Alholva, Bird's Foot, Bockshornklee, Bockshornsame, Chandrika, Egypt Fenugreek, Fenogreco, Fenugrec, Foenugraeci Semen, Foenugreek, Greek Clover, Greek Hay, Greek Hay Seed, Hu Lu Ba, Medhika, Methi, Methika, Sénégrain, Sénégré, Trigonella, Trigonella Foenum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Trigonella foenugraecum, Trigonelle, Woo Lu Bar.
Fenugreek is an herb similar to clover that is native to the Mediterranean region, southern Europe, and western Asia. The seeds are used in cooking, to make medicine, or to hide the taste of other medicine. Fenugreek seeds smell and taste somewhat like maple syrup. Fenugreek leaves are eaten in India as a vegetable.
Fenugreek is taken by mouth for digestive problems such as loss of appetite, upset stomach, constipation, inflammation of the stomach (gastritis). Fenugreek is also used for diabetes, painful menstruation, polycystic ovary syndrome, and obesity. It is also used for conditions that affect heart health such as "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis) and for high blood levels of certain fats including cholesterol and triglycerides.
Fenugreek is used for kidney ailments, a vitamin deficiency disease called beriberi, mouth ulcers, boils, bronchitis, infection of the tissues beneath the surface of the skin (cellulitis), tuberculosis, chronic coughs, chapped lips, baldness, cancer, Parkinson's disease, and exercise performance.
Some men use fenugreek for hernia, erectile dysfunction (ED), male infertility, and other male problems. Both men and women use fenugreek to improve sexual interest.
Women who are breast-feeding sometimes use fenugreek to promote milk flow.
Fenugreek is sometimes used as a poultice. That means it is wrapped in cloth, warmed, and applied directly to the skin to treat local pain and swelling (inflammation), muscle pain, pain and swelling of lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), pain in the toes (gout), wounds, leg ulcers, and eczema.
In foods, fenugreek is included as an ingredient in spice blends. It is also used as a flavoring agent in imitation maple syrup, foods, beverages, and tobacco.
In manufacturing, fenugreek extracts are used in soaps and cosmetics.
How does it work?
Fenugreek appears to slow absorption of sugars in the stomach and stimulate insulin. Both of these effects lower blood sugar in people with diabetes. Fenugreek might also improve levels of testosterone and estrogen, therefore helping to improve interest in sex.
Possibly Effective for...
- Diabetes. Some research shows that consuming fenugreek seed, mixed with food during a meal, lowers blood sugar levels after the meal in people with type 2 diabetes. However, while taking 5-50 grams of fenugreek seed once or twice daily seems to work, lower doses of 2.5 grams don't seem to work. In people with type 1 diabetes, taking 50 grams of fenugreek seed powder twice daily seems to reduce the amount of sugar in the urine.
- Painful menstrual periods (dysmenorrhea). Taking 1800-2700 mg of fenugreek seed powder three times daily for the first 3 days of a menstrual period followed by 900 mg three times daily for the remainder of two menstrual cycles reduces pain in women with painful menstrual periods. The need for painkillers was also reduced.
- Increasing interest in sex. Taking 600 mg of a specific fenugreek seed extract (Libifem, Gencor Pacific Ltd.) each day seems to increase interest in sex in healthy younger women with a low sex drive.
- Improving sexual performance. Taking 600 mg of a specific fenugreek seed extract (Testofen, Gencor Pacific Ltd) each day seems to improve ability and interest in sex in older men that have started to lose interest and in healthy younger men.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Exercise performance. There are conflicting results regarding the effects of fenugreek on exercise performance. Some early research shows that taking 500 mg of fenugreek supplement (Indus Biotech, India) for 8 weeks decreases body fat and increases testosterone levels, but does not change muscle strength or endurance in young men. However, other research shows that taking 500 mg of fenugreek extract (Torabolic, Indus Biotech) daily for 8 weeks reduces body fat and increases leg and bench press performance in a similar group of young men. Also, other early research shows that taking 300 mg fenugreek chemicals (Fenu-FG, Indus Biotech Private Limited, Pune, India) each day might help men do more bench press exercises but it does not seem to help them lift more weight or do more leg press exercises.
