How Do Fluoroquinolones Work?

Reviewed on 5/24/2021

WHAT ARE FLUOROQUINOLONES AND HOW DO THEY WORK?

Fluoroquinolones are bactericidal agents widely used to treat upper and lower respiratory tract infections such as tuberculosis, mycobacterial infections, sinusitis, bronchitis and pneumonia and urinary tract infections. Fluoroquinolones are effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Fluoroquinolones work by inhibiting the action of enzymes such as type II DNA topoisomerases, DNA gyrase, and topoisomerase IV (enzymes that participate in cutting and supercoiling of double-stranded DNA) that are required for the synthesis of bacterial mRNAs and DNA replication. The DNA formed is incomplete and defective, therefore it breaks down leading to cell death.

HOW ARE FLUOROQUINOLONES USED?

In addition to upper and lower respiratory tract infections and urinary tract infections, fluoroquinolones are used to treat:

WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS OF FLUOROQUINOLONES?

The most common serious side effects of fluoroquinolones include:

Other rare but serious side effects of fluoroquinolones may include:

  • Leukopenia (decrease in white blood cells)
  • Anemia (decrease in red blood cells)
  • Photosensitivity
  • Nephrotoxicity (decrease in kidney function caused because of the poisonous effect of the drug)
  • Hepatotoxicity (decrease in liver function caused because of the poisonous effect of the drug)
  • Hypersensitivity reaction (overreaction of body immune system that is harmful to the body and cause allergies)
  • Aortic dissection (tearing of aorta)
  • QT prolongation
  • Hallucinations

The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.

QUESTION

The common cold is one of the most common illnesses in the world. See Answer

WHAT ARE DRUG NAMES OF FLUOROQUINOLONES?

Drug names include:

References
https://reference.medscape.com/drugs/fluoroquinolones

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK547840/

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