How Do Other Antifungals Work?

Reviewed on 1/31/2022

How do other antifungals work?

Antifungals are medications administered to treat fungal infections. Other antifungals are medications that are not categorized into any specific classes of antifungals. Other antifungals work in unique ways to prevent fungal growth (fungistatic) or cause fungal death (fungicidal).

Other antifungals include the following:

Clotrimazole: Clotrimazole has fungistatic and fungicidal effects and is used to treat vaginal and oropharyngeal yeast infections (candidiasis). Clotrimazole binds to fatty molecules on the fungal cell membrane, alters its permeability, and causes the cell contents to leak out, which stops the growth of fungus and kills it.

Miconazole oral: Miconazole oral is an antifungal medication used to treat oropharyngeal candidiasis. Miconazole works by inhibiting cytochrome P450 14-alpha-demethylase, an enzyme that is essential for the synthesis of ergosterol, which is essential to maintain the integrity of the fungal cell membrane. Blocking ergosterol synthesis causes damage to the fungal cell membrane, resulting in cell death.

Nystatin: Nystatin is an antifungal medication used to treat intestinal and invasive systemic fungal infections in addition to oropharyngeal candidiasis. Nystatin binds to ergosterol on the fungal cell membrane and increases the membrane’s permeability, leading to cell content leakage and death of the fungus.

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What are the uses of other antifungals?

Other antifungals may be administered through the following routes:

Oral:

  • Tablets
  • Capsules
  • Troches, lozenges, and buccal tablets that are slowly dissolved in the mouth
  • Suspensions

Vaginal:

  • Creams
  • Tablets/suppositories

The FDA-approved uses of other antifungals include:

Clotrimazole:

  • Vaginal candidiasis (Candida yeast infection)
  • Oropharyngeal candidiasis
  • Pouchitis (inflammation in the lining of a pouch created as part of certain colon surgeries) - orphan designation

Miconazole oral:

  • Oropharyngeal candidiasis

Nystatin:

  • Oropharyngeal candidiasis
  • Intestinal candidiasis
  • Invasive fungal infections (orphan designation)

What are side effects of other antifungals?

Side effects of other antifungals vary with each type of drug. A few of the most common side effects may include:

Clotrimazole:

  • Abnormal liver function tests
  • Nausea and vomiting with troches
  • Mild burning, stinging, or irritation with vaginal creams or tablets

Miconazole oral:

Nystatin:

Information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.

What are names of some of the other antifungals?

Generic and brand names of some of the other antifungals include:

  • clotrimazole
  • Gyne-Lotrimin-3 Combination Pack
  • Gyne-Lotrimin-3 Vaginal Cream
  • Gyne-Lotrimin-3 Vaginal Suppositories
  • Gyne-Lotrimin-7
  • miconazole oral
  • Mycelex vaginal
  • Mycelex-7
  • Mycelex-7 Combination Pack
  • Mycostatin
  • Nilstat
  • Nyamyc
  • Nystat Rx
  • nystatin
  • Nystatin Systemic
  • Nystex
  • Oravig

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References
https://reference.medscape.com/drugs/antifungals-other

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