Loiasis: The disease caused by the eye worm known as loa loa, a parasite that lives in humans and other primates. People contract the parasite when bitten by infected deer flies. The larvae of the worm enter the bloodstream and later develop into adult worms. Symptoms may not appear for months or years after the bite of the fly. The worms migrate through the skin causing local inflammatory reactions called Calabar swellings. The worms can often be seen migrating across the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye. Hence, the name "eye worm." The worm sometimes enters the brain causing encephalitis. The microfilarial (tiny thread-like) form of the worm is found in blood and lymphatic fluid during the day and in the lungs at night. The insect vector (that carries the parasite) is the deer fly Chrysops which lives in swampy areas of the forest, principally in the Congo River region, Sudan, and Ethiopia. Diagnosis is by detection of the microfilariae in the blood. Protective measures against the flies include the use of a repellent, long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and the use of bednets when sleeping. Treatment is with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (Stromectol). DEC can also be used for prophylaxis. Loiasis is also known as lymphatic filariasis.
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