- What other names is Lactobacillus known by?
- What is Lactobacillus?
- How does Lactobacillus work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Lactobacillus.
Acidophilus, Acidophilus Bifidus, Acidophilus Lactobacillus, L. Acidophilus, L. Amylovorus, L. Brevis, L. Bulgaricus, L. Casei, L. Casei Immunitas, L. Crispatus, L. Delbrueckii, L. Fermentum, L. Gallinarum, L. Helveticus, L. Johnsonii, L. Johnsonii LC-1, L. Lactis, L. Plantarum, L. Reuteri, L. Rhamnosus, L. Salivarius, Lacto Bacillus, Lactobacille, Lactobacilli, Lactobacilli Acidophilus, Lactobacilli Bulgaricus, Lactobacilli Plantarum, Lactobacilli Rhamnosus, Lactobacilli Salivarium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus casei sp. rhamnosus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus Gasseri, Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus Helveticus, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus Lactis, Lactobacillus Paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus Salivarium, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacilo, Lactospores, LC-1, Probiotic.
Lactobacillus is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus. These are "friendly" bacteria that normally live in our digestive, urinary, and genital systems without causing disease. Lactobacillus is also in some fermented foods like yogurt and in dietary supplements.
Lactobacillus is taken by mouth to treat and prevent diarrhea, including infectious types such as rotaviral diarrhea in children and traveler's diarrhea. It is also taken by mouth to prevent and treat diarrhea associated with using antibiotics.
Some people take lactobacillus by mouth for general digestion problems, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), colic in babies, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), inflammation of the colon, too much bacterial growth in the intestines, constipation, to improve outcomes after bowel surgery, and to prevent a serious gut problem called necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in babies born prematurely. Lactobacillus is also taken by mouth for infection with Helicobacter pylori, the type of bacteria that causes ulcers, and also for other types of infections including urinary tract infections (UTIs), vaginal yeast infections, to prevent the common cold and flu, to prevent ear infections in children, and to prevent respiratory infections in children attending daycare centers and in children with cystic fibrosis. It is also taken by mouth for weight loss, rheumatoid arthritis, dental cavities, dental plaque, gum disease, and mouth sores. It is also being tested to prevent serious infections in people on ventilators.
Lactobacillus is taken by mouth for skin disorders such as fever blisters, canker sores, and acne. It is also used to treat or prevent eczema (allergic dermatitis), sensitivity to sun exposure (polymorphous light eruption), sensitivity to environmental allergens, and hay fever in infants and children.
Women sometimes use lactobacillus suppositories to treat vaginal infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Likely Effective for...
- Diarrhea in children caused by a certain virus (rotavirus). Children with rotaviral diarrhea who are being treated with Lactobacillus seem to get over their diarrhea about a half day earlier than they would without this treatment. Larger doses of lactobacillus are more effective than smaller ones. At least 10 billion colony-forming units during the first 48 hours should be used.
Possibly Effective for...
- Hayfever. Taking two billion colony-forming units of Lactobacillus paracasei daily for 5 weeks can improve quality of life by almost 18% in people with grass pollen allergy that doesn't respond to the anti-allergy drug loratadine. Also, taking 10 billion colony-forming units of Lactobacillus johnsonii for 12 weeks seems to improve itchy eye symptoms in children with allergies that persist throughout the year.
- Preventing diarrhea caused by antibiotics. Research suggests that taking probiotics products containing only Lactobacillus strains reduces the risk of diarrhea caused by antibiotics. Also, giving children Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle) along with antibiotics seems to reduce diarrhea. There is conflicting evidence about the effects of Lactobacillus when taking together with other probiotics strains.
- Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Most research suggests that Lactobacillus products are beneficial for TREATING eczema. Lactobacillus GG seems to reduce symptoms of eczema in infants who are allergic to cow's milk. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and a combination of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri also seem to reduce eczema symptoms in children ages 1 to 13 years. But Lactobacillus paracasei doesn't seem to be beneficial for treating eczema. Research on the effects of Lactobacillus for PREVENTING eczema is inconsistent. Some research suggests that taking Lactobacillus during pregnancy reduces the risk of eczema in infants. But other research suggests no benefit. This might be due to the strains of Lactobacillus used and how at risk the infants were for developing the skin condition.
- A condition associated with an increased risk for developing allergic reactions (atopic disease).. Research suggests that taking Lactobacillus might prevent the development of atopic disease, but only certain Lactobacillus strains seem to reduce the risk. A specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle), taken by mouth 2-4 weeks before delivery and continued for the first three to six months of breast-feeding seems to prevent atopic disease (asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema) in infants with a family history of this condition. But other strains do not seem to have the same effect.
- Treating vaginal infections caused by bacteria (bacterial vaginosis). Clinical research shows certain strains of Lactobacillus might help treat bacterial vaginosis when applied inside the vagina. Researchers have found Lactobacillus acidophilus suppositories (Vivag, Pharma Vinci A/S, Denmark) and vaginal tablets (Gynoflor, Medinova, Switzerland) may be effective. Researchers have also found that vaginal capsules containing Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (EcoVag Vaginal Capsules, Bifodan A/S, Denmark) can lengthen the time between infections. Eating yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent these infections from occurring again.
- Preventing diarrhea due to cancer treatment (chemotherapy). A chemotherapy drug called 5-fluorouracil can cause severe diarrhea and other gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. There is some evidence that patients with cancer of the colon or rectum have less severe diarrhea, less stomach discomfort, shorter hospital care, and require fewer chemotherapy dose reductions due to GI side effects when they take a particular strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle).
- Diarrhea. Giving a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle) to infants and children 1 to 36 months old when they are admitted to the hospital seems to reduce the risk developing diarrhea. Also, Lactobacillus GG can reduce the risk of diarrhea from all causes in undernourished children. But Lactobacillus GG does not seem to reduce how long otherwise healthy children experience diarrhea, suggesting that it might help prevent but not treat diarrhea. Some research suggests that consuming a specific product containing Lactobacillus casei (DanActive, Dannon) might help prevent diarrhea in children. But other research shows no preventative effect. A specific product containing Lactobacillus reuteri (BioGaia drops, BioGaia AB, Sweden) seems to help reduce the duration of diarrhea in children hospitalized with diarrhea.
- Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Research suggests that taking Lactobacillus can help treat stomach ulcers caused by H. pylori when taken along with "triple therapy" that consists of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a proton-pump inhibitor. It does not seem to help treat the infection when taken alone, with only an antibiotic, with other "triple therapies", or with "quadruple therapy" that includes bismuth.
- High cholesterol. Eating yogurt or taking capsules containing the Lactobacillus strain L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 (Cardioviva, Micropharma Limited) seems to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol by about 9% to 12% in adults with high cholesterol. Also, taking Lactobacillus plantarum also seems to reduce total cholesterol levels by 14% in adults with high cholesterol. But Lactobacillus does not seem to improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol or triglycerides.
