Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease: Diabetic kidney disease affects about one half of patients with long-standing diabetes. It affects the glomerulus, a key structure in the kidney that is composed of capillary vessels necessary for the filtration of the blood. A cardinal feature is the excessive filtration of albumin into the urine (albuminuria). Patients may also have high blood pressure (hypertension). When severe, Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease leads to kidney failure, end-stage renal disease, and the need for chronic kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant.