HOW DO GLUCOSE-ELEVATING AGENTS WORK?
Glucose-elevating agents are medications used to treat hypoglycemia (low sugar levels in the blood). Hypoglycemia may be caused because of the following:
- Antidiabetic medication or insulin
- Excessive physical activity or exercise
- Inadequate food intake
- Insulinoma (tumor that produces insulin)
- Congenital hyperinsulinism
Glucose-elevating agents increase the levels of blood glucose.
Dasiglucagon is a glucagon receptor agonist that activates glucagon receptors present in the liver and stimulates the breakdown of glycogen from hepatic stores of glycogen to release glucose from the liver to raise the blood glucose level.
Diazoxide inhibits pancreatic insulin release, and in the absence of insulin, the blood glucose levels increase. Diazoxide also relaxes smooth muscles, causing a decrease in vascular resistance and an increase in heart rate and cardiac output.
Glucagon is an insulin antagonist that stimulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate synthesis to accelerate hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing an increase in blood glucose levels. It also relaxes smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
HOW ARE GLUCOSE-ELEVATING AGENTS USED?
Glucose-elevating agents are given as intravenous or subcutaneous injections, oral suspension, and intranasal powder to treat hypoglycemia.
WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS OF GLUCOSE-ELEVATING AGENTS?
Side effects of glucose-elevating agents may include:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Injection site reactions
- Abdominal pain
- Arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats)
- Chest pain
- Congestive heart failure (pumping power of the heart muscles decreases, so the heart cannot pump enough blood to the body)
- Upper respiratory tract infection
- Hyperosmolarity (concentration of fluid is increased as water molecules decrease)
- Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
- Sodium and fluid retention
- Electrolyte imbalances
- Venous thrombosis
- Tissue necrosis
- Cerebral hemorrhage
- Anaphylaxis (life-threatening allergic reactions)
The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.