All-Heal, Banda, Birdlime Mistletoe, Blandeau, Bois de Sainte-Croix, Bouchon, Devil's Fuge, Drudenfuss, Eurixor, Guérit-Tout, Gui, Gui Blanc, Gui Blanc d'Europe, Gui des Feuillus, Gui d'Europe, Gui Européen, Helixor, Herbe de Chèvre, Hexenbesen, Hurchu, Iscador, Isorel, Leimmistel, Mistlekraut, Mistletein, Mistletoe, Muérdago Europeo, Mystyldene, Nid de Sorcière, Pain de Biques, Rini, Verquet, Vert-Bois, Vert de Pommier, Visci, Visci Albi Folia, Visci Albi Fructus, Visci Albi Herba, Visci Albi Stipites, Vogelmistel, Vysorel, Viscum album.
European mistletoe is a plant that grows on several different trees. The berries, leaf, and stem of European mistletoe are used to make medicine.
Interest in mistletoe for cancer has grown in North America, ever since Suzanne Somers announced on Larry King Live that she is using it to treat her breast cancer. European mistletoe has been used for treating cancer since the 1920s, especially in Europe. Several brand name mistletoe extracts are available there: Iscador, Eurixor, Helixor, Isorel, Vysorel, and ABNOBAviscum. So far these products are not readily available in North America. There is no proof they work for breast or other cancers. Avoid these products and stick with proven cancer treatments.
European mistletoe is also used for heart and blood vessel conditions including high blood pressure, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), internal bleeding, and hemorrhoids; epilepsy and infantile convulsions; gout; psychiatric conditions such as depression; sleep disorders; headache; absence of menstrual periods; symptoms of menopause; and for "blood purifying."
Some people use European mistletoe for treating mental and physical exhaustion; to reduce side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy; as a tranquilizer; and for treating whooping cough, asthma, dizziness, diarrhea, chorea, and liver and gallbladder conditions.
European mistletoe injections are used for cancer and for failing joints.
How does it work?
European mistletoe has several active chemicals. It might stimulate the immune system and kill certain cancer cells in a test tube, but it doesn't seem to work in people.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Head and neck cancer. Injecting European mistletoe extract into the skin before or after surgery or radiation for head and neck cancers does not improve survival.
- Pancreatic cancer. European mistletoe extract does not seem to increase remission rates in people with advanced (stage IV) pancreatic cancer.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Bladder cancer. Some early research suggests that administering a specific European mistletoe extract into the bladder for 6 weeks might reduce bladder cancer recurrence in people who have had bladder cancer surgery.
- Breast cancer. Some research suggests that injecting certain brands of European mistletoe extract (Iscador or Helixor) into the skin might reduce tumor growth and improve survival in people with breast cancer. But these results have been questioned. So far, there isn't enough reliable evidence to support using European mistletoe for this type of cancer. Stick to proven treatments.
- Colon cancer. Early research suggests that certain specific European mistletoe extracts (Iscador, Isorel, or Helixor), given by injection alone or with conventional therapy, might improve survival in people with colon cancer. But these results have been questioned. So far, there isn't enough reliable evidence to support using European mistletoe for this type of cancer. Stick to proven treatments.
- Common cold. Early research suggests that a specific European mistletoe extract (Iscador P or Iscador Qu), given by injection for 12 weeks, might not treat or prevent the common cold.
- Stomach cancer. Early research suggests that a specific European mistletoe extract (Iscador), given by injection, might improve survival in people with stomach cancer. But these results have been questioned. So far, there isn't enough reliable evidence to support using European mistletoe for this type of cancer. Stick to proven treatments
- Hepatitis C. Research about the effectiveness of European mistletoe in people with hepatitis C is conflicting. Some research suggests that injecting a specific extract of European mistletoe (Iscador Qu) may help to fight the infection that causes hepatitis C and improve quality of life in some people. Other research shows that injecting a different European mistletoe product (Abnobaviscum Quercus) does not help fight the hepatitis C infection but may improve symptoms of hepatitis C.
- Leukemia. Early research suggests that injecting a specific European mistletoe extract (Helixor) might increase the survival of people with chronic myeloid leukemia by more than 2 years.
- Liver cancer. Early research suggests that treatment with certain specific European mistletoe extracts (Iscador or Helixor) may improve survival in people with liver cancer. But these results have been questioned. So far, there isn't enough reliable evidence to support using European mistletoe for this type of cancer. Stick to proven treatments.
