FluMist Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal) is a live quadrivalent vaccine for administration by intranasal spray. FluMist Quadrivalent contains four vaccine virus strains: an A/H1N1 strain, an A/H3N2 strain and two B strains. FluMist Quadrivalent contains B strains from both the B/Yamagata/16/88 and the B/Victoria/2/87 lineages. FluMist Quadrivalent is manufactured according to the same process as FluMist.
The influenza virus strains in FluMist Quadrivalent are (a) cold-adapted (ca) (i.e., they replicate efficiently at 25°C, a temperature that is restrictive for replication of many wild-type influenza viruses); (b) temperature-sensitive (ts) (i.e., they are restricted in replication at 37°C (Type B strains) or 39°C (Type A strains), temperatures at which many wild-type influenza viruses grow efficiently); and (c) attenuated (att) (i.e., they do not produce classic influenza-like illness in the ferret model of human influenza infection).
No evidence of reversion has been observed in the recovered vaccine strains that have been tested (135 of possible 250 recovered isolates) using FluMist [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. For each of the four reassortant strains in FluMist Quadrivalent, the six internal gene segments responsible for ca, ts, and att phenotypes are derived from a master donor virus (MDV), and the two segments that encode the two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are derived from the corresponding antigenically relevant wild-type influenza viruses. Thus, the four viruses contained in FluMist Quadrivalent maintain the replication characteristics and phenotypic properties of the MDV and express the HA and NA of wild-type viruses. For the Type A MDV, at least five genetic loci in three different internal gene segments contribute to the ts and att phenotypes. For the Type B MDV, at least three genetic loci in two different internal gene segments contribute to both the ts and att properties; five genetic loci in three gene segments control the ca property.
Each of the reassortant strains in FluMist Quadrivalent express the HA and NA of wild- type viruses that are related to strains expected to circulate during the 2022-2023 influenza season. Three of the viruses (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and one B strain) have been recommended by the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) for inclusion in the annual trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccine formulations. An additional B strain has been recommended by the USPHS for inclusion in the quadrivalent influenza vaccine formulation.
Specific pathogen-free (SPF) eggs are inoculated with each of the reassortant strains and incubated to allow vaccine virus replication. The allantoic fluid of these eggs is harvested, pooled, and then clarified by filtration. The virus is concentrated by ultracentrifugation and diluted with stabilizing buffer to obtain the final sucrose and potassium phosphate concentrations. The viral harvests are then sterile filtered to produce the monovalent bulks. Each lot is tested for ca, ts, and att phenotypes and is also tested extensively by in vitro and in vivo methods to detect adventitious agents. Monovalent bulks from the four strains are subsequently blended and diluted as required to attain the desired potency with stabilizing buffers to produce the quadrivalent bulk vaccine. The bulk vaccine is then filled directly into individual sprayers for nasal administration.
Each pre-filled refrigerated FluMist Quadrivalent sprayer contains a single 0.2 mL dose. Each 0.2 mL dose contains 106.5-7.5 FFU (fluorescent focus units) of live attenuated influenza virus reassortants of each of the four strains: A/Victoria/1/2020 (H1N1) (an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09 - like virus), A/Norway/16606/2021 (H3N2) (an A/Darwin/9/2021 (H3N2) - like virus), B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage), and B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Victoria lineage). Each 0.2 mL dose also contains 0.188 mg/dose monosodium glutamate, 2.00 mg/dose hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, 2.42 mg/dose arginine, 13.68 mg/dose sucrose, 2.26 mg/dose dibasic potassium phosphate, and 0.96 mg/dose monobasic potassium phosphate. Each dose contains residual amounts of ovalbumin (< 0.024 mcg/dose), and may also contain residual amounts of gentamicin sulfate (< 0.015 mcg/mL), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (< 2.3 mcg/dose). FluMist Quadrivalent contains no preservatives.
The tip attached to the sprayer is equipped with a nozzle that produces a fine mist that is primarily deposited in the nose and nasopharynx. FluMist Quadrivalent is a colorless to pale yellow suspension and is clear to slightly cloudy.
FluMist® Quadrivalent is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of influenza disease caused by influenza A subtype viruses and type B viruses contained in the vaccine [see DESCRIPTION].
FluMist Quadrivalent is approved for use in persons 2 through 49 years of age.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
FOR INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATION BY A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER.
Administer FluMist Quadrivalent according to the following schedule:
|2 years through 8 years||1 or 2 dosesa, 0.2 mLb each||If 2 doses, administer at least 1 month apart|
|9 years through 49 years||1 dose, 0.2 mLb||-|
|a 1 or 2 doses depends on vaccination history as per Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices annual recommendations on prevention and control of influenza with vaccines.
b Administer as 0.1 mL per nostril.
“-” indicates information is not applicable.
Each sprayer contains a single dose (0.2 mL) of FluMist Quadrivalent; administer approximately one half of the contents of the single-dose intranasal sprayer into each nostril (each sprayer contains 0.2 mL of vaccine). Refer to Figure 1 for step-by-step administration instructions. Following administration, dispose of the sprayer according to the standard procedures for medical waste (e.g., sharps container or biohazard container).
|Note: Active inhalation (i.e., sniffing) is not required by the patient during vaccine administration.|
Dosage Forms And Strengths
Each 0.2 mL dose is a suspension supplied in a single-dose pre-filled intranasal sprayer.
FluMist Quadrivalent is supplied in a package of 10 pre-filled, single-dose (0.2 mL) intranasal sprayers.
The single-use intranasal sprayer is not made with natural rubber latex.
