- Hepatitis A facts*
- What is hepatitis A?
- What is the liver?
- Who gets hepatitis A?
- How could I get hepatitis A?
- What are the symptoms of hepatitis A?
- How is hepatitis A diagnosed?
- How is hepatitis A treated?
- How can I avoid getting hepatitis A?
- What should I do if I think I have been exposed to the hepatitis A virus?
- Eating, Diet, and Nutrition
- Hope through Research
- For More Information
Hepatitis A facts*
*Hepatitis A facts medical author: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
- Hepatitis A is an inflammatory disease of the liver caused by a virus.
- The liver stores nutrients and vitamins, helps digest foods, helps prevent infections, and helps remove harmful substances from blood.
- Hepatitis A viruses cause the disease termed hepatitis A
- People at higher risk to be infected with hepatitis A virus include those that use illegal drugs, men who have sex with men, people who live with individuals that have the disease, and people who travel to developing countries.
- Hepatitis A virus can be transmitted to others by contaminated stools (feces), foods prepared by an infected person, contaminated water, and close personal contact (for example, touching hands, sex), with an infected person but not by sneezing, cough, hugging (without skin contact) or by being near an infected person.
- Some young infected individuals may have no symptoms. In other infected individuals symptoms of hepatitis A may include flu-like symptoms such as tiredness, stomach discomfort, fever, decreased appetite, and diarrhea; light-colored stools; more specific symptoms include dark yellow urine, and jaundice (white of eyes and skin become yellowish).
- Hepatitis A is diagnosed by commonly available blood tests
- Hepatitis A resolves in most patients in a few weeks without treatment; a doctor may prescribe medications to reduce symptoms.
- Hepatitis A vaccine can help protect against the disease; two shots are required, but some protection begins even after the first shot; the shots do not protect individuals against other hepatitis-causing viruses (types B, C and others).
- Hepatitis A immune globulin may protect some people if administered shortly after initial exposure to the virus; research is ongoing to produce other treatments
What is hepatitis A?
Hepatitis A is a virus, or infection, that causes liver disease and inflammation of the liver. Viruses can cause sickness. For example, the flu is caused by a virus. People can pass viruses to each other.
Inflammation is swelling that occurs when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can cause organs to not work properly.
What is the liver?
The liver is an organ that does many important things. You cannot live without a liver.
- removes harmful chemicals from your blood
- fights infection
- helps digest food
- stores nutrients and vitamins
- stores energy
How does a person get hepatitis A?
Anyone can get hepatitis A, but those more likely to are people who
- travel to developing countries
- live with someone who currently has an active hepatitis A infection
- use illegal drugs, including noninjection drugs
- have unprotected sex with an infected person
- provide child care
Also, men who have sex with men are more likely to get hepatitis A.
How could I get hepatitis A?
You could get hepatitis A through contact with an infected person's stool. This contact could occur by
- eating food made by an infected person who didn't wash his or her hands after using the bathroom
- drinking untreated water or eating food washed in untreated water
- placing a finger or object in your mouth that came into contact with an infected person's stool
- having close personal contact with an infected person, such as through sex or caring for someone who is ill
- You cannot get hepatitis A from
- being coughed or sneezed on by an infected person
- sitting next to an infected person
- hugging an infected person
A baby cannot get hepatitis A from breast milk.
What are the symptoms of hepatitis A?
Most people do not have any symptoms of hepatitis A. If symptoms of hepatitis A occur, they include
- feeling tired
- muscle soreness
- upset stomach
- loss of appetite
- stomach pain
- dark-yellow urine
- light-colored stools
- yellowish eyes and skin, called jaundice
Symptoms of hepatitis A can occur 2 to 7 weeks after coming into contact with the virus. Children younger than age 6 may have no symptoms. Older children and adults often get mild, flulike symptoms. See a doctor right away if you or a child in your care has symptoms of hepatitis A.
How is hepatitis A diagnosed?
A blood test will show if you have hepatitis A. Blood tests are done at a doctor's office or outpatient facility. A blood sample is taken using a needle inserted into a vein in your arm or hand. The blood sample is sent to a lab to test for hepatitis A.
How is hepatitis A treated?
Hepatitis A usually gets better in a few weeks without treatment. However, some people can have symptoms for up to 6 months. Your doctor may suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. Talk with your doctor before taking prescription and over-the-counter medicines.
See your doctor regularly to make sure your body has fully recovered. If symptoms persist after 6 months, then you should see your doctor again.
When you recover, your body will have learned to fight off a future hepatitis A infection. However, you can still get other kinds of hepatitis.
How can I avoid getting hepatitis A?
You can avoid getting hepatitis A by receiving the hepatitis A vaccine.
Vaccines are medicines that keep you from getting sick. Vaccines teach the body to attack specific viruses and infections. The hepatitis A vaccine teaches your body to attack the hepatitis A virus.
The hepatitis A vaccine is given in two shots. The second shot is given 6 to 12 months after the first shot. You should get both hepatitis A vaccine shots to be fully protected.
All children should be vaccinated between 12 and 23 months of age. Discuss the hepatitis A vaccine with your child's doctor.
Adults at higher risk of getting hepatitis A and people with chronic liver disease should also be vaccinated.
If you are traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common, including Mexico, try to get both shots before you go. If you don't have time to get both shots before you travel, get the first shot as soon as possible. Most people gain some protection within 2 weeks after the first shot.
You can also protect yourself and others from hepatitis A if you
- always wash your hands with warm, soapy water after using the toilet or changing diapers and before fixing food or eating
- use bottled water for drinking, making ice cubes, and washing fruits and vegetables when you are in a developing country
- tell your doctor and your dentist if you have hepatitis A
What should I do if I think I have been exposed to the hepatitis A virus?
See your doctor right away if you think you have been in contact with the hepatitis A virus. A dose of the hepatitis A vaccine or a medicine called hepatitis A immune globulin may protect you from getting sick if taken shortly after coming into contact with the hepatitis A virus.
Eating, Diet, and Nutrition
If you have hepatitis A, you should do things to take care of yourself, including eating a healthy diet. Avoid drinking alcohol, which can harm the liver. Talk with your doctor before taking vitamins and other supplements.
Hope through Research
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) supports basic and clinical research into many digestive disorders, including hepatitis A. Researchers are studying new ways to prevent hepatitis A.
Participants in clinical trials can play a more active role in their own health care, gain access to new research treatments before they are widely available, and help others by contributing to medical research. For information about current studies, visit www.ClinicalTrials.gov.
For More Information
American Liver Foundation
75 Maiden Lane, Suite 603
New York, NY 10038–4810
Phone: 1–800–GO–LIVER (1–800–465–4837) or 212–668–1000
Email: [email protected]
Hepatitis Foundation International
504 Blick Drive
Silver Spring, MD 20904–2901
Phone: 1–800–891–0707 or 301–622–4200
Email: [email protected]
Publications produced by the Clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. The NDDIC would like to thank the following individuals for providing scientific and editorial review or facilitating field-testing of the original version of this publication:
Bruce Bacon, M.D.
American Liver Foundation
New York, NY
Theo Heller, M.D.
NIDDK, National Institutes of Health
Luby Garza-Abijaoude, M.S., R.D., L.D.
Texas Department of Health
Thelma Thiel, R.N.
Hepatitis Foundation International
Cedar Grove, NJ
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SOURCE: National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House, NIDDK, NIH. What I need to know about Hepatitis A.