Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
Kerlone (betaxolol hydrochloride) is a beta-blocker used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Kerlone has been discontinued in the U.S., but generic forms may be available. Common side effects of Kerlone (betaxolol hydrochloride) include dizziness, lightheadedness, drowsiness, headache, shortness of breath, decreased sex drive, impotence, difficulty having an orgasm, sleep problems (insomnia), fatigue, tiredness, anxiety, nervousness, stomach upset, nausea, diarrhea, sore throat, cold hands and feet, dry eyes, tingling, numbness, and weakness.
The recommended dosage of Kerlone is 10 mg once daily either alone or added to diuretic therapy. Kerzone may interact with calcium channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem, nifedipine, verapamil), epinephrine, fenoldopam, fingolimod, general anesthesia, other heart drugs (e.g., digoxin), other drugs to treat high blood pressure (e.g., clonidine, reserpine), St John's wort, or "water pills" (diuretics such as furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide). Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you take. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness while taking Kerlone. Avoid alcoholic beverages while taking Kerlone. This medication should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Kerlone passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.
Our Kerlone (betaxolol hydrochloride) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
- slow or uneven heartbeats;
- feeling like you might pass out;
- feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion;
- swelling of your ankles or feet;
- nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
- cold feeling in your hands and feet;
- joint pain or swelling with fever, swollen glands, muscle aches, vomiting, chest pain, unusual thoughts or behavior, and/or seizure (convulsions); or
- patchy skin color, red spots, or a butterfly-shaped skin rash over your cheeks and nose (worsens in sunlight).
Less serious side effects may include:
- decreased sex drive, impotence, or difficulty having an orgasm;
- sleep problems (insomnia);
- tired feeling; or
- anxiety, nervousness.
Read the entire detailed patient monograph for Kerlone (Betaxolol Hydrochloride)
Most adverse reactions have been mild and transient and are typical of beta-adrenergic blocking agents, eg, bradycardia, fatigue, dyspnea, and lethargy. Withdrawal of therapy in U.S. and European controlled clinical trials has been necessary in about 3.5% of patients, principally because of bradycardia, fatigue, dizziness, headache, and impotence.
Frequency estimates of adverse events were derived from controlled studies in which adverse reactions were volunteered and elicited in U.S studies and volunteered and/or elicited in European studies.
In the U.S., the placebo-controlled hypertension studies lasted for 4 weeks, while the active-controlled hypertension studies had a 22- to 24- week double-blind phase. The following doses were studied: betaxolol-5, 10, 20, and 40 mg once daily; atenolol-25, 50, and 100 mg once daily; and propranolol-40, 80, and 160 mg b.i.d.
Kerlone (betaxolol hydrochloride) , like other beta-blockers, has been associated with the development of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) (e.g., lupus erythematosus). In controlled clinical studies, conversion of ANA from negative to positive occurred in 5.3% of the patients treated with betaxolol, 6.3% of the patients treated with atenolol, 4.9% of the patients treated with propranolol, and 3.2% of the patients treated with placebo.
Betaxolol adverse events reported with a 2% or greater frequency, and selected events with lower frequency, in U.S. controlled studies are:
|Dose Range|| Betaxolol
5-40 mg q.d.*
40-160 mg b.i.d.
25-100 mg q.d.
|Body System/Adverse Reaction||(%)||(%)||(%)||(%)|
|Bradycardia (heart rate < 50 BPM)||8.1||4.1||12.0||0|
|Central Nervous System|
|Upper respiratory infection||2.6||0||0||5.5|
*Five patients received 80 mg q.d.
†N=336 males; impotence is a known possible adverse effect of this pharmacological class.
Of the above adverse reactions associated with the use of betaxolol, only bradycardia was clearly dose related, but there was a suggestion of dose relatedness for fatigue, lethargy, and dyspepsia.
In Europe, the placebo-controlled study lasted for 4 weeks, while the comparative studies had a 4- to 52-week double-blind phase. The following doses were studied: betaxolol 20 and 40 mg once daily and atenolol 100 mg once daily.
From European controlled hypertension clinical trials, the following adverse events reported by 2% or more patients and selected events with lower frequency are presented:
|Dose range|| Betaxolol
20-40 mg q.d.
100 mg q.d.
|Body System/Adverse Reaction||(%)||(%)||(%)|
|Bradycardia (heartrate < 50 BPM)||5.8||5.0||0|
|Central Nervous System|
The only adverse event whose frequency clearly rose with increasing dose was bradycardia. Elderly patients were especially susceptible to bradycardia, which in some cases responded to dose-reduction (see PRECAUTIONS).
The following selected (potentially important) adverse events have been reported at an incidence of less than 2% in U.S. controlled and open, long-term clinical studies, European controlled clinical trials, or in marketing experience. It is not known whether a causal relationship exists between betaxolol and these events; they are listed to alert the physician to a possible relationship:
Autonomic: flushing, salivation, sweating.
Liver and biliary: increased AST, increased ALT.
Psychiatric:abnormal thinking, amnesia, impaired concentration, confusion, emotional lability, hallucinations, decreased libido.
Special senses: abnormal taste, taste loss.
Potential adverse effects: Although not reported in clinical studies with betaxolol, a variety of adverse effects have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and may be considered potential adverse effects of betaxolol:
Central nervous system: Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia, an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability with slightly clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometric tests.
Allergic: Fever combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm, respiratory distress.
Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenic purpura, and nonthrombocytopenic purpura.
Gastrointestinal: Mesenteric arterial thrombosis, ischemic colitis.
Miscellaneous: Raynaud's phenomena. There have been reports of skin rashes and/or dry eyes associated with the use of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs. The reported incidence is small, and in most cases, the symptoms have cleared when treatment was withdrawn. Discontinuation of the drug should be considered if any such reaction is not otherwise explicable. Patients should be closely monitored following cessation of therapy.
The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta-blocker practolol has not been reported with Kerlone (betaxolol hydrochloride) during investigational use and extensive foreign experience. However, dry eyes have been reported.
Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Kerlone (Betaxolol Hydrochloride)
© Kerlone Patient Information is supplied by Cerner Multum, Inc. and Kerlone Consumer information is supplied by First Databank, Inc., used under license and subject to their respective copyrights.