Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
What Is Farxiga?
What Are Side Effects of Farxiga?
Common side effects of Farxiga include:
- yeast infections of the vagina or penis,
- urinary tract infections,
- changes in urination (including urgent need to urinate more often, discomfort when urinating, urinating in larger amounts, or at night),
- sore throat,
- runny or stuffy nose,
- back pain,
- elevated cholesterol or fat in the blood, or
- pain in the extremities.
Dosage for Farxiga
The recommended starting dose of Farxiga is 5 mg once daily, taken in the morning, with or without food.
What Drugs, Substances, or Supplements Interact with Farxiga?
Farxiga may interact with other drugs. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use.
Farxiga During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
During pregnancy, Farxiga should be used only if prescribed. It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.
Our Farxiga (dapagliflozin) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
The following important adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:
- Volume Depletion [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Ketoacidosis in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use with Insulin and Insulin Secretagogues [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier’s Gangrene) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Genital Mycotic Infections [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
FARXIGA has been evaluated in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in patients with heart failure. The overall safety profile of FARXIGA was consistent across the studied indications. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were observed only in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Clinical Trials In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Pool of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies for FARXIGA 5 and 10 mg for Glycemic Control
The data in Table 1 is derived from 12 glycemic control placebo-controlled studies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ranging from 12 to 24 weeks. In 4 studies FARXIGA was used as monotherapy, and in 8 studies FARXIGA was used as add-on to background antidiabetic therapy or as combination therapy with metformin [see Clinical Studies].
These data reflect exposure of 2338 patients to FARXIGA with a mean exposure duration of 21 weeks. Patients received placebo (N=1393), FARXIGA 5 mg (N=1145), or FARXIGA 10 mg (N=1193) once daily. The mean age of the population was 55 years and 2% were older than 75 years of age. Fifty percent (50%) of the population were male; 81% were White, 14% were Asian, and 3% were Black or African American. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 6 years, had a mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 8.3%, and 21% had established microvascular complications of diabetes. Baseline renal function was normal or mildly impaired in 92% of patients and moderately impaired in 8% of patients (mean eGFR 86 mL/min/1.73 m2).
Table 2 shows common adverse reactions associated with the use of FARXIGA. These adverse reactions were not present at baseline, occurred more commonly on FARXIGA than on placebo, and occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with either FARXIGA 5 mg or FARXIGA 10 mg.
Table 2: Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Studies of Glycemic Control Reported in ≥2% of Patients Treated with FARXIGA
|Adverse Reaction||% of Patients|
|Pool of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies|
|FARXIGA 5 mg|
|FARXIGA 10 mg|
|Female genital mycotic infections*||1.5||8.4||6.9|
|Urinary tract infections†||3.7||5.7||4.3|
|Male genital mycotic infections§||0.3||2.8||2.7|
|Discomfort with urination||0.7||1.6||2.1|
|Pain in extremity||1.4||2.0||1.7|
|* Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for females: vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vaginal infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginitis, genital infection, genital candidiasis, fungal genital infection, vulvitis, genitourinary tract infection, vulval abscess, and vaginitis bacterial. (N for females: Placebo=677, FARXIGA 5 mg=581, FARXIGA 10 mg=598).|
† Urinary tract infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: urinary tract infection, cystitis, Escherichia urinary tract infection, genitourinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, trigonitis, urethritis, kidney infection, and prostatitis.
‡ Increased urination includes the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported: pollakiuria, polyuria, and urine output increased.
§ Genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions, listed in order of frequency reported for males: balanitis, fungal genital infection, balanitis candida, genital candidiasis, genital infection male, penile infection, balanoposthitis, balanoposthitis infective, genital infection, and posthitis. (N for males: Placebo=716, FARXIGA 5 mg=564, FARXIGA 10 mg=595).
