- What other names is Marjoram known by?
- What is Marjoram?
- How does Marjoram work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Marjoram.
Essence de Marjolaine, Garden Marjoram, Gartenmajoran, Huile de Marjolaine, Knotted Marjoram, Majoran, Majorana Aetheroleum Oil, Majorana Herb, Majorana hortensis, Majorana majorana, Marjolaine, Marjolaine des Jardins, Marjolaine Ordinaire, Marjoram Essential Oil, Marjoram Oil, Marubaka, Marwa, Mejorana, Origan des Jardins, Origanum majorana, Sweet Marjoram.
Marjoram is a plant. You probably recognize it as a common cooking spice. But it also has an interesting place in early Greek mythology. As the story goes, the goddess of love, Aphrodite, grew marjoram, and, as a result, marjoram has been used ever since in various love potions.
People make medicine from marjoram's flowers, leaves, and oil.
Other uses include treating diabetes, sleep problems, muscle spasms, headaches, sprains, bruises and back pain. It is also used as a “nerve tonic” and a “heart tonic,” and to promote better blood circulation.
Marjoram oil is used for coughs, gall bladder complaints, stomach cramps and digestive disorders, depression, dizziness, migraines, nervous headaches, nerve pain, paralysis, coughs, runny nose; and as a “water pill.”
In foods, marjoram is a culinary spice. The oil and oleoresin are used as flavor ingredients in foods and beverages.
In manufacturing, the oil is used as a fragrance in soaps and cosmetics.
Don't confuse marjoram with winter marjoram or oregano (Origanum vulgare), which is also referred to as wild marjoram.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Asthma. Early research shows that taking 2 drops of marjoram oil daily along with asthma medication for 3 months might improve lung function in people with asthma better than taking asthma medication alone.
- Runny nose.
- Stomach cramps.
- Liver problems.
- Menopause symptoms.
- Menstrual problems.
- Nerve pain.
- Muscle pain.
- Promoting breast milk.
- Improving appetite and digestion.
- Improving sleep.
- Other conditions.
There isn't enough information to know how marjoram might work.
Marjoram is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used long-term or when applied to the eye or skin as fresh marjoram. There is some evidence that marjoram could cause cancer if used long-term. Applying fresh marjoram might cause eye or skin irritation.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to use marjoram in medicinal amounts if you are pregnant. It might start your period, and that could threaten the pregnancy.
Not enough is known about the safety of using marjoram in medicinal amounts if you are breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Children: Do not give marjoram to children in medicinal amounts. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for them.
Bleeding disorders: Taking medicinal amounts of marjoram might slow clotting and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
Slow heart rate (bradycardia): Using medicinal amounts of marjoram might slow down the heart beat. This could be a problem in people who already have a slow heart rate.
Allergy to basil, hyssop, lavender, mint, oregano, and sage: Marjoram can cause allergic reactions in people allergic to these plants and other members of the Lamiaceae family of plants.
Diabetes: Marjoram might affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes when used in medicinal amounts. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use marjoram medicinally.
Gastrointestinal tract blockage: Marjoram might cause “congestion” in the intestines when used in medicinal amounts. This might cause problems in people who have a blockage in their intestines.
Ulcers: Marjoram might increase secretions in the stomach and intestines when used in medicinal amounts. There is concern that this could worsen ulcers.
Lung conditions: Marjoram might increase fluid secretions in the lung when used in medicinal amounts. There is concern that this could worsen lung conditions such as asthma or emphysema.
Seizures: There is concern that using medicinal amounts of marjoram might increase the risk of seizures.
Surgery: Taking medicinal amounts of marjoram might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using marjoram medicinally at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Drying medications (Anticholinergic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
When taken in medicinal amounts, marjoram might increase levels of certain chemicals in the body that work in the brain, heart, and elsewhere. Some drying medications called "anticholinergic drugs" can also these same chemicals, but in a different way. These drying medications might decrease the effects of marjoram and marjoram might decrease the effects of drying medications.
LithiumInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Marjoram might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking marjoram might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.
Medications for Alzheimer's disease (Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
When taken in medicinal amounts, marjoram might increase certain chemicals in the brain, heart, and elsewhere in the body. Some medications used for Alzheimer's disease also affect these chemicals. Taking marjoram along with medications for Alzheimer's disease might increase effects and side effects of medications used for Alzheimer's disease.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
When taken in medicinal amounts, marjoram might lower blood sugar in people with diabetes. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking marjoram along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
When taken in medicinal amounts, marjoram might slow blood clotting. Taking marjoram along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Various medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions (Cholinergic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
When taken in medicinal amounts, marjoram might increase certain chemicals in the brain, heart, and elsewhere in the body. Some medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions also affect these chemicals. Taking marjoram with these medications might increase the chance of side effects.
The appropriate dose of marjoram depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for marjoram. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Abdel-Massih, R. M., Fares, R., Bazzi, S., El Chami, N., and Baydoun, E. The apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity of Origanum majorana extracts on human leukemic cell line. Leuk.Res. 2010;34(8):1052-1056. View abstract.
Adlova, G. P., Denisova, S. V., Ilidzhev, A. K., Smirnova, G. A., Ratnikova, T. N., Arep'eva, A. A., and Mel'nikova, V. A. [The development of bacterial growth stimulants from plants]. Zh.Mikrobiol.Epidemiol.Immunobiol. 1998;(1):13-17. View abstract.
Afifi, A. F. and Dowidar, A. E. Effect of volatile substances from Origanum majorana and Ocimum basilicum on spore respiration and germination of some soil fungi. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1978;23(6):489-492. View abstract.
Al Howiriny, T., Alsheikh, A., Alqasoumi, S., Al Yahya, M., ElTahir, K., and Rafatullah, S. Protective Effect of Origanum majorana L. 'Marjoram' on various models of gastric mucosal injury in rats. Am.J.Chin Med. 2009;37(3):531-545. View abstract.
Assaf, M. H., Ali, A. A., Makboul, M. A., Beck, J. P., and Anton, R. Preliminary study of phenolic glycosides from Origanum majorana; quantitative estimation of arbutin; cytotoxic activity of hydroquinone. Planta Med 1987;53(4):343-345. View abstract.
Baardseth, P. Effect of selected antioxidants on the stability of dehydrated mashed potatoes. Food Addit.Contam 1989;6(2):201-207. View abstract.
Bagamboula, C. F., Uyttendaele, M., and Debevere, J. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri. J Food Prot. 2003;66(4):668-673. View abstract.
Barbosa, L. N., Rall, V. L., Fernandes, A. A., Ushimaru, P. I., da, Silva Probst, I, and Fernandes, A., Jr. Essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in minced meat. Foodborne.Pathog.Dis. 2009;6(6):725-728. View abstract.
Busatta, C., Vidal, R. S., Popiolski, A. S., Mossi, A. J., Dariva, C., Rodrigues, M. R., Corazza, F. C., Corazza, M. L., Vladimir, Oliveira J., and Cansian, R. L. Application of Origanum majorana L. essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in sausage. Food Microbiol. 2008;25(1):207-211. View abstract.
Castrillo, M., Vizcaino, D., Moreno, E., and Latorraca, Z. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments. Rev Biol Trop. 2005;53(1-2):23-28. View abstract.
Chung, Y. K., Heo, H. J., Kim, E. K., Kim, H. K., Huh, T. L., Lim, Y., Kim, S. K., and Shin, D. H. Inhibitory effect of ursolic acid purified from Origanum majorana L on the acetylcholinesterase. Mol.Cells 4-30-2001;11(2):137-143. View abstract.
Croteau, R. Site of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Majorana hortensis Leaves. Plant Physiol 1977;59(3):519-520. View abstract.