- Heartburn. Research shows that taking a specific fenugreek product (FenuLife, Frutarom Belgium) before the two biggest meals of the day reduces symptoms of heartburn.
- High cholesterol. There is conflicting evidence about the effects of fenugreek on cholesterol levels. Early research shows that taking fenugreek seed reduces total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol. But the effects of fenugreek seed on high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol and triglycerides are inconsistent.
- Breast milk production. There are some reports that taking powdered fenugreek seed daily increases milk production in breastfeeding women. But evidence confirming this is limited. Some early research shows that drinking tea containing fenugreek, alone or along with other ingredients, increases milk volume. But other research suggests that taking capsules containing fenugreek three times daily for 21 days starting 5 days after giving birth does not affect breast-milk production.
- Male infertility. Early research suggests that taking fenugreek seed oil drops by mouth three times daily for 4 months improves sperm count in men with a low concentration of sperm. But taking the other parts of the fenugreek seed does not seem to have this effect.
- Weight loss. Early research shows that a fenugreek seed extract can reduce daily fat intake in overweight men when taken by mouth at a dose of 392 mg three times daily for 2-6 weeks. But a lower dose does not appear to have this effect. Neither dose affects weight, appetite, or fullness. Adding 4 or 8 grams of fenugreek fiber to breakfast seems to increase feelings of fullness and reduce hunger at lunchtime. But it's not clear if this increases weight loss.
- Parkinson's disease. Research suggests that taking fenugreek seed extract (Indus Biotech Private Limited, Pune) twice daily for 6 months does not improve symptoms in people with Parkinson's disease.
- Ovarian cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome). There are conflicting results regarding the effect of fenugreek for ovarian cysts. Research suggests that taking fenugreek seed extract (Goldarou Pharmaceutical Co. Isfahan Iran) daily for 8 weeks does not improve symptoms for women with ovarian cysts. However, other early research suggests that taking 1000 mg of a specific type of fenugreek seed extract (Furocyst, Cepham Inc., Piscataway, NJ) each day might reduce the size of the ovarian cysts and help to regulate the length of the menstrual cycle and time between having a period.
- Chapped lips.
- Chronic cough.
- "Hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis).
- Kidney disease.
- Mouth ulcers.
- Sexual problems (erectile dysfunction, ED).
- Stomach upset.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Fenugreek is LIKELY SAFE for people when taken by mouth in amounts normally found in foods. It is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts used for medicinal purposes (amounts larger than normally found in food) for up to 6 months. Side effects include diarrhea, stomach upset, bloating, gas, dizziness, headache, and a "maple syrup" odor in urine. Fenugreek can cause nasal congestion, coughing, wheezing, facial swelling, and severe allergic reactions in hypersensitive people. Fenugreek might lower blood sugar.
Breast-feeding: Fenugreek is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth to increase breast-milk flow in the short-term. Some research shows that taking 1725 mg of fenugreek three times daily for 21 days does not cause any side effects in infants.
Children: Fenugreek is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in children. Some reports have linked fenugreek tea to loss of consciousness in children. An unusual body odor resembling maple syrup may also occur in children drinking fenugreek tea.
Allergy to plants in the Fabaceae family: People who are allergic to other plants in the Fabaceae, including soybeans, peanuts, and green peas might also be allergic to fenugreek.
Diabetes: Fenugreek can affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use fenugreek.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Fenugreek might lower blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking fenugreek along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Fenugreek might slow blood clotting. Taking fenugreek along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
TheophyllineInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Fenugreek might reduce how much theophylline is absorbed in the body. In theory, using fenugreek while taking theophylline might reduce the effects of theophylline.
Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Fenugreek might also slow blood clotting. Taking fenugreek along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:br/>
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For diabetes: 5-50 grams of powdered fenugreek seed added to one or two meals daily for 4 days to 24 weeks has been used. A dose of 1 gram daily of an extract of fenugreek seeds has been used.
- For painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea): 1800-2700 mg of fenugreek seed powder three times daily for the first 3 days of menstruation, followed by 900 mg three times daily for the remainder of two menstrual cycles, has been used.
- For increasing interest in sex: 600 mg of fenugreek seed extract (Libifem, Gencor Pacific Ltd.) each day for two menstrual cycles.
- For improving sexual performance: 600 mg of fenugreek seed extract (Testofen, Gencor Pacific Ltd) each day alone or with magnesium 34 mg, zinc 30 mg, and vitamin B6 10 mg, for 6-12 weeks has been used.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Abascal, K and Yarnell E. Botanical galactagogues. Alternative & Complementary Therapies (ALTERN COMPLEMENT THER) 2008;14(6):288-294.
Abdel-Barry, J. A., Abdel-Hassan, I. A., Jawad, A. M., and al Hakiem, M. H. Hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum in healthy volunteers. East Mediterr.Health J 2000;6(1):83-88. View abstract.
Amin, A., Alkaabi, A., Al Falasi, S., and Daoud, S. A. Chemopreventive activities of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) against breast cancer. Cell Biol.Int 2005;29(8):687-694. View abstract.
Araee, M., Norouzi, M., Habibi, G., and Sheikhvatan, M. Toxicity of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) in bone marrow cell proliferation in rat. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 2009;22(2):126-130. View abstract.
Awadalla, M. Z., El Gedaily, A. M., El Shamy, A. E., and El Aziz, K. A. Studies on some Egyptian foods. Part 1: Biochemical and biological evaluation. Z.Ernahrungswiss. 1980;19(4):244-247. View abstract.
Bawadi, HA Maghaydah SN Tayyem RF Tayyem RF. The postprandial hypoglycemic activity of fenugreek seed and seeds extract in type 2 diabetics: A pilot study. Pharmacognosy Mag 2009;4(18):134-138.
Betzold, C. M. Galactagogues. J Midwifery Womens Health 2004;49(2):151-154. View abstract.
Beutin, L. and Martin, A. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 infection in Germany causes a paradigm shift with regard to human pathogenicity of STEC strains. J Food Prot. 2012;75(2):408-418. View abstract.
Blanco, J. [Stx2a-producing enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4-ST678. Microbiological diagnostic already, for this and other STEC/VTEC serotypes!]. Enferm.Infecc.Microbiol.Clin. 2012;30(2):84-89. View abstract.
Cicero, A. F., Derosa, G., and Gaddi, A. What do herbalists suggest to diabetic patients in order to improve glycemic control? Evaluation of scientific evidence and potential risks. Acta Diabetol. 2004;41(3):91-98. View abstract.
Dakam, W., Shang, J., Agbor, G., and Oben, J. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and albumin on the in vitro water-holding capacity and some physiological properties of Trigonella foenum graecum L. galactomannan in rats. J Med Food 2007;10(1):169-174. View abstract.
Damanik, R., Wahlqvist, M. L., and Wattanapenpaiboon, N. Lactagogue effects of Torbangun, a Bataknese traditional cuisine. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006;15(2):267-274. View abstract.
Devasena, T. and Venugopal, Menon P. Fenugreek seeds modulate 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced hepatic oxidative stress during colon carcinogenesis. Ital.J Biochem. 2007;56(1):28-34. View abstract.
El Basheir, Z. M. and Fouad, M. A. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts. J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol. 2002;32(3):725-736. View abstract.
Forinash, A. B., Yancey, A. M., Barnes, K. N., and Myles, T. D. The use of galactogogues in the breastfeeding mother. Ann.Pharmacother. 2012;46(10):1392-1404. View abstract.
Haddad PS, Depot M, Settaf A, and et al. Comparative study on the medicinal plants most recommended by traditional practitioners in Morocco and Canada. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants (J HERBS SPICES MEDICINAL PLANT) 2003;10(3):25-45.