- Lung cancer. There is contradictory evidence about the effectiveness of European mistletoe on survival in people with lung cancer. Some evidence suggests that injecting European mistletoe extract (Iscador) can improve overall survival in people with lung cancer. But other evidence suggests that this treatment does not improve survival time or cancer response. So far, there isn't enough reliable evidence to support using European mistletoe for this type of cancer. Stick to proven treatments.
- Cancer of the tissue layer covering each lung, or malignant pleural effusions. Early research suggests that giving a specific European mistletoe extract (Helixor) into the pleural tissue decreases cancer in those with cancer of that area.
- Melanoma, a type of skin cancer. Early research suggests that injecting a specific European mistletoe extract (Iscador M) into the skin does not improve survival or increase the time period without the disease in people with melanoma.
- Quality of life. Early research suggests that injecting various European mistletoe extracts (PS76A2, Helixor, Isorel, and Eurixor) into the skin might improve quality of life and well-being in people with cancer when given alone or with chemotherapy.
- Radiation exposure. Early research suggests that injecting a specific type of European mistletoe extract (Iscador) into the skin for 5 weeks might reduce lung infections and improve symptoms, such as fatigue, sweating, headache, joint pain, emotional instability, and muscle pain in children with repeated lung infections caused by radiation exposure during the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
- Cancer of the uterus. Early research suggests that injecting a specific type of European mistletoe extract (Iscador) into the skin may to improve survival in people with cancer of the uterus.
- Side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
- High blood pressure.
- Internal bleeding.
- High cholesterol.
- Sleep disorders.
- Menstrual disorders.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
European mistletoe is POSSIBLY SAFE when used by mouth or when injected beneath the skin in appropriate amounts. Taking three berries or two leaves or less by mouth does not seem to cause serious side effects. However, larger amounts are LIKELY UNSAFE and cause serious side effects. European mistletoe can cause vomiting, diarrhea, cramping, and other side effects. Short-term, frequent use of European mistletoe might cause liver damage.
Injecting European mistletoe beneath the skin can cause fever, chills, allergic reactions, and other side effects.
Because the correct amount is sometimes hard to determine, do not take European mistletoe without the advice of your healthcare professional.
There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking European mistletoe if you are breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
“Auto-immune diseases” such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or other conditions: European mistletoe might cause the immune system to become more active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. If you have one of these conditions, it's best to avoid using European mistletoe.
Heart disease: There is some evidence European mistletoe might make heart disease worse. Don't use it if you have a heart problem.
Leukemia: Some test tube studies suggested European mistletoe might be effective against childhood leukemia. But benefits have not been shown in people. In fact, European mistletoe might make leukemia worse. If you have leukemia, don't take European mistletoe.
Liver disease: There is some concern that taking European mistletoe might harm the liver. In theory, European mistletoe might make liver diseases, such as hepatitis, worse. People with liver disease or a history of liver disease should avoid European mistletoe.
Organ transplant: European mistletoe might make the immune system more active. This would be a problem for people who have received an organ transplant. A more active immune system might increase the risk of organ rejection. If you have had an organ transplant, avoid European mistletoe.
Surgery: European mistletoe might affect blood pressure. There is a concern that it might interfere with blood pressure control during and after surgery. Stop taking European mistletoe at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
European mistletoe seems to decrease blood pressure. Taking European mistletoe along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
European mistletoe might harm the liver. In theory, taking European mistletoe along with medication that might also harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage.
Some medications that can harm the liver include acarbose (Precose, Prandase), amiodarone (Cordarone), atorvastatin (Lipitor), azathioprine (Imuran), carbamazepine (Tegretol), cerivastatin (Baycol), diclofenac (Voltaren), felbamate (Felbatol), fenofibrate (Tricor), fluvastatin (Lescol), gemfibrozil (Lopid), isoniazid, itraconazole, (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), leflunomide (Arava), lovastatin (Mevacor), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), nevirapine (Viramune), niacin, nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin), pioglitazone (Actos), pravastatin (Pravachol), pyrazinamide, rifampin (Rifadin), ritonavir (Norvir), rosiglitazone (Avandia), simvastatin (Zocor), tacrine (Cognex), tamoxifen, terbinafine (Lamisil), valproic acid, and zileuton (Zyflo).
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
European mistletoe seems to increase the activity of the immune system. By increasing the immune system, European mistletoe might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.