- Colic in babies. Taking a specific Lactobacillus reuteri product (Probiotic Drops, BioGaia AB) 100 million CFUs once daily for 21-28 days reduces daily crying time in nursing infants. Some research suggests that taking this Lactobacillus reuteri product seems to be more effective than using the drug simethicone. But a more recent study suggests that it does not reduce crying. It's possible that infants in the recent study had more severe colic than those in the earlier research.
- Treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Research shows that Lactobacillus acidophilus can improve symptoms of IBS such as bloating and stomach pain. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v might also improve symptoms, but some conflicting results exists. Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus salivarius, and a combination of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium Bb12 don't seem to work.
- Inflamed mouth sores from cancer treatment (oral mucositis).Research suggests that taking lozenges containing Lactobacillus brevis from the first day of radiation/chemotherapy treatment until one week after reduces the number of patients who develop severe mouth sores.
- Inflammation of an artificial rectum surgically created in people with inflammatory bowel disease (pouchitis).Taking Lactobacillus by mouth seems to help treat pouchitis, a complication of surgery for ulcerative colitis. Taking a specific formulation of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) for one year seems to maintain remission in 85% of people with this condition. Taking a different formulation containing two Lactobacillus species and Bifidobacterum for 9 months seems to reduce pouchitis severity.
- Lung infections. Children ages 1 to 6 years who attend daycare centers seem to get fewer and less severe lung infections when given milk containing Lactobacillus GG or a specific combination product containing both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium (HOWARU Protect).
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Research shows that taking a specific strain of Lactobacillus casei for 8 weeks reduces tender and swollen joints in women with rheumatoid arthritis.
- Preventing diarrhea due to traveling. Traveler's diarrhea is caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites that the traveler has not been exposed to before. Taking a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle) seems to help prevent diarrhea in travelers. The effectiveness of Lactobacillus GG can vary a lot depending on the travel destination because of differences in bacteria in different locations.
- Treating a bowel condition called ulcerative colitis.. Some research suggests that taking a specific combination product containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) might improve symptoms in people with ulcerative colitis. Continuous treatment for one year seems to help most patients. Taking another specific product containing Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Profermin, Nordisk Rebalance) also seem to improve symptoms.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Treating diarrhea caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. Research suggests that taking Lactobacillus GG is not effective for the prevention of Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Taking other Lactobacillus species, including Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and other strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, also does not appear to be effective for preventing Clostridium difficile infections when taken with antibiotics.
- Crohn's disease. Some research shows that taking specific strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle) and Lactobacillus johnsonii does not seem to prevent Crohn's disease from coming back after surgery.
- Dental plaque. Giving Lactobacillus reuteri to mothers starting 4 weeks before delivery until birth, and then continuing in the infants until 12 months of age, does not seem to reduce dental plaque in the baby teeth of the child by the age of 9 years.
- Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in babies born prematurely. Lactobacillus GG does not seem to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very small babies. Also, giving Lactobacillus reuteri or a specific product containing a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Streptococcus thermophilus (Laboratorio Italmex SA, Mexico City, Mexico) to very small infants does not reduce the risk of death or NEC.
- Ear infection. Research suggests that taking a specific formula (NAN 3 formula, Nestle Baby) containing Streptococcus thermophiles, Streptococcus salivarius, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, together with the prebiotics raftilose and raftiline for 12 months, does not reduce the risk of ear infections in healthy infants.
- Vaginal yeast infections after taking antibiotics. There is evidence that taking Lactobacillus by mouth or eating yogurt enriched with Lactobacillus doesn't prevent vaginal yeast infections after antibiotics. However, women with yeast infections who use vaginal suppositories containing 1 billion live Lactobacillus GG bacteria twice daily for 7 days in combination with conventional treatment often report their symptoms improve.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Acne. Taking Lactobacillus and other probiotics by mouth together with antibiotics might improve acne. Early research shows that taking a specific product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum (Trenev Trio/Healthy Trinity, Natren, Westlake Village, CA) twice daily along with minocycline once daily in the evening for 12 weeks improves acne.
- Common cold. Early research suggests that taking Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei daily for 12 weeks might reduce the risk of common cold by about 12% and reduce the number of days with symptoms from 8.6 to 6.2 in adults. Also, taking a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifodobacterium for 3 months seems to reduce school absences due to cold symptoms. However, research is inconsistent. Taking Lactobacillus helveticus daily for 6 weeks does not seem to reduce the number of cold/flu days in otherwise healthy adult students. Also drinking a beverage containing Lactobacillus brevis does not seem to reduce the risk of catching a cold.
- Constipation. Lactobacillus might reduce constipation when taken in combination with other probiotics. But not all combinations help. Taking specific products (Hexbio or Lactofos), which contain fructooligosaccharide, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium, reduces constipation in adults. But eating a yogurt containing polydextrose, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis does not reduce constipation. The effects of Lactobacillus alone are unclear.
- Cystic fibrosis. Research suggests that taking Lactobacillus reuteri daily for 6 months reduces the percentage of cystic fibrosis patients with lung complications from 37% to 3% and the percentage with upper respiratory tract infections from 20% to 3%.
- Dental cavities. Research on the effects of Lactobacillus on dental cavities is mixed. Giving Lactobacillus reuteri to mothers starting 4 weeks before delivery until birth, and then continuing in the infants until 12 months of age, seems to reduce cavities in the child's baby teeth. But giving infants a cereal containing Lactobacillus paracasei (Semper AB, Stockholm, Sweden) from 4 months until 13 months of age does not reduce cavities in baby or permanent teeth.
- Stomach pain. Early research suggests that taking Lactobacillus reuteri twice daily for 4 weeks can reduce the severity but not frequency of stomach pain in children 6 to 16 years-old. Other early research suggests that taking Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis twice daily for 30 days improve stomach pain.
- Flu. Taking a probiotic test drink (Kagome, Nagoya, Japan) containing Lactobacillus brevis five days weekly for 8 weeks reduces the incidence of the flu in schoolchildren during flu season. But taking Lactobacillus helveticus daily for 6 weeks does not seem to reduce the number of cold/flu days in otherwise healthy adults.
- Lactose intolerance. Research on the effects of lactobacillus on lactose intolerance is conflicting. Some research shows that drinking Lactobacillus acidophilus milk produces the same symptoms of intolerance as regular cow's milk in people with lactose intolerance. But other research shows that drinking a milk product containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus reduces symptoms of lactose intolerance.
- Skin rash caused by sun exposure (polymorphous light eruption). Early research suggests that taking a supplement containing Lactobacillus johnsonii and other ingredients (Inneov Sun Sensitivity, Laboratoires Innéov, Asnières sur Seine, France) daily for 12 weeks reduces the severity ofskin reactions after sun exposure in people with polymorphous light eruption.
