Apalutamide, the active ingredient of ERLEADA, is an androgen receptor inhibitor. The chemical name is (4-[7-(6-Cyano-5-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl)-8-oxo-6-thioxo-5,7diazaspiro[3.4]oct-5-yl]-2-fluoro-N-methylbenzamide). Apalutamide is a white to slightly yellow powder. Apalutamide is practically insoluble in aqueous media over a wide range of pH values.
The molecular weight is 477.44 and molecular formula is C21H15F4N5O2S. The structural formula is:
ERLEADA (apalutamide) is supplied as film-coated tablets for oral administration containing 60 mg of apalutamide. Inactive ingredients of the core tablet are: colloidal anhydrous silica, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-acetate succinate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose.
The tablets are finished with a commercially available film-coating comprising the following excipients: iron oxide black, iron oxide yellow, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, and titanium dioxide.
The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
SPARTAN, a randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical study, enrolled patients who had non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC). In this study, patients received either ERLEADA at a dose of 240 mg daily or a placebo. All patients in the SPARTAN study received a concomitant gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog or had a bilateral orchiectomy. The median duration of exposure was 16.9 months (range: 0.1 to 42 months) in patients who received ERLEADA and 11.2 months (range: 0.1 to 37 months) in patients who received placebo.
Overall, 8 patients (1%) who were treated with ERLEADA died from adverse reactions. The reasons for death were infection (n=4), myocardial infarction (n=3), and cerebral hemorrhage (n=1). One patient (0.3%) treated with placebo died from an adverse reaction of cardiopulmonary arrest (n=1). ERLEADA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 11% of patients, most commonly from rash (3%). Adverse reactions leading to dose interruption or reduction of ERLEADA occurred in 33% of patients; the most common (>1%) were rash, diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, hypertension, and hematuria. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 25% of ERLEADA-treated patients and 23% in patients receiving placebo. The most common serious adverse reactions (>2%) were fracture (3%) in the ERLEADA arm and urinary retention (4%) in the placebo arm.
Table 1 shows adverse reactions occurring in ≥10% on the ERLEADA arm in SPARTAN that occurred with a 2% absolute increase in frequency compared to placebo. Table 2 shows laboratory abnormalities that occurred in ≥15% of patients, and more frequently (>5%) in the ERLEADA arm compared to placebo.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions in SPARTAN
|All Grades||Grade 3-4||All Grades||Grade 3-4|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Injury, poisoning and procedural complications|
1 Includes fatigue and asthenia
2 Includes rash, rash maculo-papular, rash generalized, urticaria, rash pruritic, rash macular, conjunctivitis, erythema multiforme, rash papular, skin exfoliation, genital rash, rash erythematous, stomatitis, drug eruption, mouth ulceration, rash pustular, blister, papule, pemphigoid, skin erosion, and rash vesicular
3 Includes rib fracture, lumbar vertebral fracture, spinal compression fracture, spinal fracture, foot fracture, hip fracture, humerus fracture, thoracic vertebral fracture, upper limb fracture, fractured sacrum, hand fracture, pubis fracture, acetabulum fracture, ankle fracture, compression fracture, costal cartilage fracture, facial bones fracture, lower limb fracture, osteoporotic fracture, wrist fracture, avulsion fracture, fibula fracture, fractured coccyx, pelvic fracture, radius fracture, sternal fracture, stress fracture, traumatic fracture, cervical vertebral fracture, femoral neck fracture, and tibia fracture
4 Grade 4 definitions do not exist for these reactions
5 Includes appetite disorder, decreased appetite, early satiety, and hypophagia
6 Includes peripheral edema, generalized edema, edema, edema genital, penile edema, peripheral swelling, scrotal edema, lymphedema, swelling, and localized edema
Additional clinically significant adverse reactions occurring in 2% or more of patients treated with ERLEADA included hypothyroidism (8.1% versus 2% on placebo), pruritus (6.2% versus 2% on placebo), ischemic heart disease (3.7% versus 2% on placebo), and heart failure (2.2% versus 1% on placebo).