Pool of 13 Placebo-Controlled Studies for FARXIGA 10 mg for Glycemic Control
FARXIGA 10 mg was also evaluated in a larger glycemic control placebo-controlled study pool in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This pool combined 13 placebo-controlled studies, including 3 monotherapy studies, 9 add-on to background antidiabetic therapy studies, and an initial combination with metformin study. Across these 13 studies, 2360 patients were treated once daily with FARXIGA 10 mg for a mean duration of exposure of 22 weeks. The mean age of the population was 59 years and 4% were older than 75 years. Fifty-eight percent (58%) of the population were male; 84% were White, 9% were Asian, and 3% were Black or African American. At baseline, the population had diabetes for an average of 9 years, had a mean HbA1c of 8.2%, and 30% had established microvascular disease. Baseline renal function was normal or mildly impaired in 88% of patients and moderately impaired in 11% of patients (mean eGFR 82 mL/min/1.73 m2).
FARXIGA causes an osmotic diuresis, which may lead to a reduction in intravascular volume. Adverse reactions related to volume depletion (including reports of dehydration, hypovolemia, orthostatic hypotension, or hypotension) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for the 12-study and 13-study, short-term, placebo-controlled pools and for the DECLARE study are shown in Table 3 [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Table 3: Adverse Reactions Related to Volume Depletion* in Clinical Studies in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with FARXIGA
|Pool of 12 Placebo-Controlled Studies||Pool of 13 Placebo-Controlled Studies||DECLARE Study|
|Placebo||FARXIGA 5 mg||FARXIGA 10 mg||Placebo||FARXIGA 10 mg||Placebo||FARXIGA 10 mg|
|Overall population N (%)||N=1393|
|Patient Subgroup n (%)|
|Patients on loop diuretics||n=55|
|Patients with moderate renal impairment with eGFR ≥30 and <60 mL/min/1.73 m2||n=107|
|Patients ≥65 years of age||n=276|
|* Volume depletion includes reports of dehydration, hypovolemia, orthostatic hypotension, or hypotension.|
The frequency of hypoglycemia by study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [see Clinical Studies] is shown in Table 4. Hypoglycemia was more frequent when FARXIGA was added to sulfonylurea or insulin [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Table 4: Incidence of Severe Hypoglycemia* and Hypoglycemia with Glucose < 54 mg/dL† in Controlled Glycemic Control Clinical Studies in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
|Placebo/Active Control||FARXIGA 5 mg||FARXIGA 10 mg|
|Monotherapy (24 weeks)||N=75||N=64||N=70|
|Severe [n (%)]||0||0||0|
|Glucose <54 mg/dL [n (%)]||0||0||0|
|Add-on to Metformin (24 weeks)||N=137||N=137||N=135|
|Severe [n (%)]||0||0||0|
|Glucose <54 mg/dL [n (%)]||0||0||0|
|Add-on to Glimepiride (24 weeks)||N=146||N=145||N=151|
|Severe [n (%)]||0||0||0|
|Glucose <54 mg/dL [n (%)]||1 (0.7)||3 (2.1)||5 (3.3)|
|Add-on to Metformin and a Sulfonylurea (24 Weeks)||N=109||-||N=109|
|Severe [n (%)]||0||-||0|
|Glucose <54 mg/dL [n (%)]||3 (2.8)||-||7 (6.4)|
|Add-on to Pioglitazone (24 weeks)||N=139||N=141||N=140|
|Severe [n (%)]||0||0||0|
|Glucose <54 mg/dL [n (%)]||0||1 (0.7)||0|
|Add-on to DPP4 inhibitor (24 weeks)||N=226||–||N=225|
|Severe [n (%)]||0||–||1 (0.4)|
|Glucose <54 mg/dL [n (%)]||1 (0.4)||–||1 (0.4)|
|Add-on to Insulin with or without other OADs‡ (24 weeks)||N=197||N=212||N=196|
|Severe [n (%)]||1 (0.5)||2 (0.9)||2 (1.0)|
|Glucose <54 mg/dL [n (%)]||43 (21.8)||55 (25.9)||45 (23.0)|
|* Severe episodes of hypoglycemia were defined as episodes of severe impairment in consciousness or behavior, requiring external (third party) assistance, and with prompt recovery after intervention regardless of glucose level.|
† Episodes of hypoglycemia with glucose <54 mg/dL (3 mmol/L) were defined as reported episodes of hypoglycemia meeting the glucose criteria that did not also qualify as a severe episode.
‡ OAD = oral antidiabetic therapy.
In the DECLARE study [see Clinical Studies], severe events of hypoglycemia were reported in 58 (0.7%) out of 8574 patients treated with FARXIGA and 83 (1.0%) out of 8569 patients treated with placebo.
