How Do Inhaled Fluoroquinolones Work?

Reviewed on 10/22/2021

WHAT ARE INHALED FLUOROQUINOLONES AND HOW DO THEY WORK?

Fluoroquinolones are widely used bactericidal agents to treat upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Inhaled or nebulized fluoroquinolones are used to treat lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchiectasis (inflammation and infection, mucus production, cartilage, and epithelial destruction of the lung airway) and cystic fibrosis (production of thick mucus that damages the lungs and digestive system). Fluoroquinolones are effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Fluoroquinolones inhibit the action of enzymes such as type II DNA topoisomerases, DNA gyrase, and topoisomerase IV (enzymes that participate in cutting and supercoiling of double-stranded DNA) that are required for the synthesis of bacterial mRNAs and DNA replication. The DNA formed is incomplete and defective, therefore it breaks down leading to cell death.

Recent studies showed that inhaled fluoroquinolones may improve lung function, decrease sputum bacterial density, and reduce exacerbation rate. Inhaled fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in patients who are critically ill with gram-negative lower respiratory tract infections or those with an extrapulmonary focus of infection.

HOW ARE INHALED FLUOROQUINOLONES USED?

In addition to bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis, inhaled fluoroquinolones are used in conditions such as:

WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS OF INHALED FLUOROQUINOLONES?

Common side effects of inhaled fluoroquinolones include:

Rare but serious side effects of inhaled fluoroquinolones may include:

The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.

WHAT ARE DRUG NAMES OF INHALED FLUOROQUINOLONES?

Drugs may include:

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References
https://reference.medscape.com/drugs/fluoroquinolones-inhaled

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509170/

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