Table 2: Laboratory Abnormalities Occurring in ≥ 15% of ERLEADA-Treated Patients and at a Higher
Incidence than Placebo (Between Arm Difference > 5% All Grades) in SPARTAN
|All Grades||Grade 3-4||All Grades||Grade 3-4|
|1 Does not reflect fasting values|
In SPARTAN, rash associated with ERLEADA was most commonly described as macular or maculo-papular. Adverse reactions of rash were reported for 24% of patients treated with ERLEADA versus 6% of patients treated with placebo. Grade 3 rashes (defined as covering > 30% body surface area [BSA]) were reported with ERLEADA treatment (5%) versus placebo (0.3%).
The onset of rash occurred at a median of 82 days of ERLEADA treatment. Rash resolved in 81% of patients within a median of 60 days (range: 2 to 709 days) from onset of rash. Four (4%) of patients treated with ERLEADA received systemic corticosteroids for treatment of rash. Rash recurred in approximately half of patients who were re-challenged with ERLEADA.
Hypothyroidism was reported for 8% of patients treated with ERLEADA and 2% of patients treated with placebo based on assessments of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) every 4 months. Elevated TSH occurred in 25% of patients treated with ERLEADA and 7% of patients treated with placebo. The median onset was Day 113. There were no Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions. Thyroid replacement therapy was initiated in 7% of patients treated with ERLEADA. Thyroid replacement therapy, when clinically indicated, should be initiated or dose-adjusted [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Effect Of Other Drugs On ERLEADA
Strong CYP2C8 Or CYP3A4 Inhibitors
Co-administration of a strong CYP2C8 or CYP3A4 inhibitor is predicted to increase the steady-state exposure of the active moieties (sum of unbound apalutamide plus the potency-adjusted unbound N-desmethyl-apalutamide). No initial dose adjustment is necessary however, reduce the ERLEADA dose based on tolerability [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Mild or moderate inhibitors of CYP2C8 or CYP3A4 are not expected to affect the exposure of apalutamide.
Effect Of ERLEADA On Other Drugs
CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 And UGT Substrates
ERLEADA is a strong inducer of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, and a weak inducer of CYP2C9 in humans. Concomitant use of ERLEADA with medications that are primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, CYP2C19, or CYP2C9 can result in lower exposure to these medications. Substitution for these medications is recommended when possible or evaluate for loss of activity if medication is continued. Concomitant administration of ERLEADA with medications that are substrates of UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) can result in decreased exposure. Use caution if substrates of UGT must be co-administered with ERLEADA and evaluate for loss of activity [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
P-Gp, BCRP Or OATP1B1 Substrates
Apalutamide was shown to be a weak inducer of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) clinically. At steady-state, apalutamide reduced the plasma exposure to fexofenadine (a P-gp substrate) and rosuvastatin (a BCRP/OATP1B1 substrate). Concomitant use of ERLEADA with medications that are substrates of P-gp, BCRP, or OATP1B1 can result in lower exposure of these medications. Use caution if substrates of P-gp, BCRP or OATP1B1 must be co-administered with ERLEADA and evaluate for loss of activity if medication is continued [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Falls And Fractures
Falls and fractures occurred in patients receiving ERLEADA. Evaluate patients for fracture and fall risk. Monitor and manage patients at risk for fractures according to established treatment guidelines and consider use of bone targeted agents.
In a randomized study (SPARTAN), falls occurred in 16% of patients treated with ERLEADA compared to 9% of patients treated with placebo. Falls were not associated with loss of consciousness or seizure. Fractures occurred in 12% of patients treated with ERLEADA and in 7% of patients treated with placebo. Grade 3-4 fractures occurred in 3% of patients treated with ERLEADA and in 1% of patients treated with placebo. The median time to onset of fracture was 314 days (range: 20 to 953 days) for patients treated with ERLEADA. Routine bone density assessment and treatment of osteoporosis with bone targeted agents were not performed in the SPARTAN study.
Seizure occurred in patients receiving ERLEADA. Permanently discontinue ERLEADA in patients who develop a seizure during treatment. It is unknown whether anti-epileptic medications will prevent seizures with ERLEADA. Advise patients of the risk of developing a seizure while receiving ERLEADA and of engaging in any activity where sudden loss of consciousness could cause harm to themselves or others.