Genital Mycotic Infections
In the glycemic control trials, genital mycotic infections were more frequent with FARXIGA treatment. Genital mycotic infections were reported in 0.9% of patients on placebo, 5.7% on FARXIGA 5 mg, and 4.8% on FARXIGA 10 mg, in the 12-study placebo-controlled pool. Discontinuation from study due to genital infection occurred in 0% of placebo-treated patients and 0.2% of patients treated with FARXIGA 10 mg. Infections were more frequently reported in females than in males (see Table 1). The most frequently reported genital mycotic infections were vulvovaginal mycotic infections in females and balanitis in males. Patients with a history of genital mycotic infections were more likely to have a genital mycotic infection during the study than those with no prior history (10.0%, 23.1%, and 25.0% versus 0.8%, 5.9%, and 5.0% on placebo, FARXIGA 5 mg, and FARXIGA 10 mg, respectively). In the DECLARE study [see Clinical Studies], serious genital mycotic infections were reported in <0.1% of patients treated with FARXIGA and <0.1% of patients treated with placebo. Genital mycotic infections that caused study drug discontinuation were reported in 0.9% of patients treated with FARXIGA and <0.1% of patients treated with placebo.
Hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., angioedema, urticaria, hypersensitivity) were reported with FARXIGA treatment. In glycemic control studies, serious anaphylactic reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions and angioedema were reported in 0.2% of comparator-treated patients and 0.3% of FARXIGA-treated patients. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue use of FARXIGA; treat per standard of care and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve.
Ketoacidosis in Patients with Diabetes MellitusIn the DECLARE study [see Clinical Studies], events of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were reported in 27 out of 8574 patients in the FARXIGA-treated group and 12 out of 8569
patients in the placebo group. The events were evenly distributed over the study period.
Increases in Serum Creatinine and Decreases in eGFR
Initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors, including FARXIGA causes a small increase in serum creatinine and decrease in eGFR. In patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function at baseline, these changes in serum creatinine and eGFR generally occur within weeks of starting therapy and then stabilize. Increases that do not fit this pattern should prompt further evaluation to exclude the possibility of acute kidney injury [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. The acute effect on eGFR reverses after treatment discontinuation, suggesting acute hemodynamic changes may play a role in the renal function changes observed with FARXIGA.
Increase in Hematocrit
In the pool of 13 placebo-controlled studies of glycemic control, increases from baseline in mean hematocrit values were observed in FARXIGA-treated patients starting at Week 1 and continuing up to Week 16, when the maximum mean difference from baseline was observed. At Week 24, the mean changes from baseline in hematocrit were −0.33% in the placebo group and 2.30% in the FARXIGA 10 mg group. By Week 24, hematocrit values >55% were reported in 0.4% of placebo-treated patients and 1.3% of FARXIGA 10 mg-treated patients.
Increase in Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
In the pool of 13 placebo-controlled studies of glycemic control, changes from baseline in mean lipid values were reported in FARXIGA-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. Mean percent changes from baseline at Week 24 were 0.0% versus 2.5% for total cholesterol, and -1.0% versus 2.9% for LDL cholesterol in the placebo and FARXIGA 10 mg groups, respectively. In the DECLARE study [see Clinical Studies], mean changes from baseline after 4 years were 0.4 mg/dL versus -4.1 mg/dL for total cholesterol, and -2.5 mg/dL versus -4.4 mg/dL for LDL cholesterol, in FARXIGA-treated and the placebo groups, respectively.
Decrease in Serum Bicarbonate
In a study of concomitant therapy of FARXIGA 10 mg with exenatide extended-release (on a background of metformin), four patients (1.7%) on concomitant therapy had a serum bicarbonate value of less than or equal to 13 mEq/L compared to one each (0.4%) in the FARXIGA and exenatide-extended release treatment groups [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
DAPA-HF Heart Failure Study
No new adverse reactions were identified in the DAPA-HF heart failure study.
Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of FARXIGA in patients with diabetes mellitus. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- Acute Kidney Injury
- Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis
- Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier’s Gangrene)
Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Farxiga (Dapagliflozin Film-coated Tablets)