How Do Third-generation Cephalosporins Work?
Cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics used to manage a wide range of bacterial infections. They are derived from the mold Acremonium (previously called Cephalosporium). Cephalosporins are grouped into five generations based on their spectrum of coverage against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. They are administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or orally depending on the infection.
Third-generation cephalosporins are more effective against gram-negative bacteria than the first and second generations. They are usually effective against bacteria that may be resistant to previous generations of cephalosporins.
Cephalosporins inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis. The bacterial cell wall is strengthened by the cross-linking of peptidoglycans with the help of penicillin-binding proteins. Cephalosporins have beta-lactam rings that bind with penicillin-binding proteins and block them. The cross-linking of peptidoglycans is then hampered, and the cell wall is not formed, resulting in the death of the bacterial cell.
How Are Third-generation Cephalosporins Used?
Third-generation cephalosporins are used to treat:
- Intra-abdominal Infection
- Central nervous system infections
- Skin and soft tissue infections
- Urinary tract infections
- Lower respiratory tract infections
- Gynecological infections
- Bone and joint infections
- Sepsis (a life-threatening complication of an infection)
What Are Side Effects of Third-generation Cephalosporins?
Side effects associated with third-generation cephalosporins include:
- Abdominal pain
- Injection site inflammation
- Nausea and vomiting
- Skin rash
- Leukopenia (decreased white blood cells)
- Thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets)
- Decreased appetite
- Swelling of tongue and throat
- Difficulty in breathing
Serious side effects may include:
- Major hypersensitivity
- Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA)
- Pseudomembranous colitis (swelling or inflammation of the large intestine)
- Suppression of gut flora that leads to a reduction in vitamin K synthesis
- Disulfiram like reaction (caused by increased acetaldehyde which causes alcohol intolerance)
The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.
What Are Names of Third-generation Cephalosporins Drugs?
Names of third-generation cephalosporins include:
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