- What Are They
- Incubation Period
- Cancer Risk
- Birth Control
- DNA Test
Genital warts (HPV) infection in women definition and facts
- Genital warts are caused by infection with a subgroup of the human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Another subgroup of the HPVs that infect the anogenital tract can lead to precancerous changes in the uterine cervix and cause cervical cancer. Other types of HPV have been linked to oropharangeal cancer.
- HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease STD in the US, and usually does not lead to the development of warts, cancers, or sometimes, no symptoms.
- When signs and symptoms of genital warts in women do occur, many include itching, burning, or tenderness in and around the vagina.
- Other signs and symptoms of genital warts in women include the following:
- HPV infection (genital warts) of the genital tract is contagious, and transmitted through skin-to-skin or sexual contact; however, it is possible to become infected with genital warts without sexual transmission.
- No natural, home remedies, or other treatments can cure genital warts or HVP infection.
- Removal treatments for genital warts are treated available, but the warts may return in the future.
- Wearing condoms seems to decrease the risk of transmission of HPV during sexual activity, it but does not completely prevent HPV infection (genital warts).
- Researchers estimate that at least 75% of the men and women of reproductive age has been infected with a sexually transmitted HPV like genital warts.
- There is no cure for HPV infection, although there are treatment options available for removal of genital warts.
What are genital warts (HPV infection)? Who gets them?
HPV infection (genital warts) is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD, sexually transmitted infection, STI) in the U.S. About 75% of the men and women of reproductive age has been infected with sexually transmitted genital warts at some point. Approximately 6 million people become infected with HPV every year in the US, and approximately 50% of those infected are between the ages of 15 and 25.
HPV infection is common and does not usually lead to the development of warts, cancers, or even symptoms. In fact, the majority of people infected with HPV have no symptoms or lesions at all. Determination of whether or not a person is infected with HPV involves tests that identify the genetic material (DNA) of the virus. Moreover, it has not been definitely established whether the body's immune system is able to permanently clear the body of an HPV infection. Many people will test positive for HPV infection, and then have negative HPV tests for months to years, only to have a positive test result later. Currently, it is unclear if this is due to a latent (continuing but hidden) viral infection or if the person has become re-infected with the virus.
Asymptomatic people infected with HPVs (those without HPV-induced warts or lesions) are still able to spread the infections to others through sexual contact.
It is important to note that in the U.S. and other developed countries, screening and early treatment of precancerous changes of the cervix have dramatically reduced the incidence of cervical cancer. In developing countries lacking the medical infrastructure or financial means to implement a screening program, the incidence of cervical cancer resulting from HPV infection is much higher. In fact, cervical cancer develops in around 500,000 women each year worldwide, and, in many countries, it is the most common cause of cancer deaths.
What are the signs and symptoms of genital warts in women?
- Genital warts appear as raised, flesh-colored lumps or bumps.
- They may have a corrugated (cauliflower-like) appearance.
- Many women with genital warts have no symptoms, but sometimes they may occur at the location of the warts, and include:
- Size of the warts may vary, and multiple warts may be present at the same time.
- They may appear anywhere on body surfaces that are exposed in sexual contact, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, or groin in women and the penis, scrotum, thigh, or groin in males.
Women who have genital warts inside the vagina may experience symptoms such as bleeding following sexual intercourse or an abnormal vaginal discharge. Rarely, bleeding or urinary obstruction may occur if the wart involves the urethral opening.
What is the incubation period for genital warts?
The time between exposure or infection with HPV and the development of genital warts is very variable. Because most people who have the infection do not have any symptoms and do not develop warts, it is not possible to determine when the warts will arise after infection. Warts may appear days, months, or even years after the infection has been aquired.
How do you get genital warts and what are different types?
Genital warts and HPV infection are transmitted primarily by sexual intimacy, and the risk of infection increases as the number of sexual partner's increases. HPV infection is spread through skin-to-skin contact including sexual intercouse.
Over 100 types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect humans. Of these, more than 40 types can infect the genital tract and anus (anogenital tract) of men and women. Sometimes, they cause genital lesions known as condylomata acuminata or venereal warts.
- A subgroup of the HPVs that infect the anogenital tract can lead to precancerous changes in the uterine cervix and cervical cancer. HPV infection is also associated with the development of other anogenital cancers.
- The HPV types that cause cervical cancer have been linked with both anal and penile cancer in men as well as a subgroup of head and neck (oropharyngeal) cancers in both women and men.
- The most common HPV types that infect the anogenital tract are HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, and HPV-18), although other HPV types can also cause infection. Among these, HPV-6 and HPV-11 are most commonly associated with benign lesions such as genital warts are termed "low-risk" HPV types. In contrast, HPV-16 and HPV-18 are the types found most commonly in cervical and anogenital cancers as well as severe dysplasia of the cervix. These belong to the so-called "high-risk" group of HPVs.
- Other HPV types infect the skin and cause common warts elsewhere on the body. Some types of HPVs (for example, HPV 5 and 8) frequently cause skin cancers in people who have a condition known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV).
Is there a vaccine for genital warts and HPV infection?