In a randomized study (SPARTAN), two patients (0.2%) treated with ERLEADA experienced a seizure. Seizure occurred from 354 to 475 days after initiation of ERLEADA. No seizures occurred in patients treated with placebo. Patients with a history of seizure, predisposing factors for seizure, or receiving drugs known to decrease the seizure threshold or to induce seizure were excluded. There is no clinical experience in re-administering ERLEADA to patients who experienced a seizure.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Falls And Fractures
- Inform patients that ERLEADA is associated with an increased incidence of falls and fractures [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Inform patients that ERLEADA has been associated with an increased risk of seizure. Discuss conditions that may predispose to seizures and medications that may lower the seizure threshold. Advise patients of the risk of engaging in any activity where sudden loss of consciousness could cause serious harm to themselves or others. Inform patients to contact their healthcare provider right away if they experience a seizure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Inform patients that ERLEADA is associated with rashes and to inform their healthcare provider if they develop a rash [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Dosage And Administration
- Inform patients receiving concomitant gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy that they need to maintain this treatment during the course of treatment with ERLEADA.
- Instruct patients to take their dose at the same time each day (once daily). ERLEADA can be taken with or without food. Each tablet should be swallowed whole.
- Inform patients that in the event of a missed daily dose of ERLEADA, they should take their normal dose as soon as possible on the same day with a return to the normal schedule on the following day. The patient should not take extra tablets to make up the missed dose [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- Inform patients that ERLEADA can be harmful to a developing fetus. Advise patients having sex with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 3 months after the last dose of ERLEADA. Advise male patients to use a condom if having sex with a pregnant woman [see Use In Specific Populations].
- Advise male patients that ERLEADA may impair fertility and not to donate sperm during therapy and for 3 months following the last dose of ERLEADA [see Use In Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term animal studies have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of apalutamide. Apalutamide did not induce mutations in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay and was not genotoxic in either in vitro chromosome aberration assay or the in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assay or the in vivo rat Comet assay.
In repeat-dose toxicity studies in male rats (up to 26 weeks) and dogs (up to 39 weeks), atrophy of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles, aspermia/hypospermia, tubular degeneration and/or hyperplasia or hypertrophy of the interstitial cells in the reproductive system were observed at ≥ 25 mg/kg/day in rats (1.4 times the human exposure based on AUC) and ≥ 2.5 mg/kg/day in dogs (0.9 times the human exposure based on AUC).
In a fertility study in male rats, a decrease in sperm concentration and motility, increased abnormal sperm morphology, lower copulation and fertility rates (upon pairing with untreated females) along with reduced weights of the secondary sex glands and epididymis were observed following 4 weeks of dosing at ≥ 25 mg/kg/day (0.8 times the human exposure based on AUC). A reduced number of live fetuses due to increased pre-and/or post-implantation loss was observed following 4 weeks of 150 mg/kg/day administration (5.7 times the human exposure based on AUC). Effects on male rats were reversible after 8 weeks from the last apalutamide administration.
Use In Specific Populations
ERLEADA is contraindicated for use in pregnant women because the drug can cause fetal harm and potential loss of pregnancy. ERLEADA is not indicated for use in females, so animal embryo-fetal developmental toxicology studies were not conducted with apalutamide. There are no human data on the use of ERLEADA in pregnant women. Based on its mechanism of action, ERLEADA may cause fetal harm when administered during pregnancy.
ERLEADA is not indicated for use in females. There are no data on the presence of apalutamide or its metabolites in human milk, the effect on the breastfed child, or the effect on milk production.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Based on the mechanism of action and findings in an animal reproduction study, advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 3 months after the last dose of ERLEADA. [see Pregnancy].
Based on animal studies, ERLEADA may impair fertility in males of reproductive potential [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Safety and effectiveness of ERLEADA in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the 803 patients who received ERLEADA in SPARTAN, 87% of patients were 65 years and over and 49% were 75 years and over. Grade 3-4 adverse reactions occurred in 46% (323/697) of patients 65 years or older and in 51% (197/391) of patients 75 years or older treated with ERLEADA compared to 35% (124/355) of patients 65 years or older and 37% (70/187) of patients 75 years or older treated with placebo. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients.