- Growth of bacteria in the intestines. Some clinical research has evaluated lactobacillus for treating and preventing growth of potentially harmful bacteria in the intestines. Some of this research shows modest improvements in symptoms of stomach pain, bloating, and diarrhea; however, other research has found no benefit in people with bacterial overgrowth. Lactobacillus does not seem to be helpful for preventing growth of harmful bacteria in the intestines.
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs). There is some early evidence that vaginal use of some Lactobacillus species might be helpful for preventing UTIs, but not all studies have agreed. There is also conflicting evidence about the effects of taking Lactobacillus by mouth.
- Pneumonia in people on breathing machines in the hospital. Early research suggests that taking Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Culturelle) twice daily might reduce the incidence of pneumonia in people in the intensive care unit.
- Weight loss. Research suggests that taking Lactobacillus rhamnosus twice daily for 24 weeks does not reduce body weight or fat mass in obese adults. But when only considering its effects in women, Lactobacillus rhamnosus does seem to reduce body weight.
- Boosting the immune system.
- Canker sores.
- Fever blisters.
- Lyme disease.
- Other conditions.
Many bacteria and other organisms live in our bodies normally. "Friendly" bacteria such as Lactobacillus can help us break down food, absorb nutrients, and fight off "unfriendly" organisms that might cause diseases such as diarrhea.
Lactobacillus is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. Side effects are usually mild and most often include intestinal gas or bloating.
Lactobacillus is also LIKELY SAFE for women to use inside the vagina.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Children: Lactobacillus is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately in children. Lactobacillus GG, a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, has been used safely from five days to 15 months.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Lactobacillus is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately while pregnant and breastfeeding. Lactobacillus GG has been used safely in pregnant and breast-feeding women. The combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Lactobacillus paracasei with Bifidobacterium longum from 2 months before delivery until the breastfed infant was 2 months has been used safely. But other types of lactobacillus have not been studied during pregnancy and breast-feeding, so their safety is unknown.
Digestive surgery: There is some concern that eating a yogurt containing Lactobacillus might cause a bacterial infection following a colonoscopy. Stop taking probiotics before a digestive surgery or colonoscopy.
Weakened immune system: There is some concern that lactobacillus from supplements that contain live bacteria might grow too well in people whose immune systems are weakened. This includes people with HIV/AIDS or people who have taken medicines to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ. Lactobacillus has caused disease (rarely) in people with weakened immune systems. To be on the safe side, if you have a weakened immune system, talk with your healthcare provider before taking lactobacillus.
Short bowel syndrome: People with short bowel syndrome might be more likely than other people to develop lactobacillus infections. If you have this condition, talk with your healthcare provider before taking lactobacillus.
Antibiotic drugsInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Antibiotics are used to reduce harmful bacteria in the body. Antibiotics can also reduce friendly bacteria in the body. Lactobacillus is a type of friendly bacteria. Taking antibiotics along with Lactobacillus can reduce the effectiveness of Lactobacillus. To avoid this interaction, take Lactobacillus products at least 2 hours before or after antibiotics.
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Lactobacillus contains live bacteria and yeast. The immune system usually controls bacteria and yeast in the body to prevent infections. Medications that decrease the immune system can increase your chances of getting sick from bacteria and yeast. Taking Lactobacillus along with medications that decrease the immune system might increase the chances of getting sick.
Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For hayfever: At least 2 billion Lactobacillus paracasei daily for 7 weeks has been used along with 10 mg of loratadine once daily for 5 weeks.
- For preventing diarrhea caused by antibiotics: A specific beverage (Actimel, Danone) containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus (Actimel, Danone) 97 mL has been taken twice daily. Also, a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12, a total of 2 billion live cells, has been taken twice daily for 14 days.
- For eczema (atopic dermatitis): A specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle), has been used. Also, 100 million CFU of Lactobacillus reuteri has been used daily starting at week 36 of pregnancy until delivery.
- For a condition associated with an increased risk for developing allergic reactions (atopic disease): Ten to 20 billion CFU of Lactobacillus GG has been used daily for 2-4 weeks before delivery.
- For treating vaginal infections caused by bacteria (bacterial vaginosis): 150 mL of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus has been used daily for 2 months.
- For preventing diarrhea due to cancer treatment (chemotherapy): Ten to 20 billion CFU of a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG, has been used daily in two divided doses during 24 weeks of chemotherapy.
- For Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection: A yogurt containing one billion CFU Lactobacillus gasseri has been used twice daily for 4 to 8 weeks alone or with antibiotics. A specific product (Lacteol Fort, Bruschettini s.r.l., Genoa, Italy) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus has been taken three times daily for 10 days along with antibiotics. Other combinations of Lactobacillus strains and antibiotics have also been used.
- For high cholesterol: A mixture of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum containing a total daily dose of 1.2 billion live cells has been used for 12 weeks. Also, specific yogurt or specific capsules containing 2.9 to 50 billion live cells of Lactobacillus reuteri (strain NCIMB 30242; Cardioviva, Micropharma Limited) have been used daily for 6 to 9 weeks.
- For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): A specific product containing 10 billion organisms of Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lacteol Fort) has been used daily for 6 weeks. Also, a specific beverage containing Lactobacillus plantarum (ProViva, Skanemejerier, Sweden) has been taken in doses of 125-200 mL once or twice daily, or capsules containing 10 billion CFU Lactobacillus plantarum once daily, for 4 weeks.
- For inflamed mouth sores from cancer treatment (oral mucositis): Lozenges containing Lactobacillus brevis have been dissolved in the mouth every 2-3 hours up to six times daily during chemotherapy and continuing until one week after.
- Inflammation of an artificial rectum surgically created in people with inflammatory bowel disease (pouchitis): A combination probiotic containing, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus species (VSL#3), has been taken twice daily for up to one year. A specific formulation (Trilac, Allergon AB, Angelholm, Sweden) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, has been taken in doses of two capsules three times daily for 9 months.
- For rheumatoid arthritis: One hundred million CFU of Lactobacillus casei have been used daily for 8 weeks.
- For traveler's diarrhea: Two billion CFU of a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG, has been used daily, starting two days before traveling and continuing until the end of the trip.
- For a bowel condition called ulcerative colitis: A specific product (Profermin, Nordisk Rebalance), containing 100 million colony forming units (CFUs)/mL of the specific probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum has been taken twice daily for 8 weeks. Also, 3 grams of another combination probiotic containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) has been used twice daily for maintenance therapy.
- For treating vaginal infections caused by bacteria: One to two vaginal tablets (Gynoflor, Medinova, Switzerland) daily containing living Lactobacillus acidophilus (10 million colon-forming units/tablet) and 0.3 mg estriol for 6 days. Intravaginal suppositories containing 100 million to 1 billion colony forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus (Vivag, Pharma Vinci A/S, Denmark) given twice daily for 6 days has also been used.
- For children with rotaviral diarrhea: Five to 10 billion live Lactobacillus GG in a solution that replaces lost water has been used. Also, 10 to100 billion live Lactobacillus reuteri daily for up to 5 days has been used. Lower doses might not be as effective.
