Endometrial biopsy: A common procedure for sampling the inner lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Endometrial biopsy is usually done to learn the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding, although it may be used to determine the cause of infertility, test for uterine infections, and monitor the response to certain medications. The main problems resulting from endometrial biopsy are cramping and pain. Vaginal bleeding, infection, and, very rarely, perforation of the uterus can also occur.
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