Dearlove, R. P., Greenspan, P., Hartle, D. K., Swanson, R. B., and Hargrove, J. L. Inhibition of protein glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices. J Med Food 2008;11(2):275-281. View abstract.
Dent, R. G. and Glaze, L. Extraction of light filth from unground marjoram: collaborative study. J Assoc Off Anal.Chem 1985;68(5):899-901. View abstract.
Dolci M and Tira S. Flavonoids of Majorana hortensis. Rivista Italiana Essenze, Profumi, Piante Officinali, Aromi, Saponi, Cosmetici, Aerosol (Italy) 1980;62:131-132.
Dorman, H. J., Bachmayer, O., Kosar, M., and Hiltunen, R. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species grown in Turkey. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-25-2004;52(4):762-770. View abstract.
Dutkiewicz, J., Krysinska-Traczyk, E., Skorska, C., Sitkowska, J., Prazmo, Z., and Golec, M. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants. Ann Agric.Environ.Med 2001;8(2):201-211. View abstract.
El Ashmawy, I. M., el Nahas, A. F., and Salama, O. M. Protective effect of volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Origanum majorana on lead acetate toxicity in mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2005;97(4):238-243. View abstract.
El Ashmawy, I. M., Saleh, A., and Salama, O. M. Effects of marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract on ethanol toxicity in male rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;101(5):320-327. View abstract.
El Kady, I. A., El Maraghy, S. S., and Eman, Mostafa M. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in different spices in Egypt. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1995;40(3):297-300. View abstract.
Etienne JJ. Putting oils to the test. Soap, Perfumery and Cosmetics (England). 1997;70:45-46.
Farag, S. E., Aziz, N. H., and Attia, E. S. Effect of irradiation on the microbiological status and flavouring materials of selected spices. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1995;201(3):283-288. View abstract.
Farkas, J. Perioral dermatitis from marjoram, bay leaf and cinnamon. Contact Dermatitis 1981;7(2):121. View abstract.
Friedman, M., Henika, P. R., and Mandrell, R. E. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. J Food Prot. 2002;65(10):1545-1560. View abstract.
Ghaly I, Said A, and Abdel-Wahhab MA. Zizyphus jujuba and Origanum majorana extracts protect against hydroquinone-induced clastogenicity. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacology. 2008;25(1):10-19.
GRIEBEL, C. [Differentiation of certain adulterants of marjoram from the characteristics of the stellate hairs.]. Z Lebensm.Unters.Forsch 1951;92(3):101-105. View abstract.
Gutierrez, J., Barry-Ryan, C., and Bourke, P. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils using food model media: efficacy, synergistic potential and interactions with food components. Food Microbiol. 2009;26(2):142-150. View abstract.
Gutierrez, J., Barry-Ryan, C., and Bourke, P. The antimicrobial efficacy of plant essential oil combinations and interactions with food ingredients. Int.J Food Microbiol. 5-10-2008;124(1):91-97. View abstract.
Gutierrez, J., Rodriguez, G., Barry-Ryan, C., and Bourke, P. Efficacy of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated with ready-to-eat vegetables: antimicrobial and sensory screening. J Food Prot. 2008;71(9):1846-1854. View abstract.
Hallahan, T. W. and Croteau, R. Monoterpene biosynthesis: demonstration of a geranyl pyrophosphate:sabinene hydrate cyclase in soluble enzyme preparations from sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis). Arch Biochem Biophys 8-1-1988;264(2):618-631. View abstract.
Hallahan, T. W. and Croteau, R. Monoterpene biosynthesis: mechanism and stereochemistry of the enzymatic cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-cis- and (+)-trans-sabinene hydrate. Arch Biochem Biophys 2-15-1989;269(1):313-326. View abstract.