- For hayfever: Ten billion cells of Lactobacillus johnsonii, has been taken once daily for 12 weeks along with 5 mg of levocetirizine in children 7-12 years-old.
- For preventing diarrhea caused by antibiotics: While taking antibiotics, 10-20 billion live organisms of a strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle), has been taken once daily or 20 billion organisms twice daily.
- For eczema (atopic dermatitis): Five billion CFU of Lactobacillus sakei has been used twice daily for 12 weeks. Also, 100 million CFU of Lactobacillus reuteri daily from birth to 12 months has been used. Fifty billion CFU of Lactobacillus plantarum has been used twice daily for 12 weeks in children aged 1 to 13 years.
- For a condition associated with an increased risk for developing allergic reactions (atopic disease): Ten to 20 billion CFU of Lactobacillus GG has been used daily for the first three to six months of life.
- For diarrhea: Six billion CFU of a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG, has been used twice daily in infants while hospitalized. Also, 37 billion CFU of Lactobacillus GG has been used daily, 6 days weekly, for 15 months in children 6 to 24 months-old.
- For Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection: A combination of 94 billion CFU Lactobacillus acidophilus and 8.6 billion CFU Bifidobacterium bifidum have been used together with an antibiotic daily for 2 weeks, followed by the probiotics alone for an additional 4 weeks.
- For colic in babies: One hudred million CFU of Lactobacillus reuteri (Probiotic Drops, BioGaia AB) has been used daily for up to 90 days in breast-fed and formula-fed infants.
- For lung infections: Milk products containing 1 million to 5 billion CFU of various Lactobacillus strains have been used.
- For traveler's diarrhea: Two billion CFU of a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus GG, has been used daily, starting two days before traveling and continuing until the end of the trip.
- For a bowel condition called ulcerative colitis: A combination probiotic containing 450 billion to 1800 billion bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus (VSL#3), has been used daily in children with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Björkstén B, Oldaeus G, Jenmalm MC. No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies: a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013;24(6):556-61. View abstract.
Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Bottcher MF, et al. Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:1174-80.. View abstract.
Alak JI, Wolf BW, Mdurvwa EG, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on intestinal resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a murine model of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis 1997;175:218-21. View abstract.
Alander M, Satokari R, Korpela R, et al. Persistence of colonization of human colonic mucosa by a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, after oral consumption. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999;65:351-4. View abstract.
Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Sharif SK, Vaghef-Mehrabany L,Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Nakhjavani MR, Mohtadi-Nia J. Effects of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on disease activity and inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Int J Rheum Dis 2014;17(5):519-27. View abstract.
Allen SJ, Jordan S, Storey M, Thornton CA, Gravenor MB, Garaiova I, Plummer SF, Wang D, Morgan G. Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 2014;99(11):1014-9. View abstract.
Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Sewell B, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D, Phillips CJ. A high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial (PLACIDE). Health Technol Assess 2013;17(57):1-140. View abstract.
Arvola T, Laiho K, Torkkeli S, et al. Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study. Pediatrics 1999;104:e64. View abstract.
Baerheim A, Larsen E, Digranes A. Vaginal application of lactobacilli in the prophylaxis of recurrent lower urinary tract infection in women. Scand J Prim Health Care 1994;12:239-43. View abstract.
Barrett JS, Canale KE, Gearry RB, et al. Probiotic effects on intestinal fermentation patterns in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 28;14(32):5020-4. View abstract.
Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, van der Wal WM, de Borgie CA, de Reijke TM,Prins JM, Koeijers J, Verbon A, Stobberingh E, Geerlings SE. Lactobacilli vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2012;172(9):704-12. View abstract.
Begtrup LM, de Muckadell OB, Kjeldsen J, Christensen RD, Jarbøl DE. Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2013;48(10):1127-35. View abstract.
Berggren A, Lazou Ahrén I, Larsson N, Onning G. Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study using new probiotic lactobacilli for strengthening the body immune defence against viral infections. Eur J Nutr 2011;50:203-10. View abstract.
Bibiloni R, Fedorak RN, Tannock GW, et al. VSL#3 probiotic-mixture induces remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1539-46. View abstract.
Biller JA, Katz AJ, Flores AF, et al. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;21:224-6. View abstract.
Bradshaw CS, Pirotta M, De Guingand D, Hocking JS, Morton AN, Garland SM,Fehler G, Morrow A, Walker S, Vodstrcil LA, Fairley CK. Efficacy of oral metronidazole with vaginal clindamycin or vaginal probiotic for bacterial vaginosis: randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. PLoS One 2012;7(4):e34540. View abstract.
Bruce AW, Reid G. Intravaginal instillation of Lactobacilli for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections. Can J Microbiol 1988;34:339-43. View abstract.
Cadieux P, Burton J, Gardiner G, et al. Lactobacillus strains and vaginal ecology. JAMA 2002;287:1940-1. View abstract.
Canducci F, Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, et al. A lyophilized and inactivated culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1625-9. View abstract.
Casas IA, Dobrogosz WJ. Validation of the probiotic concept: Lactobacillus reuteri confers broad-spectrum protection against disease in humans and animals. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 2000;12:247-85.
Chan RCY, Reid G, Irvin RT, et al. Competitive exclusion of uropathogens from human uroepithelial cells by Lactobacillus whole cells and cell wall fragments. Infect Immun 1985;47:84-9. View abstract.
Chandra RK. Effect of Lactobacillus on the incidence and severity of acute rotavirus diarrhoea in infants. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr Res 2001;22:65-9.
Chatterjee S, Kar P, Das T, Ray S, Gangulyt S, Rajendiran C, Mitra M. Randomised placebo-controlled double blind multicentric trial on efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. J Assoc Physicians India 2013;61(10):708-12. View abstract.
Chau K, Lau E, Greenberg S, Jacobson S, Yazdani-Brojeni P, Verma N, Koren G.Probiotics for infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938. J Pediatr 2015;166(1):74-8. View abstract.
Choi CH, Chang SK. Role of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016 31;22(1):3-5. View abstract.
Cohen R, Martin E, de La Rocque F, Thollot F, Pecquet S, Werner A, Boucherat M, Varon E, Bingen E, Levy C. Probiotics and prebiotics in preventing episodes of acute otitis media in high-risk children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013;32(8):810-4. View abstract.
Costa DJ, Marteau P, Amouyal M, Poulsen LK, Hamelmann E, Cazaubiel M, Housez B, Leuillet S, Stavnsbjerg M, Molimard P, Courau S, Bousquet J. Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei LP-33 in allergic rhinitis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (GA2LEN Study). Eur J Clin Nutr 2014;68(5):602-7. View abstract.
Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M, et al. Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti-helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:2744-9. View abstract.
D'Souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. BMJ 2002;324:1361. View abstract.