Carton containing 10 intranasal sprayers: NDC 66019-309-10
Single intranasal sprayer: NDC 66019-309-01
Storage And Handling
The cold chain [2-8°C (35-46°F)] must be maintained when transporting FluMist Quadrivalent.
FLUMIST QUADRIVALENT SHOULD BE STORED IN A REFRIGERATOR BETWEEN 2-8°C (35-46°F) UPON RECEIPT. THE PRODUCT MUST BE USED BEFORE THE EXPIRATION DATE ON THE SPRAYER LABEL.
DO NOT FREEZE.
Keep FluMist Quadrivalent sprayer in outer carton in order to protect from light.
A single temperature excursion up to 25°C (77°F) for 12 hours has been shown to have no adverse impact on the vaccine. After a temperature excursion, the vaccine should be returned immediately to the recommended storage condition (2°C – 8°C) and used as soon as feasible. Subsequent excursions are not permitted.
Once FluMist Quadrivalent has been administered or has expired, the sprayer should be disposed of according to the standard procedures for medical waste (e.g., sharps container or biohazard container).
1. Lasky T, Terracciano GJ, Magder L, et al. The Guillain-Barré syndrome and the 1992 – 1993 and 1993 – 1994 influenza vaccines. N Engl J Med 1998;339(25):1797-802.
Manufactured by: MedImmune, LLC Gaithersburg, MD 20878. Revised: Aug 2022
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a vaccine cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another vaccine and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
This safety experience with FluMist is relevant to FluMist Quadrivalent because both vaccines are manufactured using the same process and have overlapping compositions [see DESCRIPTION]. A total of 9537 children and adolescents 1 through 17 years of age and 3041 adults 18 through 64 years of age received FluMist in randomized, placebo-controlled Studies D153-P501, AV006, D153-P526, AV019, and AV009 [3 used Allantoic Fluid containing Sucrose-Phosphate-Glutamate (AF-SPG) placebo, and 2 used saline placebo] described below. In addition, 4179 children 6 through 59 months of age received FluMist in Study MI-CP111, a randomized, active-controlled trial. Among pediatric FluMist recipients 6 months through 17 years of age, 50% were female; in the study of adults, 55% were female. In MI-CP111, AV006, D153-P526, AV019, and AV009, subjects were White (71%), Hispanic (11%), Asian (7%), Black (6%), and Other (5%), while in D153-P501, 99% of subjects were Asian.
A total of 1382 children and adolescents 2 through 17 years of age and 1198 adults 18 through 49 years of age received FluMist Quadrivalent in randomized, active-controlled Studies MI-CP208 and MI-CP185. Among pediatric FluMist Quadrivalent recipients 2 through 17 years of age, 51% were female; in the study of adults, 55% were female. In Studies MI-CP208 and MI-CP185, subjects were White (73%), Asian (1%), Black or African-American (19%), and Other (7%); overall, 22% were Hispanic or Latino.
Flumist In Children And Adolescents
The safety of FluMist was evaluated in an AF-SPG placebo-controlled Study (AV019) conducted in a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in children 1 through 17 years of age (FluMist = 6473, placebo = 3216). An increase in asthma events, captured by review of diagnostic codes, was observed in children younger than 5 years of age who received FluMist compared to those who received placebo (Relative Risk 3.53, 90% CI: 1.1, 15.7).
In Study MI-CP111, children 6 through 59 months of age were randomized to receive FluMist or inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur Inc. Wheezing requiring bronchodilator therapy or accompanied by respiratory distress or hypoxia was prospectively monitored from randomization through 42 days post last vaccination. Hospitalization due to all causes was prospectively monitored from randomization through 180 days post last vaccination. Increases in wheezing and hospitalization (for any cause) were observed in children 6 months through 23 months of age who received FluMist compared to those who received inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine, as shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Percentages of Children with Hospitalizations and Wheezing from Study MI-CP111a
|Adverse Reaction||Age Group||FluMist
|a NCT00128167; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
b Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur Inc., administered intramuscularly.
c Hospitalization due to any cause from randomization through 180 days post last vaccination.
d Wheezing requiring bronchodilator therapy or accompanied by respiratory distress or hypoxia evaluated from randomization through 42 days post last vaccination.
Most hospitalizations observed were due to gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections and occurred more than 6 weeks post vaccination. In post-hoc analysis, rates of hospitalization in children 6 through 11 months of age were 6.1% (42/684) in FluMist recipients and 2.6% (18/683) in inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine recipients.
Table 2 shows pooled solicited adverse reactions occurring in at least 1% of FluMist recipients and at a higher rate (≥ 1% rate difference after rounding) compared to placebo post Dose 1 for Studies D153-P501 and AV006, and solicited adverse reactions post Dose 1 for Study MI-CP111. Solicited adverse reactions were those about which parents/guardians were specifically queried after receipt of FluMist, placebo, or control vaccine. In these studies, solicited reactions were documented for 10 days post vaccination. Solicited reactions following the second dose of FluMist were similar to those following the first dose and were generally observed at a lower frequency.
Table 2: Summary of Solicited Adverse Reactions Observed Within 10 Days after Dose 1 for FluMist and Either Placebo or Active Control Recipients in Children 2 through 6 Years of Age
|Studies D153-P501a & AV006||Study MI-CP111b|
N = 876-1759e
N = 424-1034e
N = 2170e
N = 2165e
|Decreased Activity (Lethargy)||14||11||7||9|
|> 100°F Oral||16||11||13||11|
|> 100 - ≤ 101°F Oral||9||6||6||4|
|> 101 - ≤ 102°F Oral||4||3||4||3|
|a NCT00192244; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
b NCT00128167; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
c Study D153-P501 used saline placebo; Study AV006 used AF-SPG placebo.
d Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur Inc., administered intramuscularly.
e Number of evaluable subjects (those who returned diary cards) for each reaction. Range reflects differences in data collection between the 2 pooled studies.