Heo, H. J., Cho, H. Y., Hong, B., Kim, H. K., Heo, T. R., Kim, E. K., Kim, S. K., Kim, C. J., and Shin, D. H. Ursolic acid of Origanum majorana L. reduces Abeta-induced oxidative injury. Mol.Cells 2-28-2002;13(1):5-11. View abstract.
Jimenez-Carmona, M. M., Ubera, J. L., and Luque, de Castro. Comparison of continuous subcritical water extraction and hydrodistillation of marjoram essential oil. J Chromatogr A 9-10-1999;855(2):625-632. View abstract.
Kawabata, J., Mizuhata, K., Sato, E., Nishioka, T., Aoyama, Y., and Kasai, T. 6-hydroxyflavonoids as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from marjoram (Origanum majorana) leaves. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2003;67(2):445-447. View abstract.
Kim, M. J., Nam, E. S., and Paik, S. I. [The effects of aromatherapy on pain, depression, and life satisfaction of arthritis patients]. Taehan Kanho.Hakhoe.Chi 2005;35(1):186-194. View abstract.
Kuriyama, H., Watanabe, S., Nakaya, T., Shigemori, I., Kita, M., Yoshida, N., Masaki, D., Tadai, T., Ozasa, K., Fukui, K., and Imanishi, J. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage. Evid.Based.Complement Alternat.Med 2005;2(2):179-184. View abstract.
Lamien-Meda, A., Lukas, B., Schmiderer, C., Franz, C., and Novak, J. Validation of a quantitative assay of arbutin using gas chromatography in Origanum majorana and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi extracts. Phytochem.Anal. 2009;20(5):416-420. View abstract.
Leeja, L. and Thoppil, J. E. Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract of Origanum majorana L. (Sweet marjoram). J Environ.Biol 2007;28(1):145-146. View abstract.
Maralhas, A., Monteiro, A., Martins, C., Kranendonk, M., Laires, A., Rueff, J., and Rodrigues, A. S. Genotoxicity and endoreduplication inducing activity of the food flavouring eugenol. Mutagenesis 2006;21(3):199-204. View abstract.
Mejlholm, O. and Dalgaard, P. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2002;34(1):27-31. View abstract.
Misharina, T. A., Polshkov, A. N., Ruchkina, E. L., and Medvedeva, I. B. [Changes in the composition of the essential oil in stored marjoram]. Prikl.Biokhim.Mikrobiol. 2003;39(3):353-358. View abstract.
Mohamed MS, Saad HH, and Abd El Khalek MG. Daily consumption of marjoram oil improve the health status of patients with asthma. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2008;7(2):312-316.
Mohamed YS and Osman A. Hypoglycemic effect of Ambrosia maritime and Origanum majorana on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Drug Research (Egypt). 2002;24:151-155.
Nakatani, N. Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices. Biofactors 2000;13(1-4):141-146. View abstract.
Niture, S. K., Rao, U. S., and Srivenugopal, K. S. Chemopreventative strategies targeting the MGMT repair protein: augmented expression in human lymphocytes and tumor cells by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of several Indian medicinal plants. Int J Oncol. 2006;29(5):1269-1278. View abstract.
Novak, J., Bitsch, C., Langbehn, J., Pank, F., Skoula, M., Gotsiou, Y., and Franz, M. Ratios of cis- and trans-Sabinene Hydrate in Origanum majorana L. and Origanum microphyllum (Bentham) Vogel. Biochem Syst.Ecol 8-1-2000;28(7):697-704. View abstract.
Orhan, I., Kartal, M., Kan, Y., and Sener, B. Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. Z.Naturforsch.C. 2008;63(7-8):547-553. View abstract.
Ozcan, M. M., Sagdic, O., and Ozkan, G. Inhibitory effects of spice essential oils on the growth of Bacillus species. J Med Food 2006;9(3):418-421. View abstract.
Papageorgiou, V., Mallouchos, A., and Komaitis, M. Investigation of the antioxidant behavior of air- and freeze-dried aromatic plant materials in relation to their phenolic content and vegetative cycle. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-23-2008;56(14):5743-5752. View abstract.