Darouiche RO, Hull RA. Bacterial interference for prevention of urinary tract infection: an overview. J Spinal Cord Med 2000;23:136-41. View abstract.
De Groote MA, Frank DN, Dowell E, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a child with short gut syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24:278-80. View abstract.
de Roos NM, Katan MB. Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:405-11. View abstract.
Deguchi R, Nakaminami H, Rimbara E, Noguchi N, Sasatsu M, Suzuki T, Matsushima M, Koike J, Igarashi M, Ozawa H, Fukuda R, Takagi A. Effect of pretreatment with Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012;27(5):888-92. View abstract.
Di Nardo G, Oliva S, Menichella A, Pistelli R, De Biase RV, Patriarchi F,Cucchiara S, Stronati L. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC55730 in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014;58(1):81-6. View abstract.
Dinleyici EC; PROBAGE Study Group, Vandenplas Y. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 effectively reduces the duration of acute diarrhoea in hospitalised children. Acta Paediatr 2014;103(7):e300-5. View abstract.
Doege K, Grajecki D, Zyriax BC, Detinkina E, Zu Eulenburg C, Buhling KJ. Impact of maternal supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy on atopic eczema in childhood--a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 2012;107(1):1-6. View abstract.
Doncheva NI, Antov GP, Softove EB, Nyagolov YP. Experimental and clinical study on the hypolipidemic and antisclerotic effect of Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain GB N 1 (48). Nutr Res 2002;22:393-403.
Du YQ, Su T, Fan JG, Lu YX, Zheng P, Li XH, Guo CY, Xu P, Gong YF, Li ZS. Adjuvant probiotics improve the eradication effect of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(43):6302-7. View abstract.
Ducrotté P, Sawant P, Jayanthi V. Clinical trial: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (DSM 9843) improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(30):4012-8. View abstract.
Efrati C, Nicolini G, Cannaviello C, O'Sed NP, Valabrega S. Helicobacter pylori eradication: sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(43):6250-4. View abstract.
El-Nezami H, Kankaanpaa P, Salminen S, et al. Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:321-6. View abstract.
Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, Vieira ER, Quizon A, Forno E. Probiotic administration in early life, atopy, and asthma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Pediatrics 2013;132(3):e666-76. View abstract.
Felley CP, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Blanco Rivero JL, et al. Favourable effect of an acidified milk (LC-1) on Helicobacter pylori gastritis in man. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:25–9. View abstract.
Fernández-Carrocera LA, Solis-Herrera A, Cabanillas-Ayón M, Gallardo-Sarmiento RB, García-Pérez CS, Montaño-Rodríguez R, Echániz-Aviles MO. Double-blind,randomised clinical assay to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in preterm newborns weighing less than 1500 g in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2013;98(1):F5-9. View abstract.
Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
Francavilla R, Polimeno L, Demichina A, Maurogiovanni G, Principi B, Scaccianoce G, Ierardi E, Russo F, Riezzo G, Di Leo A, Cavallo L, Francavilla A, Versalovic J. Lactobacillus reuteri strain combination in Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Gastroenterol 2014;48(5):407-13. View abstract.
Franko B, Vaillant M, Recule C, Vautrin E, Brion JP, Pavese P. Lactobacillus paracasei endocarditis in a consumer of probiotics. Med Mal Infect 2013;43(4):171-3. View abstract.
Friend BA, Shahani KM. Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of lactobacilli. J Appl Nut 1984;36:125-153.
Fuentes MC, Lajo T, Carrión JM, Cuñé J. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529 in hypercholesterolaemic adults Br J Nutr 2013;109(10):1866-72. View abstract.
Fujisawa T, Benno Y, Yaeshima T, Mitsuoka T. Taxonomic study of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, with recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp. nov. and synonymy of Lactobacillus acidophilus group A3 (Johnson et al. 1980) with the type strain of Lactobacillus amylovorus (Nakamura 1981). Int J Syst Bacteriol 1992;42:487-91. View abstract.
Gaon D, Garmendia C, Murrielo NO, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus strains (L. casei and L. Acidophillus Strains cerela) on bacterial overgrowth-related chronic diarrhea. Medicina (B Aires). 2002;62(2):159-63. View abstract.
Gill HS, Rutherfurd KJ. Probiotic supplementation to enhance natural immunity in the elderly: effects of a newly characterized immunostimulatory strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) on leucocyte phagocytosis. Nutr Res 2001;21:183-9.
Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Venturi A, et al. Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2000;119:305-9. View abstract.
Goldin BR, Gualtieri LJ, Moore RP. The effect of Lactobacillus GG on the initiation and promotion of DMH-induced intestinal tumors in the rat. Nutr Cancer 1996;25:197-204. View abstract.
Goldin BR. Health Benefits of probiotics. Br J Nutr 1998;80:S203-7. View abstract.
Gorbach SL. Probiotics and gastrointestinal health. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S2-S4. View abstract.
Gore C, Custovic A, Tannock GW, Munro K, Kerry G, Johnson K, Peterson C, Morris J, Chaloner C, Murray CS, Woodcock A. Treatment and secondary prevention effects of the probiotics Lactobacillus paracasei or Bifidobacterium lactis on early infant eczema: randomized controlled trial with follow-up until age 3 years. Clin Exp Allergy 2012;42(1):112-22. View abstract.
Grin PM, Kowalewska PM, Alhazzan W, Fox-Robichaud AE. Lactobacillus for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in women: meta-analysis. Can J Urol 2013;20(1):6607-14. View abstract.
Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000;30:54. View abstract.
Guarino A, Canani RB, Spagnuolo MI, et al. Oral bacterial therapy reduces the duration of symptoms and of viral excretion in children with mild diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;25:516-9. View abstract.
Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Hooton TM, et al. Inverse association of H2O2-producing Lactobacilli and vaginal Escherichia coli colonization in women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Infect Dis 1998;178:446-50. View abstract.
Hallen A, Jarstrand C, Pahlson C. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with lactobacilli. Sex Transm Dis 1992;19:146-8.. View abstract.
Halpern GM, Prindiville T, Blankenburg M, et al. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Lacteol Fort: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:1579-85. View abstract.
Han Y, Kim B, Ban J, Lee J, Kim BJ, Choi BS, Hwang S, Ahn K, Kim J. A randomized trial of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012;23(7):667-73. View abstract.
Hasslöf P, West CE, Videhult FK, Brandelius C, Stecksén-Blicks C. Early intervention with probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei F19 has no long-term effect on caries experience. Caries Res. 2013;47(6):559-65. View abstract.
Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Ponka A, et al. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. BMJ 2001;322:1327. View abstract.
Hegar B, Hutapea EI, Advani N, Vandenplas Y. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial on probiotics in small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children treated with omeprazole. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013;89(4):381-7. View abstract.
Hempel S, Newberry SJ, Maher AR, Wang Z, Miles JN, Shanman R, Johnsen B, Shekelle PG. Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2012 9;307(18):1959-69. View abstract.