In clinical studies D153-P501 and AV006, unsolicited adverse reactions in children occurring in at least 1% of FluMist recipients and at a higher rate (≥ 1% rate difference after rounding) compared to placebo were abdominal pain (2% FluMist vs. 0% placebo) and otitis media (3% FluMist vs. 1% placebo). An additional adverse reaction identified in the active-controlled trial MI-CP111 occurring in at least 1% of FluMist recipients and at a higher rate (≥ 1% rate difference after rounding) compared to active control was sneezing (2% FluMist vs. 1% active control).
In a separate saline placebo-controlled trial (D153-P526) in a subset of older children and adolescents 9 through 17 years of age who received one dose of FluMist, the solicited adverse reactions as well as unsolicited adverse reactions reported were generally consistent with observations from the trials in Table 2. Abdominal pain was reported in 12% of FluMist recipients compared to 4% of placebo recipients and decreased activity was reported in 6% of FluMist recipients compared to 0% of placebo recipients.
In Study AV018, in which FluMist was concomitantly administered with Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live (MMR, manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc.) and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc.) to children 12 through 15 months of age, adverse reactions were similar to those seen in other clinical trials of FluMist.
Flumist Quadrivalent In Children And Adolescents
In the randomized, active-controlled Study MI-CP208 that compared FluMist Quadrivalent and FluMist in children and adolescents 2 through 17 years of age, the rates of solicited adverse reactions reported were similar between subjects who received FluMist Quadrivalent and FluMist. Table 3 includes solicited adverse reactions post Dose 1 from Study MI-CP208 that either occurred at a higher rate (≥ 1% rate difference after rounding) in FluMist Quadrivalent recipients compared to FluMist recipients or were identified in previous FluMist clinical studies (see Table 2). In this study, solicited adverse reactions were documented for 14 days post vaccination. Solicited adverse reactions post Dose 2 were observed at a lower frequency compared to those post Dose 1 for FluMist Quadrivalent and were similar between subjects who received FluMist Quadrivalent and FluMist.
Table 3: Summary of Solicited Adverse Reactionsa Observed Within 14 Days after Dose 1 for FluMist Quadrivalent and FluMist Recipients in Study MI-CP208b in Children and Adolescents 2 through 17 Years of Age
N = 1341-1377d
N = 901-920d
|Runny Nose/Nasal Congestion||32||32|
|Decreased Activity (Lethargy)||10||10|
|> 100°F by any route||7||5|
|> 100 - ≤ 101°F by any route||3||2|
|> 101 - ≤ 102°F by any route||2||2|
|a Solicited adverse reactions that occurred at a higher rate (≥ 1% rate difference after rounding) in FluMist Quadrivalent recipients compared to FluMist recipients or were identified in previous FluMist trials (see Table 2).
b NCT01091246; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
c Represents pooled data from the two FluMist study arms [see Clinical Studies].
d Number of evaluable subjects for each event.
In Study MI-CP208, no unsolicited adverse reactions occurred at a higher rate (1% or greater) in FluMist Quadrivalent recipients compared to FluMist recipients.
FluMist In Adults
In adults 18 through 49 years of age in Study AV009, solicited adverse reactions occurring in at least 1% of FluMist recipients and at a higher rate (≥ 1% rate difference after rounding) compared to AF-SPG placebo include runny nose (44% FluMist vs. 27% placebo), headache (40% FluMist vs. 38% placebo), sore throat (28% FluMist vs. 17% placebo), tiredness/weakness (26% FluMist vs. 22% placebo), muscle aches (17% FluMist vs. 15% placebo), cough (14% FluMist vs. 11% placebo), and chills (9% FluMist vs. 6% placebo).
In Study AV009, unsolicited adverse reactions occurring in at least 1% of FluMist recipients and at a higher rate (≥ 1% rate difference after rounding) compared to placebo were nasal congestion (9% FluMist vs. 2% placebo) and sinusitis (4% FluMist vs. 2% placebo).
FluMist Quadrivalent In Adults
In the randomized, active-controlled Study MI-CP185 that compared FluMist Quadrivalent and FluMist in adults 18 through 49 years of age, the rates of solicited adverse reactions reported were generally similar between subjects who received FluMist Quadrivalent and FluMist. Table 4 presents solicited adverse reactions that either occurred at a higher rate (≥ 1% rate difference after rounding) in FluMist Quadrivalent recipients compared to FluMist recipients or were identified in Study AV009.
Table 4: Summary of Solicited Adverse Reactionsa Observed Within 14 Days after Dose 1 for FluMist Quadrivalent and FluMist Recipients in Study MI-CP185b in Adults 18 through 49 Years of Age
N = 1197d
N = 597d
|Runny Nose/Nasal Congestion||44||40|
|Decreased Activity (Lethargy)||18||18|
|a Solicited adverse reactions that occurred at a higher rate (≥ 1% rate difference after rounding) in FluMist Quadrivalent recipients compared to FluMist recipients or were identified in Study AV009.
b NCT00860067; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
c Represents pooled data from the two FluMist study arms [see Clinical Studies].
d Number of evaluable subjects for each event.
In Study MI-CP185, no unsolicited adverse reactions occurred at a higher rate (1% or greater) in FluMist Quadrivalent recipients compared to FluMist recipients.
The following events have been spontaneously reported during post approval use of FluMist. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to vaccine exposure.