A vaccine is available against common HPV types associated with the development of genital warts and cervical and anogenital carcinomas. This vaccine (Gardasil 9) has received FDA approval for use in females and males aged 9 through 45.
- It confers immunity against 9 HPV types: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.
- An earlier version of this vaccine (Gardasil) was directed at four common HPV types (6, 11, 16, and 18).
- Another vaccine directed at HPV types 16 and 18, known as Cervarix, was approved for use in females aged 10 to 15, but was withdrawn from the market in 2016 due to low demand.
Is there a treatment or cure for genital warts? Can they be removed?
No treatment will cure genital warts or HPV infection. The only treatment is to remove the lesions caused by the virus. Unfortunately, even removal of the warts does not necessarily prevent the spread of the virus, and genital warts frequently recur. None of the available treatment options is ideal or clearly superior to others.
Available treatments for genital warts lesions, signs, and symptoms include:
- A 0.5% solution or gel of podofilox (Condylox). Alternatively, a 5% cream of imiquimod (Aldara), which is a substance that stimulates the body's production of cytokines, chemicals that direct and strengthen the immune response).
- Only an experienced doctor can perform some of the treatments for genital warts. These include, for example, placing a small amount of a 10% to 25% solution of podophyllin resin on the lesions, and then, after a period of hours, washing off the podophyllin. The treatments are repeated weekly until the genital warts are gone.
- An 80% to 90% solution of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or bichloracetic acid (BCA) can also be applied weekly by a doctor to the lesions. Injection of 5-flurouracil epinephrine gel into the lesions has also been shown to be effective in treating genital warts.
- Interferon alpha, a substance that stimulates the body's immune response, has also been used in the treatment of genital warts.
- Alternative methods include cryotherapy (freezing the genital warts with liquid nitrogen) or laser surgery. Laser surgery and surgical excision both require a local or general anesthetic, depending upon the extent of the lesions.
- It is important to note that you should not use home remedies or treatments for common skin warts on genital warts.
What if a woman has precancerous changes (dysplasia) of the cervix? Can genital warts cause cancer?
Women who have evidence of moderate or severe precancerous changes in the uterine cervix require treatment to ensure that these cells do not progress to cancer. In this case, treatment usually involves surgical removal or destruction of the involved tissue.
- Conization is a procedure that removes the precancerous area of the cervix using a knife, a laser, or by a procedure known as LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure, which uses an electric current passing through a thin wire that acts as a knife). LEEP is also referred to as LLETZ (large loop excision of the transformation zone).
- Cryotherapy (freezing) or laser therapy may also be used to destroy tissue areas that contain potentially precancerous changes.
Will birth control protect against genital warts or HPV infection?
Abstinence from sexual activity can prevent the spread of HPVs that are transmitted via sexual contact. A person who abstains from sex, however, may still become infected with other HPV types, such as those that cause common skin warts.
- Some researchers have postulated that HPV infection might be transmitted from the mother to her infant at the time of delivery because some studies have identified genital HPV infection in populations of young children and cloistered nuns.
- Hand-genital and oral-genital transmission of HPV has also been documented and is another means of transmission.
HPV usually is transmitted by direct genital contact during sexual activity. The virus is not found in or spread by bodily fluids, and HPV is not found in blood or organs harvested for transplantation.
What do you do if you have been exposed to genital warts (HPV infection)?
Both people with HPV infection and their partners need to be counseled about the risk of spreading HPV and the appearance of the lesions. They should understand that the absence of lesions does not exclude the possibility of transmission and that condoms are not completely effective in preventing the spread of the infection. It is important to note that it is not known whether treatment decreases infectivity.
Finally, female partners of men with genital warts should be reminded of the importance of regular Pap smears to screen for cervical cancer and precancerous changes in the cervix, as precancerous changes can be treated and reduce a woman's risk of developing cervical cancer. Similarly, men should be informed of the potential risk of anal cancers, although it is not yet been determined how to optimally screen for or manage early anal cancer.
Is there a test to diagnose genital warts?
HPV sometimes can be suspected by changes that appear on a Pap smear, since pap smears identify infected abnormal cells that may be precursors to cancer. HPV infection can lead to precancerous changes in the cervix that are recognized on a Pap smear. If a woman has an abnormal Pap smear, more advanced tests may be performed. HPV also can be seen on biopsy (for example, from a genital wart or from the uterine cervix).
Is there a DNA test for types of HPV infection?
In 2009, the FDA approved the first DNA tests for diagnosis of the common cancer-causing HPV types in cervical samples.
Two tests known as Cervista HPV 16/18 and Cervista HPV HR, are used to diagnose the presence of DNA from the two most common HPV types associated with cancer. These are HPV types 16 and 18, as well as other "high risk" or cancer-associated HPV types.
These tests do not replace standard Pap testing or clinical examination, and they are used in combination with traditional screening methods to help estimate a woman's risk and aid in management decisions.
What do genital warts look like (pictures) in women and men?
Female patient with extensive labial venereal warts. Photo courtesy of Centers for Disease Control/Joe Millar.
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Jameson, JL, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 20th ed. (Vol.1 & Vol.2). McGraw-Hill Education 2018.