There is no known specific antidote for apalutamide overdose. In the event of an overdose, stop ERLEADA, undertake general supportive measures until clinical toxicity has been diminished or resolved.
ERLEADA can cause fetal harm and potential loss of pregnancy [see Use In Specific Populations].
Mechanism Of Action
Apalutamide is an Androgen Receptor (AR) inhibitor that binds directly to the ligand-binding domain of the AR. Apalutamide inhibits AR nuclear translocation, inhibits DNA binding, and impedes AR-mediated transcription. A major metabolite, N-desmethyl apalutamide, is a less potent inhibitor of AR, and exhibited one-third the activity of apalutamide in an in vitro transcriptional reporter assay. Apalutamide administration caused decreased tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis leading to decreased tumor volume in mouse xenograft models of prostate cancer.
The effect of apalutamide 240 mg once daily on the QTc interval was assessed in an open-label, uncontrolled, multi-center, single-arm dedicated QT study in 45 patients with CRPC. The maximum mean QTcF change from baseline was 12.4 ms (2-sided 90% upper CI: 16.0 ms). An exposure-QT analysis suggested a concentration-dependent increase in QTcF for apalutamide and its active metabolite.
Apalutamide pharmacokinetic parameters are presented as the mean [standard deviation (SD)] unless otherwise specified. Apalutamide Cmax and area under the concentration curve (AUC) increased proportionally following repeated once-daily dosing of 30 to 480 mg (0.125 to 2 times the recommended dosage). Following administration of the recommended dosage, apalutamide steady-state was achieved after 4 weeks and the mean accumulation ratio was approximately 5fold. Apalutamide Cmax was 6.0 mcg/mL (1.7) and AUC was 100 mcg·h/mL (32) at steady-state. Daily fluctuations in apalutamide plasma concentrations were low, with mean peak-to-trough ratio of 1.63. An increase in apparent clearance (CL/F) was observed with repeat dosing, likely due to induction of apalutamide’s own metabolism. The auto-induction effect likely reached its maximum at the recommended dosage because exposure of apalutamide across the dose range of 30 to 480 mg is dose-proportional.
The major active metabolite N-desmethyl apalutamide Cmax was 5.9 mcg/mL (1.0) and AUC was 124 mcg·h/mL (23) at steady-state after the recommended dosage. N-desmethyl apalutamide was characterized by a flat concentration-time profile at steady-state with a mean peak-to-trough ratio of 1.27. Mean AUC metabolite/parent drug ratio for N-desmethyl apalutamide following repeat-dose administration was 1.3. Based on systemic exposure, relative potency, and pharmacokinetic properties, N-desmethyl apalutamide likely contributed to the clinical activity of apalutamide.
Mean absolute oral bioavailability was approximately 100%. Median time to achieve peak plasma concentration (tmax) was 2 hours (range: 1 to 5 hours).
Effect of Food
Administration of apalutamide to healthy subjects under fasting conditions and with a high-fat meal (approximately 500 to 600 fat calories, 250 carbohydrate calories, and 150 protein calories) resulted in no clinically relevant changes in Cmax and AUC. Median time to reach tmax was delayed approximately 2 hours with food.
The mean apparent volume of distribution at steady-state of apalutamide was approximately 276 L.
Apalutamide was 96% and N-desmethyl apalutamide was 95% bound to plasma proteins with no concentration dependency.
The CL/F of apalutamide was 1.3 L/h after single dosing and increased to 2.0 L/h at steady-state after once-daily dosing likely due to CYP3A4 auto-induction. The mean effective half-life for apalutamide in patients was approximately 3 days at steady-state.
Metabolism is the main route of elimination of apalutamide. Apalutamide is primarily metabolized by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 to form active metabolite, N-desmethyl apalutamide. The contribution of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in the metabolism of apalutamide is estimated to be 58% and 13% following single dose but changes to 40% and 37%, respectively at steady-state.
Apalutamide represented 45% and N-desmethyl apalutamide represented 44% of the total AUC following a single oral administration of radiolabeled apalutamide 240 mg.