Herthelius M, Gorbach SL, Mollby R, et al. Elimination of vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli by administration of indigenous flora. Infect Immun 1989;57:2447-51. View abstract.
Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2007;335:80. View abstract.
Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Singer C, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a Diarrheal Preventative in Travelers. J Travel Med 1997;4:41-3. View abstract.
Hilton E, Rindos P, Isenberg HD. Lactobacillus GG Vaginal Suppositories and Vaginitis. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:1433. View abstract.
Hudault S, Lievin V, Bernet-Camard MF, Servin AL. Antagonistic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by Lactobacillus casei (strain GG) against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997;63:513-8. View abstract.
Indrio F, Di Mauro A, Riezzo G, Civardi E, Intini C, Corvaglia L, Ballardini E, Bisceglia M, Cinquetti M, Brazzoduro E, Del Vecchio A, Tafuri S, Francavilla R. Prophylactic use of a probiotic in the prevention of colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(3):228-33. View abstract.
Isolauri E, Juntunen M, Rautanen T, et al. A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei sp strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics 1991;88:90-7. View abstract.
Isolauri E, Sutas Y, Kankaanpaa P, et al. Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:444S-450S. View abstract.
Jaisamrarn U, Triratanachat S, Chaikittisilpa S, Grob P, Prasauskas V, Taechakraichana N. Ultra-low-dose estriol and lactobacilli in the local treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Climacteric. 2013;16(3):347-55. View abstract.
Jayasimhan S, Yap NY, Roest Y, Rajandram R, Chin KF. Efficacy of microbial cell preparation in improving chronic constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2013;32(6):928-34. View abstract.
Johnston BC, Ma SS, Goldenberg JZ, Thorlund K, Vandvik PO, Loeb M, Guyatt GH. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2012 18;157(12):878-88. Review. View abstract.
Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Parent M, Prakash S. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 yoghurt formulation in hypercholesterolaemic adults. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(10):1505-13. View abstract.
Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Prakash S. Cholesterol lowering and inhibition of sterol absorption by Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(11):1234-41. View abstract.
Jung GW, Tse JE, Guiha I, Rao J. Prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of an acne treatment regimen with and without a probiotic supplement and minocycline in subjects with mild to moderate acne. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013;17(2):114-22. View abstract.
Kalima P, Masterton RG, Roddie PH, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus infection in a child following bone marrow transplant. J Infect 1996;32:165-7. View abstract.
Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H et al. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:1076-1079. View abstract.
Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, et al. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361:1869-71. View abstract.
Kasravi FB, Adawi D, Molin G, et al. Effect of oral supplementation of lactobacilli on bacterial translocation in acute liver injury induced by D-galactosamine. J Hepatol 1997;26:417-24. View abstract.
Kim HJ, Camilleri M, McKinzie S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic, VSL#3, on gut transit and symptoms in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:895-904. . View abstract.
Kishi A, Uno K, Matsubara Y, et al. Effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on interferon-alpha producing capacity in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:408-12. View abstract.
Klein G, Zill E, Schindler R, et al. Peritonitis associated with vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient; organism identification, antibiotic therapy, and case report. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:1781-3. View abstract.
Krag A, Munkholm P, Israelsen H, von Ryberg B, Andersen KK, Bendtsen F. Profermin is efficacious in patients with active ulcerative colitis--a randomized controlled trial. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;19(12):2584-92. View abstract.
Kuhbacher T, Ott SJ, Helwig U, et al. Bacterial and fungal microbiota in relation to probiotic therapy (VSL#3) in pouchitis. Gut 2006;55:833-41. View abstract.
Land MH, Rouster-Stevens K, Woods CR, et al. Lactobacillus sepsis associated with probiotic therapy. Pediatrics 2005;115:178-81. View abstract.
Langkamp-Henken B, Rowe CC, Ford AL, Christman MC, Nieves C Jr, Khouri L,Specht GJ, Girard SA, Spaiser SJ, Dahl WJ. Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 results in a greater proportion of healthy days and a lower percentage of academically stressed students reporting a day of cold/flu: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2015 14;113(3):426-34. View abstract.
Larsson PG, Stray-Pedersen B, Ryttig KR, Larsen S. Human lactobacilli as supplementation of clindamycin to patients with bacterial vaginosis reduce the recurrence rate; a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BMC Womens Health 2008;8:3. View abstract.
Leyer GJ, Li S, Mubasher ME, et al. Probiotic effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration in children. Pediatrics 2009;124:e172-e179. View abstract.
Lin MY, Yen CL, Chen SH. Management of lactose maldigestion by consuming milk containing lactobacilli. Dig Dis Sci 1998;43:133-7. View abstract.
Losada MA, Olleros T. Towards a healthier diet for the colon: the influence of fructooligosaccharides and lactobacilli on intestinal health. Nutr Res 2002;22:71-84.
Lu L, Walker WA. Pathologic and physiologic interactions of bacteria with the gastrointestinal epithelium. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73;1124S-1130S. View abstract.
Lue KH, Sun HL, Lu KH, Ku MS, Sheu JN, Chan CH, Wang YH. A trial of adding Lactobacillus johnsonii EM1 to levocetirizine for treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis in children aged 7-12 years. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(7):994-1001. View abstract.
Luoto R, Matomäki J, Isolauri E, Lehtonen L. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight infants related to the use of Lactobacillus GG. Acta Paediatr 2010;99:1135-8. View abstract.
MacGregor G, Smith AJ, Thakker B, Kinsella J. Yoghurt biotherapy: contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients? Postgrad Med J 2002;78:366-7. View abstract.
Mack DR, Michail S, Shu W, et al. Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. Am J Physiol 1999;276(4 Pt 1):G941-50. View abstract.
Madsen KL, Doyle JS, Jewell LD, et al. Lactobacillus species prevents colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 1999;116:1107-14. View abstract.
Maggi L, Mastromarino P, Macchia S, et al. Technological and biological evaluation of tablets containing different strains of lactobacilli for vaginal administration. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:389-95. View abstract.
Magro DO, de Oliveira LM, Bernasconi I, Ruela Mde S, Credidio L, Barcelos IK, Leal RF, Ayrizono Mde L, Fagundes JJ, Teixeira Lde B, Ouwehand AC, Coy CS. Effect of yogurt containing polydextrose, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study in chronic constipation. Nutr J. 2014 24;13:75. View abstract.
Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:179-85. . View abstract.
Mao Y, Nobaek S, Kasravi B, et al. The effects of Lactobacillus strains and oat fiber on methotrexate-induced enterocolitis in rats. Gastroenterology 1996;111:334-44. View abstract.
Marini A, Jaenicke T, Grether-Beck S, Le Floc'h C, Cheniti A, Piccardi N,Krutmann J. Prevention of polymorphic light eruption by oral administration of a nutritional supplement containing lycopene, ß-carotene, and Lactobacillus johnsonii: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2014;30(4):189-94. View abstract.