Handa, T., Yamaguchi, K., Sono, Y., and Yazawa, K. Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2005;69(6):1186-1188. View abstract.
Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Moradi, L., Mehri, A., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review. Curr.Pharm.Des 2010;16(26):2935-2947. View abstract.
Hibasami, H., Moteki, H., Ishikawa, K., Katsuzaki, H., Imai, K., Yoshioka, K., Ishii, Y., and Komiya, T. Protodioscin isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) induces cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptosis in leukemic cell line H-60, but not in gastric cancer cell line KATO III. Int J Mol.Med 2003;11(1):23-26. View abstract.
Huggins KE. Fenugreek: one remedy for low milk production. 2011;
Ikeuchi, M., Yamaguchi, K., Koyama, T., Sono, Y., and Yazawa, K. Effects of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum greaecum) extract on endurance capacity in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2006;52(4):287-292. View abstract.
Kochhar, A. and Nagi, M. Effect of supplementation of traditional medicinal plants on blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics: a pilot study. J Med Food 2005;8(4):545-549. View abstract.
Kuppu RK, Srivastava A, Krishnaswami CV, and et al. Hypoglycaemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of 'methica churna' (Fenugreek). Antiseptic 1998;95:78-79.
Lakshminarayana, R., Aruna, G., Sangeetha, R. K., Bhaskar, N., Divakar, S., and Baskaran, V. Possible degradation/biotransformation of lutein in vitro and in vivo: isolation and structural elucidation of lutein metabolites by HPLC and LC-MS (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization). Free Radic.Biol.Med 10-1-2008;45(7):982-993. View abstract.
Losso, J. N., Holliday, D. L., Finley, J. W., Martin, R. J., Rood, J. C., Yu, Y., and Greenway, F. L. Fenugreek bread: a treatment for diabetes mellitus. J Med Food 2009;12(5):1046-1049. View abstract.
Low, Dog T. The use of botanicals during pregnancy and lactation. Altern.Ther.Health Med. 2009;15(1):54-58. View abstract.
Lu, F. R., Shen, L., Qin, Y., Gao, L., Li, H., and Dai, Y. Clinical observation on trigonella foenum-graecum L. total saponins in combination with sulfonylureas in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chin J Integr.Med 2008;14(1):56-60. View abstract.
Madar Z and Arad J. Effect of extracted fenugreek on post-prandial glucose levels in human diabetic subjects. Nutr Res 1989;9:691-692.
Mohan, V. and Balasubramanyam, M. Fenugreek and insulin resistance. J Assoc.Physicians India 2001;49:1055-1056. View abstract.
Mora, A., Herrrera, A., Lopez, C., Dahbi, G., Mamani, R., Pita, J. M., Alonso, M. P., Llovo, J., Bernardez, M. I., Blanco, J. E., Blanco, M., and Blanco, J. Characteristics of the Shiga-toxin-producing enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 German outbreak strain and of STEC strains isolated in Spain. Int Microbiol. 2011;14(3):121-141. View abstract.
Murakami, T., Kishi, A., Matsuda, H., and Yoshikawa, M. Medicinal foodstuffs. XVII. Fenugreek seed. (3): structures of new furostanol-type steroid saponins, trigoneosides Xa, Xb, XIb, XIIa, XIIb, and XIIIa, from the seeds of Egyptian Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. Chem Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 2000;48(7):994-1000. View abstract.
Muralidhara, Narasimhamurthy, K., Viswanatha, S., and Ramesh, B. S. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment of debitterized fenugreek powder in the mouse and rat. Food Chem Toxicol 1999;37(8):831-838. View abstract.
Nahas, R. and Moher, M. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Can Fam.Physician 2009;55(6):591-596. View abstract.
Neeraja A and Pajyalakshmi P. Hypoglycemic effect of processed fenugreek seeds in humans. J Food Sci Technol 1996;33(5):427-430.