Up to 70 days following a single oral administration of radiolabeled apalutamide, 65% of the dose was recovered in urine (1.2% of dose as unchanged apalutamide and 2.7% as N-desmethyl apalutamide) and 24% was recovered in feces (1.5% of dose as unchanged apalutamide and 2% as N-desmethyl apalutamide).
No clinically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of apalutamide or N-desmethyl apalutamide were observed based on age (18-94 years), race (Black, non-Japanese Asian, Japanese), mild to moderate (eGFR 30-89 mL/min/1.73m2, estimated by the modification of diet in renal disease [MDRD] equation) renal impairment, or mild (Child-Pugh A) to moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment.
The effect of severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease (eGFR ≤29 mL/min/1.73m2, MDRD) or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) on apalutamide pharmacokinetics is unknown.
Effect Of Other Drugs On ERLEADA
Strong CYP2C8 inhibitors
Apalutamide Cmax decreased by 21% while AUC increased by 68% following co-administration of ERLEADA as a 240 mg single dose with gemfibrozil (a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor). Gemfibrozil is predicted to increase the steady-state apalutamide Cmax by 32% and AUC by 44%. For the active moieties (sum of unbound apalutamide plus the potency-adjusted unbound Ndesmethyl apalutamide), the predicted steady-state Cmax increased by 19% and AUC by 23%.
Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors
Apalutamide Cmax decreased by 22% while AUC was similar following co-administration of ERLEADA as a 240 mg single dose with itraconazole (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor). Ketoconazole (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) is predicted to increase the single-dose apalutamide AUC by 24% but have no impact on Cmax. Ketoconazole is predicted to increase the steady-state apalutamide Cmax by 38% and AUC by 51%. For the active moieties, the predicted steady-state Cmax increased by 23% and AUC by 28%.
Rifampin (a strong CYP3A4 and moderate CYP2C8 inducer) is predicted to decrease the steady-state apalutamide Cmax by 25% and AUC by 34%. For the active moieties, the predicted steady-state Cmax decreased by 15% and AUC by 19%.
Acid lowering agents
Apalutamide is not ionizable under relevant physiological pH condition, therefore acid lowering agents (e.g. proton pump inhibitor, H2-receptor antagonist, antacid) are not expected to affect the solubility and bioavailability of apalutamide.
Drugs affecting transporters
In vitro, apalutamide and N-desmethyl apalutamide are substrates for P-gp but not BCRP, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3. Because apalutamide is completely absorbed after oral administration, P-gp does not limit the absorption of apalutamide and therefore, inhibition or induction of P-gp is not expected to affect the bioavailability of apalutamide.
Effect Of ERLEADA On Other Drugs
In vitro studies showed that apalutamide and N-desmethyl apalutamide are moderate to strong CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 inducers, are moderate inhibitors of CYP2B6 and CYP2C8, and weak inhibitors of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. Apalutamide and N-desmethyl apalutamide do not affect CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 at therapeutically relevant concentrations.
Co-administration of ERLEADA with single oral doses of sensitive CYP substrates resulted in a 92% decrease in the AUC of midazolam (a CYP3A4 substrate), 85% decrease in the AUC of omeprazole (a CYP2C19 substrate), and 46% decrease in the AUC of S-warfarin (a CYP2C9 substrate). ERLEADA did not cause clinically significant changes in exposure to a CYP2C8 substrate.
P-gp, BCRP and OATP1B1 substrates
Co-administration of ERLEADA with single oral doses of transporter substrates resulted in a 30% decrease in the AUC of fexofenadine (a P-gp substrate) and 41% decrease in the AUC of rosuvastatin (a BCRP/OATP1B1 substrate) but had no impact on Cmax.
Apalutamide may induce UGT. Concomitant administration of ERLEADA with medications that are substrates of UGT may result in lower exposure to these medications.
OCT2, OAT1, OAT3 and MATEs substrates
In vitro, apalutamide and N-desmethyl apalutamide inhibit organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) and multidrug and toxin extrusions (MATEs), and do not inhibit organic anion transporter 1. Apalutamide is not predicted to cause clinically significant changes in exposure to an OAT3 substrate.
