Frostbite and Cold Weather-Related Injuries
Steven Doerr, MD
Steven Doerr, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Doerr received his undergraduate degree in Spanish from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He graduated with his Medical Degree from the University Of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, Colorado in 1998 and completed his residency training in Emergency Medicine from Denver Health Medical Center in Denver, Colorado in 2002, where he also served as Chief Resident.
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
- Frostbite and cold weather-related injuries facts
- Frequent Urination Overview
- Introduction to frostbite and cold weather-related injuries
- What type of injuries can be caused by cold weather?
- What are the signs and symptoms of frostbite?
- Common Causes of Frequent Urination
- What are cold weather-related injuries without tissue freezing?
- Trench foot
- Frostbite: Cold weather-related injuries with tissue freezing
- Frequent Urination Symptoms
- What does frostbite look like (frostbite pictures)?
- How should frostbite and other cold weather-related injuries be treated?
- When to Seek Medical Care
- Exams and Tests
- What is the recovery time for a frostbite injury?
- When should a person seek medical care for a cold weather-related injury?
- Who is most likely to get a cold weather-related injury and what can be done to prevent it?
- Self-Care at Home
- Medical Treatment
- For More Information
Frostbite and cold weather-related injuries facts
- Cold weather-related injuries occur with and without freezing of body tissues.
- Cold weather-related injuries include chilblains, trench foot, frostnip, and frostbite.
- Signs and symptoms may include:
- numbness, and
- changes in the color and texture of the skin.
- Treatment generally includes moving out of the cold environment, removing wet clothing, and rewarming the affected area.
- Frostbite is a serious cold weather-related injury that requires immediate medical attention and rapid rewarming. Do not thaw the affected area if there is the risk of refreezing.
- Certain individuals, such as the elderly, children, alcoholics, and the homeless, are at increased risk of developing cold weather-related injuries.
- Prevention of cold weather-related injuries is best accomplished through proper planning and preparation for cold weather.
Frequent Urination Overview
Most people typically urinate four to eight times a day. Needing to go more than eight times a day or waking up in the night to go to the bathroom more than once in the night is considered frequent urination. Though the bladder can often hold as much as 600 ml of urine (about 2 ½ cups), the urge to urinate is usually felt when the bladder contains about 150 ml of urine (just over ½ cup).
There are two different ways to look at frequent urination: either as an increase in total volume of urine produced (polyuria) or a dysfunction in the storage and emptying of urine.
Introduction to frostbite and cold weather-related injuries
Winter cold and snow provide a number of opportunities to get outside and participate in activities such as skiing, sledding, and snowmobiling. However, without proper protection, cold weather-related injuries can occur even when temperatures are above freezing (32 F, 0 C). This is especially true if there are high winds or if clothing is wet. In general, however, it is both the temperature and the duration of exposure that play a role in determining the extent and severity of cold weather-related injuries. This information describes the different types of cold weather-related injuries, as well as what to do to prevent and treat them prior to reaching a health care practitioner.
What type of injuries can be caused by cold weather?
Cold weather-related injuries can be divided into two general categories.
- Conditions that occur without the freezing of body tissue such as:
- trench foot, and
- Injuries that occur with the freezing of body tissue, such as frostbite.
Hypothermia is a medical condition characterized by a core body temperature that is abnormally low.
Find out what women really need.