Some medications that decrease the activity of the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
The appropriate dose of European mistletoe depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for European mistletoe. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Bauer C, Oppel T, Rueff F, Przybilla B. Anaphylaxis to viscotoxins of mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005;94:86-9. View abstract.
Böcher E, Stumpf C, Büssing A, and et al. [Prospective assessment of toxicity of high dose Viscum album L. infusions in patients with progressive malignomas]. Zeitschrift fur Onkologie 1996;28(4):97-106.
Boie D and Gutsch J. [Helixor treatment in patients with liver metastases and liver cancer]. Krebsgeschehen 1979;11(5):141-144.
Bussing A, Regnery A, Schweizer K. Effects of Viscum album L. on cyclophosphamide-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro: sister chromatid exchanges and activation/proliferation marker expression. Cancer Lett 1995;94:199-205.. View abstract.
Cazacu, M., Oniu, T., Lungoci, C., Mihailov, A., Cipak, A., Klinger, R., Weiss, T., and Zarkovic, N. The influence of isorel on the advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer Biother.Radiopharm. 2003;18(1):27-34. View abstract.
Chernyshov VP, Omelchenko LI, Heusser P, and et al. Immunomodulatory actions of Viscum album (Iscador) in children with recurrent respiratory disease as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1997;5(3):141-146.
Chernyshov, V. P., Heusser, P., Omelchenko, L. I., Chernyshova, L. I., Vodyanik, M. A., Vykhovanets, E. V., Galazyuk, L. V., Pochinok, T. V., Gaiday, N. V., Gumenyuk, M. E., Zelinsky, G. M., Schaefermeyer, H., and Schaefermeyer, G. Immunomodulatory and clinical effects of Viscum album (Iscador M and Iscador P) in children with recurrent respiratory infections as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Am J Ther. 2000;7(3):195-203. View abstract.
Deliorman D, Calis I, Ergun F. A new acyclic monoterpene glucoside from Viscum album ssp. album. Fitoterapia 2001;72:101-5.
Dold U, Edler L, Maurer HC, et al., eds. [Adjuvant Cancer Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Bronchial Cancer: Multicentric Controlled Studies To Test the Efficacy of Iscador and Polyerga]. Stuttgart, Germany: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1991.
Douwes FR, Kalden M, Frank G, and et al. [Treatment of advanced colorectal carcinoma: efficacy test of the combination of 5-fluorouracil and tetrahydrofolic acid versus 5-fluorouracil and tetrahydrofolic acid in combination with an optimized Helixor treatment]. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie 1988;3:63-67.
Douwes, F. R., Wolfrum, D. I., and Migeod, F. [Results of a prospective randomized study on chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus "biological response modifier" in metastatic colorectal carcinoma]. Krebsgeschehen 1986;18(6):155-164.
Elsasser-Beile U, Leiber C, Wolf P, et al. Adjuvant intravesical treatment of superficial bladder cancer with a standardized mistletoe extract. J Urol 2005;174:76-9. View abstract.
Enesel, M. B., Acalovschi, I., Grosu, V., Sbarcea, A., Rusu, C., Dobre, A., Weiss, T., and Zarkovic, N. Perioperative application of the Viscum album extract Isorel in digestive tract cancer patients. Anticancer Res 2005;25(6C):4583-4590. View abstract.
Ernst E, Schmidt K, Steuer-Vogt MK. Mistletoe for cancer? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Int J Cancer 2003;107:262-7.. View abstract.
Finall AI, McIntosh SA, Thompson WD. Subcutaneous inflammation mimicking metastatic malignancy induced by injection of mistletoe extract. BMJ 2006;333:1293-4. View abstract.
Friess H, Beger HG, Kunz J, et al. Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with mistletoe: results of a pilot trial. Anticancer Res 1996 Mar-Apr;16:915-20. View abstract.
Gorter, R. W., van Wely, M., Reif, M., and Stoss, M. Tolerability of an extract of European mistletoe among immunocompromised and healthy individuals. Altern.Ther.Health Med 1999;5(6):37-38. View abstract.
Grossarth-Maticek R, Ziegler R. Prospective controlled cohort studies on long-term therapy of breast cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador). Forsch Komplementarmed 2006;13:285-92. View abstract.
Grossarth-Maticek, R. and Ziegler, R. Randomised and non-randomised prospective controlled cohort studies in matched-pair design for the long-term therapy of breast cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador): a re-analysis. Eur J Med Res 11-30-2006;11(11):485-495. View abstract.
