How Do Other Neurologic Drugs Work?

Reviewed on 2/14/2022

How do other neurologic drugs work?

Neurologic drugs are medications used to treat different types of neurological disorders. Medications that do not fall into any specific class of neurologic drugs are categorized as other neurologic drugs. Other neurologic drugs include the following medications which work in different ways:

  • Edaravone: Edaravone is a medication used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive muscle wasting. Edaravone is believed to work by reducing oxidative stress, a part of the process that destroys nerve cells (neurons) in patients with ALS.
    • Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals (reactive oxygen species/ROS) and antioxidants that neutralize them. Free radicals play an essential role in biological processes, but excessive ROS cause cellular and DNA damage. Edaravone acts as an antioxidant, and delays disease progression by scavenging the free radicals.
  • Elamipretide: Elamipretide is a medication being developed to treat mitochondrial diseases, awaiting FDA approval. Mitochondria are small organelles within cells that generate the energy that all cells need to survive. Neuromuscular disorders are typical features of mitochondrial diseases because neurons and muscle cells have high energy needs.
    • Elamipretide binds to and enhances the activity of cardiolipin, an essential lipid (fat) component of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Elamipretide improves energy generation, reduces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress, increasing the availability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy molecules of cells.
  • Nimodipine: Nimodipine is used in patients who have had a brain aneurysm rupture, to reduce the incidence and severity of neurological deficits caused by reduced blood flow (ischemia) into the brain due to the hemorrhage. Nimodipine prevents cerebral vasospasm and dilates the cerebral arteries, improving blood flow.
  • Onasemnogene abeparvovec: Onasemnogene abeparvovec is used to treat spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type-1, a neuromuscular disease caused by the absence of or defects in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. The SMN1 gene encodes SMN protein, essential for maintaining the health and normal functioning of motor neurons.
    • Onasemnogene abeparvovec is a one-time gene replacement therapy administered with intravenous infusion. A non-infectious virus delivers a fully functional SMN1 gene into the motor neurons, which helps increase the production of SMN protein.

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What are the uses of other neurologic drugs?

Other neurologic drugs may be administered as oral capsules or solutions, and intravenous (IV) infusions into the vein. Other neurologic drugs may be used in the treatment of conditions that include:

  • Edaravone:
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive muscle weakness and atrophy
  • Elamipretide: (pending FDA approval)
  • Nimodipine:
    • Subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space between arachnoid and pia mater, two layers of brain’s membranes), to improve neurological outcome by reducing incidence and severity of ischemic deficits caused by the hemorrhage
  • Onasemnogene abeparvovec:

What are side effects of other neurologic drugs?

Side effects of other neurologic drugs vary with each drug. A few of the most common side effects may include:

Information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these products do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.

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What are names of some of the other neurologic drugs?

Generic and brand names of some of the other neurologic drugs include:

  • edaravone
  • elamipretide (pending FDA approval)
  • Bendavia (pending FDA approval)
  • nimodipine
  • Nimotop
  • Nymalize
  • onasemnogene abeparvovec
  • onasemnogene abeparvovec-xioi
  • Radicava
  • Zolgensma
References
https://reference.medscape.com/drugs/neurologics-other

https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB12243

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5890606/

https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_ocuvia_elamipretide/drugs-condition.htm

https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Barth-Syndrome-Information-Page https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy/

https://mitochondrialdiseasenews.com/elamipretide-is-aimed-at-treating-mitochondrial-diseases-of-the-eyes-and-rest-of-the-body/

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2006/018869s014lbl.pdf

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