory techniques, which often required radioactive materials.

How do people prepare for an ELISA test? Is an ELISA test painful? What risks are involved with an ELISA procedure?

In general, people do not need to prepare for an ELISA test. The test is done in a lab. If your blood is required, the only hurt is in blood collection. The risks associated with an ELISA test are rare and associated with blood withdrawal (infection, vessel damage, for example).

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 2/23/2017

Source: MedicineNet.com
https://www.medicinenet.com/elisa_tests/article.htm

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