Fisher's exact test: A statistical test of independence much used in medical research. It tests the independence of rows and columns in a 2 X 2 contingency table (with 2 horizontal rows crossing 2 vertical columns creating 4 places for data) based on the exact sampling distribution of the observed frequencies. Hence it is an "exact" test. Devised by the British geneticist and biostatistician R. A. Fisher (1890-1962).
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