Grossarth-Maticek, R. and Ziegler, R. Randomized and non-randomized prospective controlled cohort studies in matched pair design for the long-term therapy of corpus uteri cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador). Eur.J Med Res 3-31-2008;13(3):107-120. View abstract.
Grossarth-Matichek R, Kiene H, Baumgartner SM, Ziegler R. Use of Iscador, an extract of European mistletoe (Viscum album), in cancer treatment: prospective nonrandomized and randomized matched-pair studies nested within a cohort study. Altern Ther Health Med 2001;7:57-66, 68-72, 74-6 passim. View abstract.
Gutsch J, Berger H, Scholz G, and et al. [Prospective study of different adjuvant therapies (polychemotherapy, Helixor or control) of patients treated with radical mastectomy for breast cancer]. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie 1988;21:94-101.
Gutsch J. [On the state of therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia in adults with the mistletoe preparation Helixor]. Ärztezeitschrift für Naturheilverfahren Physikalische Medizin Und Rehabilitation 1982;23(9):523-544.
Harvey J, Colin-Jones DG. Mistletoe hepatitis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:186-7. View abstract.
Heiny BM. [Adjuvant treatment with standardized mistletoe extract reduces leukopenia and improves the quality of life of patients with advanced carcinoma of the breast getting palliative chemotherapy (VEC regimen)]. Krebsmedizin 1991;12:3-14.
Heinzerling L, von Baehr V, Liebenthal C, et al. Immunologic effector mechanisms of a standardized mistletoe extract on the function of human monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. J Clin Immunol 2006;26:347-59. View abstract.
Hoffmann J. [Iscador treatment of patients with liver metastasis]. Krebsgeschehen 1979;6:172-175.
Huber R, Barth H, Schmitt-Graff A, Klein R. Hypereosinophilia induced by high-dose intratumoral and peritumoral mistletoe application to a patient with pancreatic carcinoma. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:305-10. View abstract.
Huber R, Klein R, Lüdtke R, Werner M. [Frequency of the common cold in healthy subjects during exposure to a lectin-rich and a lectin-poor mistletoe preparation in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2001 Dec;8(6):354-8. View abstract.
Huber, R., Ludtke, R., Klassen, M., Muller-Buscher, G., Wolff-Vorbeck, G., and Scheer, R. Effects of a mistletoe preparation with defined lectin content on chronic hepatitis C: an individually controlled cohort study. Eur.J Med Res 9-28-2001;6(9):399-405. View abstract.
Jung ML, Baudino S, Ribereau-Gayon G, et al. Characterization of cytotoxic proteins from mistletoe (Viscum album L.). Cancer Lett 1990;51:103-8.. View abstract.
Kaegi E. Unconventional therapies for cancer: 3. Iscador. Task Force on Alternative Therapies of the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiative. CMAJ 1998;158:1157-9. View abstract.
Keil TU. [An argument for mistletoe]. Münch Med Wschr 1980;122(27):995.
Kim HJ, Kim H, Ahn JH, Suk JH. Liver injury induced by herbal extracts containing mistletoe and kudzu. J Altern Complement Med 2015;21(3):180-5. View abstract.
Kim M, Park Y, Lee S, and et al. [Comparative study on the effects of a Viscum album (L.) extract (mistletoe) and doxycycline for pleurodesis in patients with malignant pleural effusion]. Korean Journal of Medicine 1999;57(suppl 2):s121.
Kirchberger, I., Wetzel, D., and Finger, T. Development and validation of an instrument to measure the effects of a mistletoe preparation on quality of life of cancer patients: the Life Quality Lectin-53 (LQL-53) Questionnaire. Qual.Life Res. 2004;13(2):463-479. View abstract.
Kleeberg, U. R., Suciu, S., Brocker, E. B., Ruiter, D. J., Chartier, C., Lienard, D., Marsden, J., Schadendorf, D., and Eggermont, A. M. Final results of the EORTC 18871/DKG 80-1 randomised phase III trial. rIFN-alpha2b versus rIFN-gamma versus ISCADOR M versus observation after surgery in melanoma patients with either high-risk primary (thickness >3 mm) or regional lymph node metastasis. Eur.J Cancer 2004;40(3):390-402. View abstract.
Kuttan G, Kuttan R. Immunological mechanism of action of the tumor reducing peptide from mistletoe extract (NSC 635089) cellular proliferation. Cancer Lett 1992;66:123-30.. View abstract.