Marteau P, Lemann M, Seksik P, et al. Ineffectiveness of Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled GETAID trial. Gut 2006;55:842-7. View abstract.
McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:812-22. View abstract.
McFarland LV. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. Antibiotics. 2015;4:160-178.
McGroarty JA. Probiotic use of lactobacilli in the human female urogenital tract. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1993;6:251-64. View abstract.
McIntosh GH, Royle PJ, Playne MJ. A probiotic strain of L. acidophilus reduces DMH-induced large intestinal tumors in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Nutr Cancer 1999;35:153-9. View abstract.
Miele E, Pascarella F, Giannetti E. et al. Effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) on induction and maintenance of remission in children with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:437-43. View abstract.
Mimura T, Rizzello F, Helwig U, et al. Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent or refractory pouchitis. Gut 2004;53:108-14. View abstract.
Morrow LE, Kollef MH, Casale TB. Probiotic prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;182:1058-64. View abstract.
Mustapha A, Jiang T, Savaiano DA. Improvement of lactose digestion by humans following ingestion of unfermented acidophilus milk: influence of bile sensitivity, lactose transport, and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus. J Dairy Sci 1997;80:1537-45. View abstract.
Navarro-Rodriguez T, Silva FM, Barbuti RC, Mattar R, Moraes-Filho JP, de Oliveira MN, Bogsan CS, Chinzon D, Eisig JN. Association of a probiotic to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen does not increase efficacy or decreases the adverse effects of the treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013 26;13:56. View abstract.
Newcomer AD, Park HS, O'Brien PC, McGill DB. Response of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and lactase deficiency using unfermented acidophilus milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:257-63. View abstract.
Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B. A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:1143-7. View abstract.
Nixon AF, Cunningham SJ, Cohen HW, Crain EF. The effect of Lactobacillus GG on acute diarrheal illness in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(10):1048-51. View abstract.
Nobaek S, Johansson ML, Molin G, et al. Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:1231-8.. View abstract.
O'Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P, et al. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology 2005;128:541-51. View abstract.
O'Sullivan MA, O'Morain CA. Bacterial supplementation in the irritable bowel syndrome. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Dig Liver Dis 2000;32:294-301. View abstract.
Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. J Pediatr 1999;134:15-20. View abstract.
Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, et al. Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Ann Med 1990;22:53-6.. View abstract.
Oncel MY, Sari FN, Arayici S, Guzoglu N, Erdeve O, Uras N, Oguz SS, Dilmen U. Lactobacillus Reuteri for the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2014;99(2):F110-5. View abstract.
Osterlund P, Ruotsalainen T, Korpela R, et al. Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study. Br J Cancer 2007;97:1028-34. View abstract.
Palmfeldt J, Hahn-Hagerdal B. Influence of culture pH on survival of Lactobacillus reuteri subjected to freeze-drying. Int J Food Microbiol 2000;55:235-8. View abstract.
Parent D, Bossens M, Bayot D, et al. Therapy of bacterial vaginosis using exogenously-applied Lactobacilli acidophili and a low dose of estriol: a placebo-controlled multicentric clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:68-73. . View abstract.
Parma M, Dindelli M, Caputo L, Redaelli A, Quaranta L, Candiani M. The role of vaginal Lactobacillus Rhamnosus (Normogin®) in preventing Bacterial Vaginosis in women with history of recurrences, undergoing surgical menopause: a prospective pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17(10):1399-403. View abstract.
Pedone CA, Arnaud CC, Postaire ER, et al. Multicentric study of the effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei on the incidence of diarrhoea. Int J Clin Pract 2000;54:589-71. View abstract.
Pedone CA, Bernabeu AO, Postaire ER, et al. The effect of supplementation with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei (strain DN-114 001) on acute diarrhoea in children attending day care centres. Int J Clin Pract 1999;53:179-84. View abstract.
Pelto L, Ioslauri E, Lilius EM, et al. Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1474-9. View abstract.
Pierce A. The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York: The Stonesong Press, 1999:19.
Pirotta M, Gunn J, Chondros P, et al. Effect of lactobacillus in preventing post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis: a randomized, controlled trial. BMJ 2004;329:548. View abstract.
Pochapin M. The effect of probiotics on Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S11-3. View abstract.
Prantera C, Scribano ML, Falasco G, et al. Ineffectiveness of probiotics in preventing recurrence after curative resection for Crohn's disease: a randomised controlled trial with Lactobacillus GG. Gut 2002;51:405-9. View abstract.
Rautava S, Kainonen E, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(6):1355-60. View abstract.
Rautava S, Kalliomaki M, Isolauri E. Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:119-21. View abstract.
Rautio M, Jousimies-Somer H, Kauma H, et al. Liver abscess due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:1159-60. View abstract.
Reid G, Bruce AW, Cook RL, et al. Effect on urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection. Scand J Infect Dis 1990;22:43-7. View abstract.
Reid G, Bruce AW, Taylor M. Influence of three-day antimicrobial therapy and lactobacillus vaginal suppositories on recurrence of urinary tract infections. Clin Ther 1992;14:11-6. View abstract.
Reid G, Cook RL, Bruce AW. Examination of strains of lactobacilli for properties that may influence bacterial interference in the urinary tract. J Urol 1987;138:330-5. View abstract.
Reid G. Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:437S-443S. View abstract.
Rerksuppaphol S, Rerksuppaphol L. Randomized controlled trial of probiotics to reduce common cold in schoolchildren. Pediatr Int. 2012;54(5):682-7. View abstract.
Ringel-Kulka T, Goldsmith JR, Carroll IM, Barros SP, Palsson O, Jobin C, Ringel Y. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects colonic mucosal opioid receptor expression in patients with functional abdominal pain - a randomised clinical study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;40(2):200-7. View abstract.
Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1682S-7S. View abstract.
Romano C, Ferrau' V, Cavataio F, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP). J Paediatr Child Health 2010 Jul 8. [Epub ahead of print]. View abstract.
Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Nielsen SD, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:389-95. View abstract.
Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:411-6. View abstract.
Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on acute diarrhea in a cohort of nonhospitalized children attending day-care centers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:417-9. View abstract.
Sakamoto I, Igarashi M, Kimura K, et al. Suppressive effect of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21) on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;47:709-10. View abstract.
Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V, Emady-Azar S, Lepage M, Rezzonico E, Ngom-Bru C, Berger B, Philippe L, Ammon-Zuffrey C, Leone P, Chevrier G, St-Amand E, Marette A, Doré J, Tremblay A. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. Br J Nutr.2014 28;111(8):1507-19. View abstract.
Savino F, Cordisco L, Tarasco V, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics 2010;126:e526-33. View abstract.
Savino F, Pelle E, Palumeri E, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730) versus simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic: a prospective randomized study. Pediatrics 2007;119:e124-30. View abstract.
