Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome: Diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease). Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome is a kidney condition associated with long-standing diabetes. It affects the network of tiny blood vessels (the microvasculature) in the glomerulus, a key structure in the kidney that is composed of capillary blood vessels and which is critically necessary for the filtration of the blood. Features of Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome include the nephrotic syndrome with excessive filtration of protein into the urine (proteinuria), high blood pressure (hypertension), and progressively impaired kidney function. When severe, Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome leads to kidney failure, end-stage renal disease, and the need for chronic kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant. The disorder is named for Paul Kimmelstein (1900-70), a German-born pathologist in the U.S., and Clifford Wilson (1906-), an English physician. It is also known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease or intercapillary glomerulonephritis.