O'Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507. View abstract.
Opdyke DL. Fenugreek absolute. Food Cosmet Toxicol 1978;16(Suppl 1):755-756.
Parildar, H., Serter, R., and Yesilada, E. Diabetes mellitus and phytotherapy in Turkey. J Pak.Med.Assoc. 2011;61(11):1116-1120. View abstract.
Parvizpur, A., Ahmadiani, A., and Kamalinejad, M. Probable role of spinal purinoceptors in the analgesic effect of Trigonella foenum (TFG) leaves extract. J Ethnopharmacol 3-8-2006;104(1-2):108-112. View abstract.
Prasanna M. Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek: a clinical study. Indian J Pharmacol 2000;32:34-36.
Raghuram TC, Sharma RD, Sivakumar B, and et al. Effect of fenugreek seeds on intravenous glucose disposition in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytotherapy Research 1994;8(2):83-86.
Rai, A., Mohapatra, S. C., and Shukla, H. S. Correlates between vegetable consumption and gallbladder cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2006;15(2):134-137. View abstract.
Rosser, A. The day of the yam. Nurs Times 5-1-1985;81(18):47. View abstract.
Ruby, B. C., Gaskill, S. E., Slivka, D., and Harger, S. G. The addition of fenugreek extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum) to glucose feeding increases muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise. Amino.Acids 2005;28(1):71-76. View abstract.
Sharma RD and Raghuram TC. Hypoglycaemic effect of fenugreek seeds in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Nutr Res 1990;10:731-739.
Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, and Dayasagar Rao V. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds. A clinical study. Phytother Res 1991;3(5):145-147.
Sharma RD, Sarkar A, Hazra DK, and et al. Toxicological evaluation of fenugreek seeds: a long term feeding experiment in diabetic patients. Phytother Res 1996;10(6):519-520.
Sharma RD, Sarkar A, Hazra DK, and et al. Use of fenugreek seed powder in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Nutrit Res 1996;16(8):1331-1339.
Sharma RD, Sarkar DK, Hazra B, and et al. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds: a chronic study in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 1996;10:332-334.
Sharma RD. Effect of fenugreek seeds and leaves on blood glucose and serum insulin responses in human subjects. Nutr Res 1986;6:1353-1364.
Sharma, RD. An evaluation of hypocholesterolemic factor of fenugreek seeds (T foenum graecum) in rats. Nutrit Rep Internat 1986;33:669-677.
Shekelle, P. G., Hardy, M., Morton, S. C., Coulter, I., Venuturupalli, S., Favreau, J., and Hilton, L. K. Are Ayurvedic herbs for diabetes effective? J Fam.Pract. 2005;54(10):876-886. View abstract.
Shojaii, A., Dabaghian, F. H., Goushegir, A., and Fard, M. A. Antidiabetic plants of Iran. Acta Med.Iran 2011;49(10):637-642. View abstract.
Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi V, and et al. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of fenugreek seeds and triphala as adjuncts to dietary therapy in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Perfusion 1998;11:124-130.
Slivka, D., Cuddy, J., Hailes, W., Harger, S., and Ruby, B. Glycogen resynthesis and exercise performance with the addition of fenugreek extract (4-hydroxyisoleucine) to post-exercise carbohydrate feeding. Amino.Acids 2008;35(2):439-444. View abstract.
Srinivasan, K. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2005;56(6):399-414. View abstract.
Swafford S, Berens P. Effect of fenugreek on breast milk production. 2000;6(3)
Thirunavukkarasu V and Anuradha CV. Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants (J HERBS SPICES MEDICINAL PLANT) 2006;12(3):13-25.
Thompson Coon, J. S. and Ernst, E. Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic view. J Fam.Pract. 2003;52(6):468-478. View abstract.
Vajifdar, B. U., Goyal, V. S., Lokhandwala, Y. Y., Mhamunkar, S. R., Mahadik, S. P., Gawad, A. K., Halankar, S. A., and Kulkarni, H. L. Is dietary fiber beneficial in chronic ischemic heart disease? J Assoc.Physicians India 2000;48(9):871-876. View abstract.