Saxelin M, Chuang NH, Chassy B, et al. Lactobacilli and bacteremia in southern Finland 1989-1992. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:564-6. View abstract.
Schultz M, Sartor RB. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S19-21. View abstract.
Sen S, Mullan MM, Parker TJ, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on colonic fermentation and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 2002;47:2615-20. View abstract.
Shalev E, Battino S, Weiner E, et al. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus compared with pasteurized yogurt as prophylaxis for recurrent candidal vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Arch Fam Med 1996;5:593-6. View abstract.
Sharma A, Rath GK, Chaudhary SP, Thakar A, Mohanti BK, Bahadur S. Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges reduce radiation- and chemotherapy-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48(6):875-81. View abstract.
Shavakhi A, Tabesh E, Yaghoutkar A, Hashemi H, Tabesh F, Khodadoostan M,Minakari M, Shavakhi S, Gholamrezaei A. The effects of multistrain probiotic compound on bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized placebo-controlled triple-blind study. Helicobacter. 2013;18(4):280-4. View abstract.
Sheih YH, Chiang BL, Wang LH, et al. Systemic immunity-enhancing effects in healthy subjects following dietary consumption of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:149-56. View abstract.
Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Isolauri E, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhea in young children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;24:399-404. View abstract.
Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Mykkanen H, et al. Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997;16:1103-7. View abstract.
St-Onge MP, Farnworth ER, Jones PJ. Consumption of fermented and nonfermented dairy products: effects on cholesterol concentrations and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:674-81. View abstract.
Stensson M, Koch G, Coric S, Abrahamsson TR, Jenmalm MC, Birkhed D, Wendt LK. Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the first year of life reduces caries prevalence in the primary dentition at 9 years of age. Caries Res. 2014;48(2):111-7. View abstract.
Stotzer PO, Blomberg L, Conway PL, Henriksson A, Abrahamsson H. Probiotic treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by Lactobacillus fermentum KLD. Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(6):615-9. View abstract.
Sullivan A, Barkholt L, Nord CE. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus F19 prevent antibiotic-associated ecological disturbances of Bacteroides fragilis in the intestine. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:308-11. View abstract.
Sung V, Hiscock H, Tang ML, Mensah FK, Nation ML, Satzke C, Heine RG, Stock A,Barr RG, Wake M. Treating infant colic with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial. BMJ. 2014 1;348:g2107. View abstract.
Sutas Y, Hurme M, Isolauri E. Down-regulations of anti-CD3 antibody-induced IL-4 production by bovine caseins hydrolyzed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes. Scand J Immunol 1996;43:687-9. View abstract.
Szajewska H, Gyrczuk E, Horvath A. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the management of infantile colic in breastfed infants: a randomized, double-blind,placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr. 2013;162(2):257-62. View abstract.
Szajewska H, Kotowska M, Mrukowicz JZ, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in infants. J Pediatr 2001;138:361-5. View abstract.
Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M, Kolacek S. Meta-analysis shows limited evidence for using Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. Acta Paediatr. 2014;103(3):249-55. View abstract.
Thomas MR, Litin SC, Osmon DR, et al. Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 2001;76:883-9. View abstract.
Tomasz B, Zoran S, Jaroslaw W, Ryszard M, Marcin G, Robert B, Piotr K, Lukasz K, Jacek P, Piotr G, Przemyslaw P, Michal D. Long-term use of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium has a prophylactic effect on the occurrence and severity of pouchitis: a randomized prospective study. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:208064. View abstract.
Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, et al. Low-dose balsalazide plus a high-potency probiotic preparation is more effective than balsalazide alone or mesalazine in the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Med Sci Monit 2004;10:PI126-31. View abstract.
Tynkkynen S, Singh KV, Varmanen P. Vancomycin resistance factor of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance (van) genes. Int J Food Microbiol 1998;41:195-204. View abstract.
Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Sharif SK, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Zavvari S. Probiotic supplementation improves inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition. 2014;30(4):430-5. View abstract.
Vahabnezhad E, Mochon AB, Wozniak LJ, Ziring DA. Lactobacillus bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a pediatric patient with ulcerative colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47(5):437-9. View abstract.
Van Niel CW, Feudtner C, Garrison MM, Christakis DA. Lactobacillus therapy for acute infectious diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2002;109:678-84. View abstract.
Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr 1999;135:564-8. View abstract.
Vanderhoof JA, Young RJ. Current and potential uses of probiotics. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;93:S33-7. View abstract.
Velraeds MM, van der Mei HC, Reid G, Busscher HJ. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996;62:1958-63. View abstract.
Venturi A, Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, et al. Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13:1103-8. View abstract.
Videlock EJ, Cremonini F. Meta-analysis: probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(12):1355-69. View abstract.
Wagner RD, Pierson C, Warner T, et al. Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice. Infect Immun 1997;65:4165-4172. View abstract.
Waitzberg DL, Logullo LC, Bittencourt AF, Torrinhas RS, Shiroma GM, Paulino NP, Teixeira-da-Silva ML. Effect of synbiotic in constipated adult women - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of clinical response. Clin Nutr. 2013;32(1):27-33. View abstract.
Waki N, Matsumoto M, Fukui Y, Suganuma H. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 on incidence of influenza infection among schoolchildren: an open-label pilot study. Lett Appl Microbiol 2014;59(6):565-71. View abstract.
Wang YH, Huang Y. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum supplementation to standard triple therapy on Helicobacter pylori eradication and dynamic changes in intestinal flora. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;30(3):847-53. View abstract.
Wang ZH, Gao QY, Fang JY. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus-containing and Bifidobacterium-containing probiotic compound preparation in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47(1):25-32. View abstract.
Wei H, Loimaranta V, Tenovuo J, et al. Stability and activity of specific antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in bovine milk fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG or treated at ultra-high temperature. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2002;17:9-15. View abstract.
Wendakoon CN, Thomson AB, Ozimek L. Lack of therapeutic effect of a specially designed yogurt for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Digestion 2002;65:16-20. View abstract.
Wickens K, Black P, Stanley TV, Mitchell E, Barthow C, Fitzharris P, Purdie G, Crane J. A protective effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 against eczema in the first 2 years of life persists to age 4 years. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42(7):1071-9. View abstract.
Wolf BW, Wheeler KB, Ataya DG, Garleb KA. Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:1085-94 . View abstract.
Woo SI, Kim JY, Lee YJ, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus sakei supplementation in children with atopic eczema-dermatitis syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010;104:343-8. View abstract.
Wullt M, Hagslatt ML, Odenholt I. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Infect Dis 2003;35:365-7. . View abstract.
Yli-Knuuttila H, Snall J, Kari K, Meurman JH. Colonization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the oral cavity. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2006;21:129-31. View abstract.
Zheng X, Lyu L, Mei Z. Lactobacillus-containing probiotic supplementation increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rate: evidence from a meta-analysis. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2013;105(8):445-53. Review. View abstract.