Cardiac disorders: Pericarditis
Congenital, familial, and genetic disorders: Exacerbation of symptoms of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (Leigh syndrome)
Gastrointestinal disorders: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylactic reaction, facial edema, and urticaria)
Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders: Epistaxis
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Rash
Do not administer FluMist Quadrivalent to children and adolescents through 17 years of age who are receiving aspirin therapy or aspirin-containing therapy because of the association of Reye’s syndrome with aspirin and wild-type influenza [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Avoid aspirin-containing therapy in these age groups during the first 4 weeks after vaccination with FluMist Quadrivalent unless clearly needed.
Antiviral Agents Against Influenza A And/Or B
Antiviral drugs that are active against influenza A and/or B viruses may reduce the effectiveness of FluMist Quadrivalent if administered within 48 hours before, or within 2 weeks after vaccination. The concurrent use of FluMist Quadrivalent with antiviral agents that are active against influenza A and/or B viruses has not been evaluated. If antiviral agents and FluMist Quadrivalent are administered concomitantly, revaccination should be considered when appropriate.
Concomitant Administration With Inactivated Vaccines
The safety and immunogenicity of FluMist Quadrivalent when administered concomitantly with inactivated vaccines have not been determined. Studies of FluMist and FluMist Quadrivalent excluded subjects who received any inactivated or subunit vaccine within two weeks of enrollment.
Concomitant Administration With Other Live Vaccines
Concomitant administration of the trivalent formulation of FluMist with Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live (MMR, manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc.) and the Varicella Vaccine Live (manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc.) was studied in children 12 through 15 months of age [see Clinical Studies]. Concomitant administration of the MMR and the varicella vaccine with the trivalent or quadrivalent FluMist formulations has not been studied in children older than 15 months of age.
There are no data regarding co-administration of FluMist Quadrivalent with other intranasal preparations.
Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Risks Of Hospitalization And Wheezing In Children Younger Than 24 Months Of Age
In clinical trials, risks of hospitalization and wheezing were increased in children younger than 2 years of age who received FluMist (trivalent Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. This observation with FluMist is relevant to FluMist Quadrivalent because both vaccines are manufactured using the same process and have overlapping compositions [see DESCRIPTION].
Asthma, Recurrent Wheezing, And Active Wheezing
Children younger than 5 years of age with recurrent wheezing and persons of any age with asthma may be at increased risk of wheezing following administration of FluMist Quadrivalent. FluMist Quadrivalent has not been studied in persons with severe asthma or active wheezing.
The 1976 swine influenza vaccine (inactivated) was associated with an elevated risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Evidence for causal relation of GBS with other influenza vaccines is inconclusive; if an excess risk exists, based on data for inactivated influenza vaccines, it is probably slightly more than 1 additional case per 1 million persons vaccinated1. If GBS has occurred within 6 weeks of any prior influenza vaccination, the decision to give FluMist Quadrivalent should be based on careful consideration of the potential benefits and potential risks.
FluMist Quadrivalent has not been studied in immunocompromised persons. The effectiveness of FluMist has not been studied in immunocompromised persons. Data on safety and shedding of vaccine virus after administration of FluMist in immunocompromised persons are limited to 173 persons with HIV infection and 10 mild to moderately immunocompromised children and adolescents with cancer [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Medical Conditions Predisposing To Influenza Complications
The safety of FluMist Quadrivalent in individuals with underlying medical conditions that may predispose them to complications following wild-type influenza infection has not been established.
Management Of Acute Allergic Reactions
Appropriate medical treatment and supervision must be available to manage possible anaphylactic reactions following administration of the vaccine [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Limitations Of Vaccine Effectiveness
FluMist Quadrivalent may not protect all individuals receiving the vaccine.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the vaccine recipient or caregiver to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Information for Patients and Their Caregivers).
Inform vaccine recipients or their parents/guardians of the need for two doses at least 1 month apart in children 2 through 8 years of age, depending on vaccination history. Provide the Vaccine Information Statements (VIS) which are required by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 to be given with each immunization.
Asthma And Recurrent Wheezing
Ask the vaccinee or their parent/guardian if the vaccinee has asthma. For children younger than 5 years of age, also ask if the vaccinee has recurrent wheezing since this may be an asthma equivalent in this age group. Inform the vaccinee or their parent/guardian that there may be an increased risk of wheezing associated with FluMist Quadrivalent in persons younger than 5 years of age with recurrent wheezing and persons of any age with asthma [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Vaccination With A Live Virus Vaccine
Inform vaccine recipients or their parents/guardians that FluMist Quadrivalent is an attenuated live virus vaccine and has the potential for transmission to immunocompromised household contacts.
Adverse Event Reporting
Instruct the vaccine recipient or their parent/guardian to report adverse reactions to their healthcare provider.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
FluMist Quadrivalent has not been evaluated for its carcinogenic or mutagenic potential or its potential to impair fertility.
Use In Specific Populations
FluMist Quadrivalent is not absorbed systemically following intranasal administration and maternal use is not expected to result in fetal exposure to the drug.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Pregnant women infected with seasonal influenza are at increased risk of severe illness associated with influenza infection compared with non-pregnant women. Pregnant women with influenza may be at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm labor and delivery.
In a developmental and reproductive toxicity study, female rats were administered FluMist Quadrivalent either three times (during the period of organogenesis) or six times (prior to gestation and during the period of organogenesis), 200 microliter/rat/occasion (approximately 150 human dose equivalents), by intranasal instillation revealing no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to FluMist Quadrivalent.
FluMist is not absorbed systemically by the mother following intranasal administration and breastfeeding is not expected to result in exposure of the child to FluMist.