Vijayakumar, M. V., Pandey, V., Mishra, G. C., and Bhat, M. K. Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds is mediated through inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDL receptor. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 2010;18(4):667-674. View abstract.
Waqas, M. K., Akhtar, N., Ahmad, M., Murtaza, G., Khan, H. M., Iqbal, M., Rasul, A., and Bhatti, N. S. Formulation and characterization of a cream containing extract of fenugreek seeds. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2010;67(2):173-178. View abstract.
Wilborn C, Bushey B, Poole C, and et al. Effects of Torabolic supplementation on strength and body composition during an 8-week resistance training program. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2008;5(1):11.
Woodgate DE and Conquer JA. Effects of a stimulant-free dietary supplement on body weight and fat loss in obese adults: a six-week exploratory study. Current Therapeutic Research (CURR THER RES) 2003;64(4):248-262.
Yoshinari, O. and Igarashi, K. Anti-diabetic effect of trigonelline and nicotinic acid, on KK-A(y) mice. Curr Med Chem 2010;17(20):2196-2202. View abstract.
Zapantis, A., Steinberg, J. G., and Schilit, L. Use of herbals as galactagogues. J Pharm Pract. 2012;25(2):222-231. View abstract.
Zhao, H. Q., Qu, Y., Wang, X. Y., Lu, X. Y., Zhang, X. H., and Hattori, M. [Determination of trigonelline by HPLC and study on its pharmacokinetics]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 2003;38(4):279-282. View abstract.
Zuppa, A. A., Sindico, P., Orchi, C., Carducci, C., Cardiello, V., and Romagnoli, C. Safety and efficacy of galactogogues: substances that induce, maintain and increase breast milk production. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;13(2):162-174. View abstract.
Abdo MS, al-Kafawi AA. Experimental studies on the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (abstract). Planta Med 1969;17:14-8. View abstract.
Acharya S, Srichamroen A, Basu S, Ooraikul B, Basu T. Improvement in the nutraceutical properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2006;28(Suppl. 1):1-9.
Ahsan SK, Tariq M, Ageel AM, et al. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Ammi majus on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1989;26:249-54. View abstract.
Al-Jenoobi FI, Ahad A, Mahrous GM, Al-Mohizea AM, AlKharfy KM, Al-Suwayeh SA. Effects of fenugreek, garden cress, and black seed on theophylline pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs. Pharm Biol 2015;53(2):296-300. View abstract.
Al-khalisy MHH. Treatment of Men Infertility using Low doses of Fenugreek Oil Extract. Advances Life Sci Technol 2015;29:13-16.
Arafa MH, Mohammad NS, Atteia HH. Fenugreek seed powder mitigates cadmium-induced testicular damage and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2014 Sep;66(7):293-300. View abstract.
Aswar U, Bodhankar SL, Mohan V, Thakurdesai PA. Effect of furostanol glycosides from Trigonella foenum-graecum on the reproductive system of male albino rats. Phytother Res. 2010 Oct;24(10):1482-8. View abstract.
Bartley GB, Hilty MD, Andreson BD, et al. "Maple-syrup" urine odor due to fenugreek ingestion. N Engl J Med 1981;305:467. View abstract.
Bawadi HA, Maghaydah SN, Tayyem RF, Tayyem RF. The postprandial hypoglycemic activity of fenugreek seed and seeds extract in type 2 diabetics: A pilot study. Pharmacognosy Mag 2009;4(18):134-8.
Bhardwaj PK, Dasgupta DJ, Prashar BS, Kaushal SS. Control of hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia by plant product. J Assoc Physicians India 1994;42:33-5. View abstract.
Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1997;56:379-84. View abstract.
Broca C, Manteghetti M, Gross R, et al. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: effects of synthetic and natural analogues on insulin secretion. Eur J Pharmacol 2000;390:339-45. View abstract.