SPARTAN (NCT01946204) was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 1207 patients with NM-CRPC were randomized (2:1) to receive either ERLEADA orally at a dose of 240 mg once daily (N = 806) or placebo once daily (N = 401). All patients in the SPARTAN trial received a concomitant gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog or had a bilateral orchiectomy. Patients were stratified by Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Doubling Time (PSADT), the use of bone-sparing agents, and locoregional disease. Patients were required to have a PSADT ≤ 10 months and confirmation of non-metastatic disease by blinded independent central review (BICR). PSA results were blinded and were not used for treatment discontinuation. Patients randomized to either arm discontinued treatment for radiographic disease progression confirmed by BICR, locoregional-only progression, initiation of new treatment, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal.
The following patient demographics and baseline disease characteristics were balanced between the treatment arms. The median age was 74 years (range 48-97) and 26% of patients were 80 years of age or older. The racial distribution was 66% Caucasian, 12% Asian, and 6% Black. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of patients in both treatment arms had prior surgery or radiotherapy of the prostate. A majority of patients had a Gleason score of 7 or higher (78%). Fifteen percent (15%) of patients had <2 cm pelvic lymph nodes at study entry. Seventy-three percent (73%) of patients received prior treatment with an anti-androgen; 69% of patients received bicalutamide and 10% of patients received flutamide. All patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) score of 0 or 1 at study entry. Among the patients who discontinued study treatment (N = 279 for placebo and N = 314 for ERLEADA), a greater proportion (80%) of patients treated with placebo received subsequent therapy compared to patients treated with ERLEADA (56%). Locoregional-only progression occurred in 2% of patients overall.
The major efficacy outcome measure of the study was metastasis-free survival (MFS), defined as the time from randomization to the time of first evidence of BICR-confirmed distant metastasis, defined as new bone or soft tissue lesions or enlarged lymph nodes above the iliac bifurcation, or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first. Additional efficacy endpoints were time to metastasis (TTM), progression-free survival (PFS) which also includes locoregional progression, time to symptomatic progression, and overall survival (OS).
A statistically significant improvement in MFS was demonstrated in patients randomized to receive ERLEADA compared with patients randomized to receive placebo. Consistent results were observed across patient subgroups including PSADT (≤ 6 months or > 6 months), use of a prior bone-sparing agent (yes or no), and locoregional disease (N0 or N1). The major efficacy outcome was supported by statistically significant improvements in TTM, PFS, and time to symptomatic progression. Overall survival (OS) data were not mature at the time of final MFS analysis (24% of the required number of events). The efficacy results of MFS, TTM, and PFS from SPARTAN are summarized in Figure 1 and Table 3.
Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Metastasis-Free Survival (MFS) Curve in SPARTAN
Table 3: BICR-assessed Efficacy Results (SPARTAN)
|Endpoint||Number of Events (%)||Median [Months (95% CI)]||HR (95% CI) p-value (log-rank test)1|
|ERLEADA (N=806)||Placebo (N=401)||ERLEADA||Placebo|
|Metastasis Free Survival||184 (23%)||194 (48%)||40.51
|16.20 (14.59, 18.40)||0.28 (0.23, 0.35) <0.0001|
|Time to Metastasis||175 (22%)||191 (48%)||40.51
|16.59 (14.59, 18.46)||0.27 (0.22, 0.34) <0.0001|
|Progression-Free Survival||200 (25%)||204 (51%)||40.51 (NE, NE)||14.72 (14.49, 18.37)||0.29 (0.24, 0.36) <0.0001|
|1 All analyses stratified by PSA doubling time, bone-sparing agent use, and locoregional disease status.
ERLEADA is indicated for the treatment of patients with non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC).
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended dose of ERLEADA is 240 mg (four 60 mg tablets) administered orally once daily. Swallow the tablets whole. ERLEADA can be taken with or without food.
Patients should also receive a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog concurrently or should have had a bilateral orchiectomy.
If a patient experiences a greater than or equal to Grade 3 toxicity or an intolerable side effect, hold dosing until symptoms improve to less than or equal to Grade 1 or original grade, then resume at the same dose or a reduced dose (180 mg or 120 mg), if warranted.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
Tablets (60 mg): slightly yellowish to greyish green oblong film-coated tablets, debossed with “AR 60” on one side.
