How Do Antigout Agents Work?

Reviewed on 11/1/2021

How do antigout agents work?

Antigout agents are medications prescribed for the treatment of gout, a painful arthritic condition caused by excessive uric acid in the blood that gets deposited as monosodium urate crystals in joints. Gout most commonly affects the big toes, but can also affect other joints such as ankles, knees, elbows, wrists, and fingers.

Antigout agents work in different ways to decrease uric acid production in the body, deposition of urate crystals in the joints, and the inflammatory response that results. Antigout agents work in the following ways:

  • Reduce uric acid production by inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme that synthesizes uric acid from hypoxanthine, a purine derivative. Purine is a naturally occurring chemical compound in the human body and is also found in many foods.
  • Facilitate the excretion of uric acid by blocking its reuptake in the kidneys.
  • Control inflammation by interfering with cellular functions that enable immune cells leukocytes and neutrophils to change shape, migrate to the joints, and release inflammatory substances in the effort to destroy the urate crystals.

How are antigout agents used?

Antigout agents may be administered as oral tablets, capsules or solutions, or intravenous (IV) injections to prevent and treat the following conditions:

FDA-approved:

Off-label:

Orphan designation:

  • Behcet’s syndrome, a rare disorder that causes inflammation of blood vessels

SLIDESHOW

Gout Attack Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Diet See Slideshow

What are side effects of antigout agents?

Side effects of antigout agents may include the following:

Information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.

What are names of some antigout agents?

Generic and brand names of antigout agents include:

References
https://reference.medscape.com/drugs/antigout-agents

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4656054/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2544448/

https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathophysiology-of-gout

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