Chevassus H, Gaillard JB, Farret A, et al. A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010;66(5):449-55. View abstract.
Chevassus H, Molinier N, Costa F, et al. A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009;65(12):1175-8. View abstract.
DiSilvestro RA, Verbruggen MA, Offutt EJ. Anti-heartburn effects of a fenugreek fiber product. Phytother Res 2011;25:88-91. View abstract.
Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Faeste CK, Namork E, Lindvik H. Allergenicity and antigenicity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) proteins in foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123(1):187-94. View abstract.
Flammang AM, Cifone MA, Erexson GL, Stankowski LF Jr. Genotoxicity testing of a fenugreek extract. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:1769-75. View abstract.
Gabay MP. Galactogogues: medications that induce lactation. J Hum Lact 2002;18:274-9. View abstract.
Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. J Assoc Physicians India 2001;49:1057-61. View abstract.
Hamden K, Jaouadi B, Carreau S, Aouidet A, El-Fazaa S, Gharbi N, Elfeki A. Potential protective effect on key steroidogenesis and metabolic enzymes and sperm abnormalities by fenugreek steroids in testis and epididymis of surviving diabetic rats. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2010 Jul;116(3):146-55. View abstract.
Hannan JM, Rokeya B, Faruque O, et al. Effect of soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum graecum on glycemic, insulinemic, lipidemic and platelet aggregation status of Type 2 diabetic model rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;88:73-7. View abstract.
Hassanzadeh Bashtian M, Emami SA, Mousavifar N, Esmaily HA, Mahmoudi M, Mohammad Poor AH. Evaluation of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.), Effects Seeds Extract on Insulin Resistance in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Iran J Pharm Res 2013;12(2):475-81. View abstract.
Huggins KE. Fenugreek: one remedy for low milk production. www.breastfeedingonline.com/fenuhugg.shtml (accessed 04/10/14).
Kassaian N, Azadbakht L, Forghani B, Amini M. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2009;79(1):34-9. View abstract.
King LA, Nogareda F, Weill FX, Mariani-Kurkdjian P, Loukiadis E, Gault G, Jourdan-DaSilva N, Bingen E, Macé M, Thevenot D, Ong N, Castor C, Noël H, Van Cauteren D, Charron M, Vaillant V, Aldabe B, Goulet V, Delmas G, Couturier E, Le Strat Y, Combe C, Delmas Y, Terrier F, Vendrely B, Rolland P, de Valk H. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 associated with organic fenugreek sprouts, France, June 2011. Clin Infect Dis 2012;54(11):1588-94. View abstract.
Lambert J, Cormier J. Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21:509-12. View abstract.
Madar Z, Abel R, Samish S, Arad J. Glucose-lowering effect of fenugreek in non-insulin dependent diabetics. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988;42:51-4. View abstract.
Madar Z, Thorne R. Dietary fiber. Prog Food Nutr Sci 1987;11:153-74. View abstract.
Mathern JR, Raatz SK, Thomas W, Slavin JL. Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects. Phytother Res 2009;23(11):1543-8. View abstract.
Nathan J, Panjwani S, Mohan V, Joshi V, Thakurdesai PA. Efficacy and safety of standardized extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L seeds as an adjuvant tocL-Dopa in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease. Phytother Res 2014;28(2):172-8. View abstract.
Neelakantan N, Narayanan M, de Souza RJ, van Dam RM. Effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) intake on glycemia: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Nutr J 2014;13:7. View abstract.
Pathak P, Srivastava S, Grover S. Development of food products based on millets, legumes and fenugreek seeds and their suitability in the diabetic diet. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000;51:409-14.. View abstract.
Patil SP, Niphadkar PV, Bapat MM. Allergy to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997;78:297-300. View abstract.
Raghuram TC, Sharma RD, Sivakumar B, et al. Effect of fenugreek seeds on intravenous glucose disposition in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 1994;8(2):83-6.