Safety and effectiveness of FluMist Quadrivalent in children 24 months of age and older is based on data from FluMist clinical studies and a comparison of post-vaccination antibody titers between persons who received FluMist Quadrivalent and those who received FluMist [see Clinical Studies].
FluMist Quadrivalent is not approved for use in children younger than 24 months of age because use of FluMist in children 6 through 23 months has been associated with increased risks of hospitalization and wheezing in clinical trials [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
FluMist Quadrivalent is not approved for use in persons 65 years of age and older because in a clinical study (AV009), effectiveness of FluMist to prevent febrile illness was not demonstrated in adults 50 through 64 years of age [see Clinical Studies]. In this study, solicited events among individuals 50 through 64 years of age were similar in type and frequency to those reported in younger adults. In a clinical study of FluMist in persons 65 years of age and older, subjects with underlying high-risk medical conditions (N = 200) were studied for safety. Compared to controls, FluMist recipients had a higher rate of sore throat.
Mechanism Of Action
Immune mechanisms conferring protection against influenza following receipt of FluMist Quadrivalent vaccine are not fully understood; serum antibodies, mucosal antibodies, and influenza-specific T cells may play a role.
FluMist and FluMist Quadrivalent contain live attenuated influenza viruses that must infect and replicate in cells lining the nasopharynx of the recipient to induce immunity. Vaccine viruses capable of infection and replication can be cultured from nasal secretions obtained from vaccine recipients (shedding) [see Pharmacodynamics].
Shedding of vaccine viruses within 28 days of vaccination with FluMist was evaluated in (1) multi-center Study MI-CP129 which enrolled healthy individuals 6 through 59 months of age (N = 200); and (2) multi-center Study FM026 which enrolled healthy individuals 5 through 49 years of age (N = 344). In each study, nasal secretions were obtained daily for the first 7 days and every other day through either Day 25 and on Day 28 or through Day 28. In Study MI-CP129, individuals with a positive shedding sample at Day 25 or Day 28 were to have additional shedding samples collected every 7 days until culture negative on 2 consecutive samples. Results of these studies are presented in Table 5.
Table 5: Characterization of Shedding with FluMist in Specified Age Groups by Frequency, Amount, and Duration (Study MI-CP129a and Study FM026b)
|Age||Number of Subjects||%
|% Shedding After Day 11||Day of Last Positive Culture|
|6-23 monthse||99||89||< 5 log10||7.0||Day 23f|
|24-59 months||100||69||< 5 log10||1.0||Day 25g|
|5-8 years||102||50||< 5 log10||2.9||Day 23h|
|9-17 years||126||29||< 4 log10||1.6||Day 28h|
|18-49 years||115||20||< 3 log10||0.9||Day 17h|
|a NCT00344305; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
b NCT00192140; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
c Proportion of subjects with detectable virus at any time point during the 28 days.
d Peak titer at any time point during the 28 days among samples positive for a single vaccine virus.
e FluMist and FluMist Quadrivalent are not approved for use in children younger than 24 months of age [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
f A single subject who shed previously on Days 1-3; TCID50/mL was less than 1.5 log10 on Day 23.
g A single subject who did not shed previously; TCID50/mL was less than 1.5 log10.
h A single subject who did not shed previously; TCID50/mL was less than 1.0 log10.
The highest proportion of subjects in each group shed one or more vaccine strains on Days 2-3 post vaccination. After Day 11 among individuals 2 through 49 years of age (n = 443), virus titers did not exceed 1.5 log10 TCID50/mL.
Studies In Immunocompromised Individuals
Safety and shedding of vaccine virus following FluMist administration were evaluated in 28 HIV-infected adults [median CD4 cell count of 541 cells/mm3] and 27 HIV-negative adults 18 through 58 years of age. No serious adverse events were reported during the one-month follow-up period. Vaccine strain (type B) virus was detected in 1 of 28 HIV-infected subjects on Day 5 only, and in none of the HIV-negative FluMist recipients.
Safety and shedding of vaccine virus following FluMist administration were also evaluated in children in a randomized (1:1), cross-over, double-blind, AF-SPG placebo-controlled trial in 24 HIV-infected children [median CD4 cell count of 1013 cells/mm3] and 25 HIV-negative children 1 through 7 years of age, and in a randomized (1:1), open-label, inactivated influenza vaccine-controlled trial in 243 HIV-infected children and adolescents 5 through 17 years of age receiving stable anti-retroviral therapy. Frequency and duration of vaccine virus shedding in HIV-infected individuals were comparable to that seen in healthy individuals. No adverse effects on HIV viral load or CD4 counts were identified following FluMist administration. In the 5 through 17 year old age group, one inactivated influenza vaccine recipient and one FluMist recipient experienced pneumonia within 28 days of vaccination (days 17 and 13, respectively). The effectiveness of FluMist and FluMist Quadrivalent in preventing influenza illness in HIV-infected individuals has not been evaluated.
Twenty mild to moderately immunocompromised children and adolescents 5 through 17 years of age (receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy or who had received chemotherapy in the 12 weeks prior to enrollment) were randomized 1:1 to receive FluMist or AF-SPG placebo. Frequency and duration of vaccine virus shedding in these immunocompromised children and adolescents were comparable to that seen in healthy children and adolescents. The effectiveness of FluMist and FluMist Quadrivalent in preventing influenza illness in immunocompromised individuals has not been evaluated.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in a daycare setting in children younger than 3 years of age to assess the transmission of vaccine viruses from a vaccinated individual to a non-vaccinated individual. A total of 197 children 8 through 36 months of age were randomized to receive one dose of FluMist (N = 98) or AF-SPG placebo (N = 99). Virus shedding was evaluated for 21 days by culture of nasal swab specimens. Wild-type A (A/H3N2) influenza virus was documented to have circulated in the community and in the study population during the trial, whereas Type A (A/H1N1) and Type B strains did not.
