How Do Aminoglycosides Work?
Aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics used to treat infections caused by gram-negative aerobic bacilli. While less common, aminoglycosides (in combination with other drugs) have also been used for select gram-positive infections. They are typically administered intravenously, while some can be taken orally.
Aminoglycosides act through inhibition of protein synthesis. Once inside the bacterial cell, they bind to the A-site in ribosomal RNA of the 30S subunit and cause a misreading of transfer RNA codons. This subsequently leads to the interruption of normal bacterial protein synthesis and results in the formation of an incorrect protein, which may damage the cell membrane. The damaged cell membrane allows an increased amount of drug to enter the bacteria, eventually leading to its death.
How Are Aminoglycosides Used?
Aminoglycosides are mainly used in the treatment of aerobic gram-negative bacilli infections. They are also effective in treating other bacterial infections, including:
- Complicated urinary tract infections
- Pneumonia and upper respiratory tract infections
- Endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves)
- Bacteremia, sepsis (life-threatening illness caused by your body's response to an infection)
- Skin infections and soft tissue infections
- Severe pelvic inflammatory disease
- Severe infections of the abdomen
- Given orally to sterilize bowel before surgery
- Eye or ear infections
- Tularemia (rabbit fever)
What Are Side Effects of Aminoglycosides?
Serious side effects of aminoglycosides include:
- Nephrotoxicity (deterioration of kidney function due to poisonous effect of the drug)
- Ototoxicity: may cause hearing loss
- Neurotoxicity: may cause paralysis
- Allergic reactions
- Anemia (low hemoglobin in blood)
- Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
Other common side effects include:
- Buzzing noise in the ears
- Muscle weakness and spasms
- Nausea and vomiting
The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.
What Are Names of Aminoglycosides Drugs?
Drug names of Aminoglycosides include:
NCBI. Aminoglycosides: An Overview.
PLOS. ONE. Potentiating aminoglycoside antibiotics to reduce their toxic side effects.