Rao A, Steels E, Beccaria G, Inder WJ, Vitetta L. Influence of a Specialized Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract (Libifem), on Testosterone, Estradiol and Sexual Function in Healthy Menstruating Women, a Randomised Placebo Controlled Study. Phytother Res. 2015 Aug;29(8):1123-30. View abstract.
Rao A, Steels E, Inder WJ, Abraham S, Vitetta L. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study. Aging Male. 2016 Jun;19(2):134-42. View abstract.
Reeder C, Legrand A, O'Connor-Von SK. The Effect of Fenugreek on Milk Production and Prolactin Levels in Mothers of Preterm Infants. Clinical Lactation 2013;4(4):159-165.
Sauvaire Y, Petit P, Broca C, et al. 4-hydroxyisoleucine. A novel amino acid potentiator of insulin secretion. Diabetes 1998;47:206-10. View abstract.
Sewell AC, Mosandl A, Bohles H. False diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease owing to ingestion of herbal tea. N Engl J Med 1999;341:769.. View abstract.
Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Dayasagar Rao V. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds. A clinical study. Phytother Res 1991;3(5):145-7.
Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:301-6. View abstract.
Sharma RD, Raghuram TC. Hypoglycaemic effect of fenugreek seeds in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Nutr Res 1990;10:731-9.
Sharma RD, Sarkar A, Hazra DK, et al. Use of fenugreek seed powder in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res 1996;16(8):1331-9.
Sharma RD, Sarkar DK, Hazra B, et al. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds: a chronic study in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 1996;10:332-4.
Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi V, et al. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of fenugreek seeds and triphala as adjuncts to dietary therapy in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Perfusion (Munich) 1998;11:124-30.
Sowmya P, Rajyalakshmi P. Hypocholesterolemic effect of germinated fenugreek seeds in human subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1999;53:359-65.. View abstract.
Steels E, Rao A, Vitetta L. Physiological aspects of male libido enhanced by standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and mineral formulation. Phytother Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):1294-300. View abstract.
Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, Boonkaew S, Suthisisang CC. Meta-analysis of the effect of herbal supplement on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;137(3):1328-1333. View abstract.
Swafford S, Berens P. Effect of fenugreek on breast milk volume. Abstract presented at: 5th International Meeting of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine; September 11-13,2000, Tucson, Arizona.
Swaroop A, Jaipuriar AS, Gupta SK, Bagchi M, Kumar P, Preuss HG, Bagchi D. Efficacy of a Novel Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, Furocyst) in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Int J Med Sci. 2015 Oct 3;12(10):825-31. View abstract.
Tolmunen T, Voutilainen S, Hintikka J, et al. Dietary folate and depressive symptoms are associated in middle-aged Finnish men. J Nutr 2003;133:3233-6.. View abstract.
Turkyilmaz C, Onal E, Hirfanoglu IM, et al. The effect of galactagogue herbal tea on breast milk production and short-term catch-up of birth weight in the first week of life. J Altern Complement Med 2011;17(2):139-42. View abstract.
Wankhede S, Mohan V, Thakurdesai P. Beneficial effects of fenugreek glycoside supplementation in male subjects during resistance training: a randomized controlled pilot study, J. Sport and Health Sci. 2016. 6: 176-182.
Wilborn C, Bushey B, Poole C, et al. Effects of Torabolic supplementation on strength and body composition during an 8-week resistance training program. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008;5(1):11.
Wilborn C, Taylor L, Poole C, et al. Effects of a purported aromatase and 5alpha-reductase inhibitor on hormone profiles in college-age men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2010;20(6):457-65. View abstract.
Yalcin SS, Tekinalp G, Ozalp I. Peculiar odor of traditional food and maple syrup urine disease. Pediatr Int 1999;41:108-9.
Younesy S, Amiraliakbari S, Esmaeili S, Alavimajd H, Nouraei S. Effects of fenugreek seed on the severity and systemic symptoms of dysmenorrhea. J Reprod Infertil 2014;15(1):41-8. View abstract.