At least one vaccine strain was isolated from 80% of FluMist recipients; strains were recovered from 1-21 days post vaccination (mean duration of 7.6 days ± 3.4 days). The cold-adapted (ca) and temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotypes were preserved in 135 tested of 250 strains isolated at the local laboratory. Ten influenza isolates (9 influenza A, 1 influenza B) were cultured from a total of seven placebo subjects. One placebo subject had mild symptomatic Type B virus infection confirmed as a transmitted vaccine virus by a FluMist recipient in the same playgroup. This Type B isolate retained the ca, ts, and att phenotypes of the vaccine strain and had the same genetic sequence when compared to a Type B virus cultured from a vaccine recipient within the same playgroup. Four of the influenza Type A isolates were confirmed as wild-type A/Panama (H3N2). The remaining isolates could not be further characterized.
Assuming a single transmission event (isolation of the Type B vaccine strain), the probability of a young child acquiring vaccine virus following close contact with a single FluMist vaccinee in this daycare setting was 0.58% (95% CI: 0, 1.7) based on the Reed-Frost model. With documented transmission of one Type B in one placebo subject and possible transmission of Type A viruses in four placebo subjects, the probability of acquiring a transmitted vaccine virus was estimated to be 2.4% (95% CI: 0.13, 4.6) using the Reed-Frost model.
The effectiveness of FluMist Quadrivalent is based on data demonstrating the clinical efficacy of FluMist in children and the effectiveness of FluMist in adults, and a comparison of post vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies between individuals receiving FluMist and FluMist Quadrivalent. The clinical experience with FluMist is relevant to FluMist Quadrivalent because both vaccines are manufactured using the same process and have overlapping compositions [see DESCRIPTION].
Efficacy Studies Of Flumist In Children And Adolescents
A multi-national, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial (MI-CP111) was performed to assess the efficacy of FluMist compared to an intramuscularly administered, inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur Inc. (active control) in children 6 months to less than 5 years of age during the 2004-2005 influenza season. A total number of 3916 children without severe asthma, without use of bronchodilator or steroids, and without wheezing within the prior 6 weeks were randomized to FluMist and 3936 were randomized to active control. Children who previously received any influenza vaccine received a single dose of study vaccine, while those who never previously received an influenza vaccination (or had an unknown history of influenza vaccination) received two doses. Participants were then followed through the influenza season to identify illness caused by influenza virus. As the primary endpoint, culture-confirmed modified CDC-ILI (CDC-defined influenza-like illness) was defined as a positive culture for a wild-type influenza virus associated within ±7 days of modified CDC-ILI. Modified CDC-ILI was defined as fever (temperature ≥ 100°F oral or equivalent) with cough, sore throat, or runny nose/nasal congestion on the same or consecutive days.
In the primary efficacy analysis, FluMist demonstrated a 44.5% (95% CI: 22.4, 60.6) reduction in influenza rate compared to active control as measured by culture-confirmed modified CDC-ILI caused by wild-type strains antigenically similar to those contained in the vaccine. See Table 6 for a description of the results by strain and antigenic similarity.
Table 6: Comparative Efficacy Against Culture-Confirmed Modified CDC-ILIa Caused by Wild-Type Strains (Study MI-CP111)b,c
|FluMist||Active Controld||% Reduction in Rate for FluMiste||95% CI|
|N||# of Cases||Rate
|N||# of Cases||Rate
|All strains||3916||53||1.4%||3936||93||2.4%||44.5%||22.4, 60.6|
|All strains||3916||102||2.6%||3936||245||6.2%||58.2%||47.4, 67.0|
|Regardless of Match|
|All strains||3916||153||3.9%||3936||338||8.6%||54.9%||45.4, 62.9|
a Modified CDC-ILI was defined as fever (temperature ≥100°F oral or equivalent) plus cough, sore throat, or runny nose/nasal congestion on the same or consecutive days.
b In children 6 months through 5 years of age
c NCT00128167; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
d Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur Inc., administered intramuscularly.
e Reduction in rate was adjusted for country, age, prior influenza vaccination status, and wheezing history status.
A randomized, double-blind, saline placebo-controlled trial (D153-P501) was performed to evaluate the efficacy of FluMist in children 12 through 35 months of age without high-risk medical conditions against culture-confirmed influenza illness. This study was performed in Asia over two successive seasons (2000-2001 and 2001-2002). The primary endpoint of the trial was the prevention of culture-confirmed influenza illness due to antigenically matched wild-type influenza. Respiratory illness that prompted an influenza culture was defined as at least one of the following: fever (≥ 100.4°F rectal or ≥ 99.5°F axillary), wheezing, shortness of breath, pulmonary congestion, pneumonia, or otitis media; or two of the following: runny nose/nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, muscle aches, chills, headache, irritability, decreased activity, or vomiting. A total of 3174 children were randomized 3:2 (vaccine:placebo) to receive 2 doses of study vaccine or placebo at least 28 days apart in Year 1. See Table 7 for a description of the results.
During the second year of Study D153-P501, for children who received two doses in Year 1 and one dose in Year 2, FluMist demonstrated 84.3% (95% CI: 70.1, 92.4) efficacy against culture-confirmed influenza illness due to antigenically matched wild-type influenza.