Kuttan G, Vasudevan DM, Kuttan R. Isolation and identification of a tumour reducing component from mistletoe extract (Iscador). Cancer Lett 1988;41:307-14.. View abstract.
Kuttan G, Vasudevan DM, Kuttan R. Presence of a receptor for the active component of Iscador in ascites fluid of tumour bearing mice. Cancer Lett 1989;48:223-7.. View abstract.
Leroi, R. [Postoperative treatment of breast carcinoma with Viscum album]. Helv Chir Acta 1977;44(3):403-414. View abstract.
Natl Cancer Inst. Mistletoe (PDQ). CancerNet. www.cancernet.nci.nih.gov/cam/mistletoe.htm#7 (Accessed 30 March 2001).
Olsnes S, Stirpe F, Sandvig K, Pihl A. Isolation and characterization of viscumin, a toxic lectin from Viscum album L. (mistletoe). J Biol Chem 1982;257:13263-70.. View abstract.
Piao, B. K., Wang, Y. X., Xie, G. R., Mansmann, U., Matthes, H., Beuth, J., and Lin, H. S. Impact of complementary mistletoe extract treatment on quality of life in breast, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer patients. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Anticancer Res 2004;24(1):303-309. View abstract.
Salzer G and Denck H. [Randomized study of recurrence prophylaxis with 5-Fluorouracil and a Viscum album preparation after resection for gastric carcinoma. Results of an interim evaluation]. Krebsgeschehen 1979;5:130-131.
Salzer G and Havelec L. [Adjuvant treatment with Iscador of operated stomach carcinoma: a prospective randomized study]. Dtsch Z Onkol 1983;4:106-111.
Salzer G, Danmayr E, Wutzlhofer F, and et al. [Adjuvant Iscador treatment of operated non small cell lung cancer]. Dtsch Zschr Onkol 1991;23(4):93-98.
Salzer G. [Practice of mistletoe therapy in surgical diseases]. Der Kassenarzt 1985;25(9):42, 45, 48.
Salzer, G. and Havelec, L. [Prevention of recurrence of bronchial carcinomas after surgery by means of the mistletoe extract Iscador. Results of a clinical study from 1969-1971]. Onkologie. 1978;1(6):264-267. View abstract.
Schaefermeyer G, Schaefermeyer H. Treatment of pancreatic cancer with Viscum album (Iscador): a retrospective study of 292 patients 1986-1996. Complement Ther Med 1998;6:172-7.
Schoffski P, Breidenbach I, Krauter J, et al. Weekly 24 h infusion of aviscumine (rViscumin): A phase I study in patients with solid tumours. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1431-8. View abstract.
Semiglasov, V. F., Stepula, V. V., Dudov, A., Lehmacher, W., and Mengs, U. The standardised mistletoe extract PS76A2 improves QoL in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant CMF chemotherapy: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre clinical trial. Anticancer Res. 2004;24(2C):1293-1302. View abstract.
Semiglazov, V. F., Stepula, V. V., Dudov, A., Schnitker, J., and Mengs, U. Quality of life is improved in breast cancer patients by Standardised Mistletoe Extract PS76A2 during chemotherapy and follow-up: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre clinical trial. Anticancer Res 2006;26(2B):1519-1529. View abstract.
Steuer-Vogt MK, Bonkowsky V, Ambrosch P, et al. The effect of an adjuvant mistletoe treatment programme in resected head and neck cancer patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Eur J Cancer 2001;37:23-31.. View abstract.
Stirpe F, Sandvig K, Olsnes S, et al. Action of viscumin, a toxic lectin from mistletoe, on cells in culture. J Biol Chem 1982;257:13271-7.. View abstract.
Styczynski J, Wysocki M. Alternative medicine remedies might stimulate viability of leukemic cells. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006;46:94-8. View abstract.
Timoshenko AV, Cherenkevich SN, Gabius HJ. Viscum album agglutinin-induced aggregation of blood cells and the lectin effects on neutrophil function. Biomed Pharmacother 1995;49:153-8.. View abstract.
Tusenius KJ, Spoek JM, Kramers CW. Iscador Qu for chronic hepatitis C: an exploratory study. Complement Ther Med 2001;9:12-6.. View abstract.
van Wely, M., Stoss, M., and Gorter, R. W. Toxicity of a standardized mistletoe extract in immunocompromised and healthy individuals. Am.J.Ther. 1999;6(1):37-43. View abstract.