Storage And Handling
ERLEADA (apalutamide) 60 mg film-coated tablets are slightly yellowish to greyish green, oblong-shaped tablets debossed with “AR 60” on one side. ERLEADA 60 mg tablets are available in bottles of 120 tablets. Each bottle contains silica gel desiccant.
NDC Number 59676-600-12
Storage And Handling
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Store in the original package. Do not discard desiccant. Protect from light and moisture.
Manufactured by: Janssen Ortho LLC, Gurabo, PR 00778. Revised: Feb 2018
What is ERLEADA?
It is not known if ERLEADA is safe or effective in children.
Do not take ERLEADA if you:
- are pregnant or may become pregnant. ERLEADA may harm your unborn baby.
- are female. ERLEADA is not for use in women.
Before taking ERLEADA, tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:
- have a history of seizures, brain injury, stroke, or brain tumors
- have a partner who is pregnant or may become pregnant. Men who are sexually active with a pregnant woman must use a condom during and for 3 months after treatment with ERLEADA. If your sexual partner may become pregnant, an effective birth control (contraception) must be used during and for 3 months after treatment. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions about birth control.
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. ERLEADA can interact with many other medicines.
You should not start or stop any medicine before you talk with the healthcare provider that prescribed ERLEADA.
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them with you to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.
How should I take ERLEADA?
- Take ERLEADA exactly as your healthcare provider tells you.
- Take your prescribed dose of ERLEADA 1 time a day, at the same time each day.
- Take ERLEADA with or without food.
- Swallow ERLEADA tablets whole.
- Your healthcare provider may change your dose if needed.
- Do not stop taking your prescribed dose of ERLEADA without talking with your healthcare provider first.
- If you miss a dose of ERLEADA, take your normal dose as soon as possible on the same day. Return to your normal schedule on the following day. You should not take extra tablets to make up the missed dose.
- You should start or continue a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy during your treatment with ERLEADA unless you had a surgery to lower the amount of testosterone in your body (surgical castration).
- If you take too much ERLEADA, call your healthcare provider or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.
- Your healthcare provider may do blood tests to check for side effects.
What are the possible side effects of ERLEADA?
ERLEADA may cause serious side effects including:
- Falls and fractures. ERLEADA treatment can cause bones and muscles to weaken and may increase your risk for falls and fractures. Falls and fractures have happened in people during treatment with ERLEADA. Falls were not caused by loss of consciousness (fainting) or seizures. Your healthcare provider will monitor your risks for falls and fractures during treatment with ERLEADA.
- Seizure. If you take ERLEADA, you may be at risk of having a seizure. You should avoid activities where a sudden loss of consciousness could cause serious harm to yourself or others. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have a loss of consciousness or seizure. Your healthcare provider will stop ERLEADA if you have a seizure during treatment.
The most common side effects of ERLEADA include:
- feeling very tired
- high blood pressure
- weight loss
- joint pain
- hot flash
- bone injury (fracture)
- decreased appetite
- swollen hands, ankles, or feet
ERLEADA may cause fertility problems in males, which may affect the ability to father children. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have concerns about fertility. Do not donate sperm during treatment with ERLEADA and for 3 months after the last dose of ERLEADA.
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of ERLEADA.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store ERLEADA?
- Store ERLEADA at room temperature between 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C).
- Store ERLEADA in the original package.
- The bottle of ERLEADA contains a desiccant packet to help keep your medicine dry (protect it from moisture). Do not throw away (discard) the desiccant.
- Protect ERLEADA from light and moisture.
Keep ERLEADA and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about the safe and effective use of ERLEADA.
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Patient Information leaflet. Do not use ERLEADA for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give ERLEADA to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.
If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about ERLEADA that is written for health professionals.
What are the ingredients in ERLEADA?
Active ingredient: apalutamide
Inactive ingredients:colloidal anhydrous silica, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-acetate succinate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose. The film-coating contains iron oxide black, iron oxide yellow, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, and titanium dioxide.
This Patient Information has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.