Study AV006 was a second multi-center, randomized, double-blind, AF-SPG placebo-controlled trial performed in U.S. children without high-risk medical conditions to evaluate the efficacy of FluMist against culture-confirmed influenza over two successive seasons (1996-1997 and 1997-1998). The primary endpoint of the trial was the prevention of culture-confirmed influenza illness due to antigenically matched wild-type influenza in children who received two doses of vaccine in the first year and a single revaccination dose in the second year. Respiratory illness that prompted an influenza culture was defined as at least one of the following: fever (≥ 101°F rectal or oral; or ≥ 100.4°F axillary), wheezing, shortness of breath, pulmonary congestion, pneumonia, or otitis media; or two of the following: runny nose/nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, muscle aches, chills, headache, irritability, decreased activity, or vomiting. During the first year of the study, 1602 children 15 through 71 months of age were randomized 2:1 (vaccine:placebo). See Table 7 for a description of the results.
Table 7: Efficacya of FluMist vs. Placebo Against Culture-Confirmed Influenza Illness Due to Antigenically Matched Wild-Type Strains (Studies D153-P501b & AV006c, Year 1)
|Ng = 1653||Ng = 1111||Ng = 849||Ng = 410|
|Any strain||56 (3.4%)||139 (12.5%)||72.9%h(62.8, 80.5)||10 (1%)||73 (18%)||93.4%
|A/H1N1||23 (1.4%)||81 (7.3%)||80.9%
|A/H3N2||4 (0.2%)||27 (2.4%)||90.0%
|4 (0.5%)||48 (12%)||96.0%
|B||29 (1.8%)||35 (3.2%)||44.3%
|6 (0.7%)||31 (7%)||90.5%
|a D153-P501 and AV006 data are for subjects who received two doses of study vaccine.
b In children 12 through 35 months of age
c In children 15 through 71 months of age
d NCT00192244; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
e NCT00192179; see www.clinicaltrials.gov
f Number and percent of subjects in per-protocol efficacy analysis population with culture-confirmed influenza illness.
g Number of subjects in per-protocol efficacy analysis population of each treatment group of each study for the “any strain” analysis.
h For D153-P501, influenza circulated through 12 months following vaccination.
i Estimate includes A/H1N1 and A/H1N2 strains. Both were considered antigenically similar to the vaccine.
During the second year of Study AV006, children remained in the same treatment group as in Year 1 and received a single dose of FluMist or placebo. During the second year, the primary circulating strain was the A/Sydney/05/97 H3N2 strain, which was antigenically dissimilar from the H3N2 strain represented in the vaccine, A/Wuhan/359/95; FluMist demonstrated 87.0% (95% CI: 77.0, 92.6) efficacy against culture-confirmed influenza illness.
Immune Response Study Of FluMist Quadrivalent In Children And Adolescents
A multi-center, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study (MI-CP208) was performed to assess the immunogenicity of FluMist Quadrivalent compared to FluMist (active control) in children and adolescents 2 through 17 years of age. A total of 2312 subjects were randomized by site at a 3:1:1 ratio to receive either FluMist Quadrivalent or one of two formulations of comparator vaccine FluMist, each containing a B strain that corresponded to one of the two B strains in FluMist Quadrivalent (a B strain of the Yamagata lineage or a B strain of the Victoria lineage).
Children 2 through 8 years of age received 2 doses of vaccine approximately 30 days apart; children 9 years of age and older received 1 dose. For children 2 through 8 years of age with a history of influenza vaccination, immunogenicity assessments were performed prior to vaccination and at 28 days after the first dose. For children 2 through 8 years of age without a history of influenza vaccination, immunogenicity assessments were performed prior to vaccination and 28 days after the second dose. For children 9 years of age and older, immunogenicity assessments were performed prior to vaccination and at 28 days post vaccination.
Immunogenicity was evaluated by comparing the 4 strain-specific serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) post dosing and provided evidence that the addition of the second B strain did not result in immune interference to other strains included in the vaccine.
Effectiveness Study Of FluMist In Adults
AV009 was a U.S. multi-center, randomized, double-blind, AF-SPG placebo-controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness of FluMist in adults 18 through 64 years of age without high-risk medical conditions over the 1997-1998 influenza season. Participants were randomized 2:1 (vaccine:placebo). Cultures for influenza virus were not obtained from subjects in the trial, thus efficacy against culture-confirmed influenza was not assessed. The A/Wuhan/359/95 (H3N2) strain, which was contained in FluMist, was antigenically distinct from the predominant circulating strain of influenza virus during the trial period, A/Sydney/05/97 (H3N2). Type A/Wuhan (H3N2) and Type B strains also circulated in the U.S. during the study period. The primary endpoint of the trial was the reduction in the proportion of participants with one or more episodes of any febrile illness, and prospective secondary endpoints were severe febrile illness and febrile upper respiratory illness. Effectiveness for any of the three endpoints was not demonstrated in a subgroup of adults 50 through 64 years of age. Primary and secondary effectiveness endpoints from the age group 18 through 49 years are presented in Table 8. Effectiveness was not demonstrated for the primary endpoint in adults 18 through 49 years of age.
Table 8: Effectiveness of FluMist to Prevent Febrile Illness in Adults 18 through 49 Years of Age During the 7-Week Site-Specific Outbreak Period (Study AV009)
N = 2411a
N = 1226a
|Percent Reduction||(95% CI)|
|Participants with one or more events of:b|
|Any febrile illness||331 (13.73)||189 (15.42)||10.9||(-5.1, 24.4)|
|Severe febrile illness||250 (10.37)||158 (12.89)||19.5||(3.0, 33.2)|
|Febrile upper respiratory illness||213 (8.83)||142 (11.58)||23.7||(6.7, 37.5)|
|a Number of evaluable subjects (92.7% and 93.0% of FluMist and placebo recipients, respectively).
b The predominantly circulating virus during the trial period was A/Sydney/05/97 (H3N2), an antigenic variant not included in the vaccine.
