WHAT ARE INHALED FLUOROQUINOLONES AND HOW DO THEY WORK?
Fluoroquinolones are widely used bactericidal agents to treat upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Inhaled or nebulized fluoroquinolones are used to treat lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchiectasis (inflammation and infection, mucus production, cartilage, and epithelial destruction of the lung airway) and cystic fibrosis (production of thick mucus that damages the lungs and digestive system). Fluoroquinolones are effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
Fluoroquinolones inhibit the action of enzymes such as type II DNA topoisomerases, DNA gyrase, and topoisomerase IV (enzymes that participate in cutting and supercoiling of double-stranded DNA) that are required for the synthesis of bacterial mRNAs and DNA replication. The DNA formed is incomplete and defective, therefore it breaks down leading to cell death.
Recent studies showed that inhaled fluoroquinolones may improve lung function, decrease sputum bacterial density, and reduce exacerbation rate. Inhaled fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in patients who are critically ill with gram-negative lower respiratory tract infections or those with an extrapulmonary focus of infection.
HOW ARE INHALED FLUOROQUINOLONES USED?
In addition to bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis, inhaled fluoroquinolones are used in conditions such as:
- Lower respiratory tract infections caused by gram-negative bacteria
- Respiratory infections caused by bacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (inflammation of the trachea and bronchus of the lung)
- Acute exacerbations in severe obstructive pulmonary disease patients
- Pneumonia (infection and accumulation of fluid in the lung airway sacs)
WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS OF INHALED FLUOROQUINOLONES?
Common side effects of inhaled fluoroquinolones include:
- Hoarseness and changes in voice
- Tinnitus (ringing in the ear)
- Hearing loss
- Kidney problems
- Chest tightness
Rare but serious side effects of inhaled fluoroquinolones may include:
- Allergic reactions
- Itching and swelling of tongue, face, and throat
- Trouble breathing
- Severe dizziness
The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.
WHAT ARE DRUG NAMES OF INHALED FLUOROQUINOLONES?
Drugs may include:
- Ciprofloxacin inhaled