Effectiveness was shown in a post-hoc analysis using an endpoint of CDC-ILI in the age group 18 through 49 years of age.
Immune Response Study Of FluMist Quadrivalent In Adults
A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, and non-inferiority study (MI-CP185) was performed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of FluMist Quadrivalent compared to those of FluMist (active control) in adults 18 through 49 years of age. A total of 1800 subjects were randomized by site at a 4:1:1 ratio to receive either 1 dose of FluMist Quadrivalent or 1 dose of one of two formulations of comparator vaccine, FluMist, each containing a B strain that corresponded to one of the two B strains in FluMist Quadrivalent (a B strain of the Yamagata lineage and a B strain of the Victoria lineage).
Immunogenicity in Study MI-CP185 was evaluated by comparing the 4 strain-specific serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) post dosing and provided evidence that the addition of the second B strain did not result in immune interference to other strains included in the vaccine.
Concomitantly Administered Live Virus Vaccines
In Study AV018, concomitant administration of FluMist, MMR (manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc.) and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc.) was studied in 1245 subjects 12 through 15 months of age. Subjects were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to MMR, Varicella vaccine and AF-SPG placebo (group 1); MMR, Varicella vaccine and FluMist (group 2); or FluMist alone (group 3). Immune responses to MMR and Varicella vaccines were evaluated 6 weeks post-vaccination while the immune responses to FluMist were evaluated 4 weeks after the second dose. No evidence of interference with immune response to measles, mumps, rubella, varicella and FluMist vaccines was observed.
(pronounced FLEW-mist Kwa-dr∂-VA-l∂nt)
(Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal)
Please read this Patient Information carefully before you or your child is vaccinated with FluMist Quadrivalent.
This is a summary of information about FluMist Quadrivalent. It does not take the place of talking with your healthcare provider about influenza vaccination. If you have questions or would like more information, please talk with your healthcare provider.
What is FluMist Quadrivalent?
FluMist Quadrivalent is a vaccine that is sprayed into the nose to help protect against influenza. It can be used in children, adolescents, and adults ages 2 through 49. FluMist Quadrivalent is similar to MedImmune’s trivalent Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal (FluMist), except FluMist Quadrivalent provides protection against an additional influenza strain. FluMist Quadrivalent may not prevent influenza in everyone who gets vaccinated.
Who should not get FluMist Quadrivalent?
You should not get FluMist Quadrivalent if you:
- have a severe allergy to eggs or to any inactive ingredient in the vaccine (see “What are the ingredients in FluMist Quadrivalent?”)
- have ever had a life-threatening reaction to influenza vaccinations
- are 2 through 17 years old and take aspirin or medicines containing aspirin. Children or adolescents should not be given aspirin for 4 weeks after getting FluMist or FluMist Quadrivalent unless your healthcare provider tells you otherwise.
Please talk to your healthcare provider if you are not sure if the items listed above apply to you or your child.
Children under 2 years old have an increased risk of wheezing (difficulty with breathing) after getting FluMist Quadrivalent.
Who may not be able to get FluMist Quadrivalent?
Tell your healthcare provider if you or your child:
- are currently wheezing
- have a history of wheezing if under 5 years old
- have had Guillain-Barré syndrome
- have a weakened immune system or live with someone who has a severely weakened immune system
- have problems with your heart, kidneys, or lungs
- have diabetes
- are pregnant or nursing
- are taking Tamiflu®, Relenza®, amantadine, or rimantadine
If you or your child cannot take FluMist Quadrivalent, you may still be able to get an influenza shot. Talk to your healthcare provider about this.
How is FluMist Quadrivalent given?
- FluMist Quadrivalent is a liquid that is sprayed into the nose.
- You can breathe normally while getting FluMist Quadrivalent. There is no need to inhale or “sniff” it.
- People 9 years of age and older need one dose of FluMist Quadrivalent each year.
- Children 2 through 8 years old may need 2 doses of FluMist Quadrivalent, depending on their history of previous influenza vaccination. Your healthcare provider will decide if your child needs to come back for a second dose.
What are the possible side effects of FluMist Quadrivalent?
The most common side effects are:
- runny or stuffy nose
- sore throat
- fever over 100°F
Other possible side effects include:
- decreased appetite
- muscle ache
Call your healthcare provider or go to the emergency department right away if you or your child experience:
- hives or a bad rash
- trouble breathing
- swelling of the face, tongue, or throat
These are not all the possible side effects of FluMist Quadrivalent. You can ask your healthcare provider for a complete list of side effects that is available to healthcare professionals.
Call your healthcare provider for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to VAERS at 1-800-822-7967 or http://vaers.hhs.gov.
What are the ingredients in FluMist Quadrivalent?
Active Ingredient: FluMist Quadrivalent contains 4 influenza virus strains that are weakened (A(H1N1), A(H3N2), B Yamagata lineage, and B Victoria lineage).
Inactive Ingredients: monosodium glutamate, gelatin, arginine, sucrose, dibasic potassium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, and gentamicin.
FluMist Quadrivalent does not contain preservatives.
How is FluMist Quadrivalent Stored?
FluMist Quadrivalent is stored in a refrigerator (not the freezer) between 35-46°F (2-8°C) upon receipt. FluMist Quadrivalent sprayer must be kept in the carton until use in order to protect from light. FluMist Quadrivalent must be used before the expiration date on the sprayer label.
If you would like more information, talk to your healthcare provider or visit www.flumistquadrivalent.com or call 1-877-633-4411.
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