Penalver, P., Huerta, B., Borge, C., Astorga, R., Romero, R., and Perea, A. Antimicrobial activity of five essential oils against origin strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family. APMIS 2005;113(1):1-6. View abstract.
Petr, J., Vitkova, K., Ranc, V., Znaleziona, J., Maier, V., Knob, R., and Sevcik, J. Determination of some phenolic acids in Majorana hortensis by capillary electrophoresis with online electrokinetic preconcentration. J.Agric.Food Chem. 6-11-2008;56(11):3940-3944. View abstract.
POHLOUDEK-FABINI, R. [The ash and sand content of Origanum majorana.]. Pharmazie 1952;7(8):505-506. View abstract.
Rafsanjani, F. N., Shahrani, M., Ardakani, Z. V., and Ardakani, M. V. Marjoram increases basal gastric acid and pepsin secretions in rat. Phytother Res 2007;21(11):1036-1038. View abstract.
Rau, O., Wurglics, M., Dingermann, T., Abdel-Tawab, M., and Schubert-Zsilavecz, M. Screening of herbal extracts for activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Pharmazie 2006;61(11):952-956. View abstract.
Rodrigues, M. R., Caramao, E. B., Arce, L., Rios, A., and Valcarcel, M. Determination of monoterpene hydrocarbons and alcohols in Majorana hortensis Moench by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic. J Agric Food Chem 7-17-2002;50(15):4215-4220. View abstract.
Rodrigues, M. R., Caramao, E. B., dos Santos, J. G., Dariva, C., and Oliveira, J. V. The effects of temperature and pressure on the characteristics of the extracts from high-pressure CO(2) extraction of Majorana hortensis Moench. J Agric Food Chem 1-15-2003;51(2):453-456. View abstract.
Sarer, E., Scheffer, J. J., and Baerheim, Svendsen A. Monoterpenes in the Essential Oil of Origanum majorana. Planta Med 1982;46(12):236-239. View abstract.
Soliman, F. M., Yousif, M. F., Zaghloul, S. S., and Okba, M. M. Seasonal variation in the essential oil composition of Origanum majorana L. cultivated in Egypt. Z.Naturforsch.C. 2009;64(9-10):611-614. View abstract.
Tietz, U., Thomann, R., and Forstner, S. [High pressure extraction of marjoram. 1. Sensory characterization of marjoram oleoresin by profile analysis]. Nahrung 1991;35(10):1013-1021. View abstract.
Triantaphyllou, K., Blekas, G., and Boskou, D. Antioxidative properties of water extracts obtained from herbs of the species Lamiaceae. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2001;52(4):313-317. View abstract.
Tsai, P. J., Tsai, T. H., Yu, C. H., and Ho, S. C. Evaluation of NO-suppressing activity of several Mediterranean culinary spices. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45(3):440-447. View abstract.
Uchman, W., Wierzbicki, S., Smigielski, P., Krysztofiak, K., and Woychik, I. H. Sensory effect of the sorption of some flavouring agents on blood plasma protein preparations. Nahrung 1983;27(5):455-460. View abstract.
Vagi, E., Rapavi, E., Hadolin, M., Vasarhelyine, Peredi K., Balazs, A., Blazovics, A., and Simandi, B. Phenolic and triterpenoid antioxidants from Origanum majorana L. herb and extracts obtained with different solvents. J Agric Food Chem 1-12-2005;53(1):17-21. View abstract.
Vagi, E., Simandi, B., Daood, H. G., Deak, A., and Sawinsky, J. Recovery of pigments from Origanum majorana L. by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide. J Agric Food Chem 4-10-2002;50(8):2297-2301. View abstract.
Ward, N. I. and Savage, J. M. Metal dispersion and transportational activities using food crops as biomonitors. Sci Total Environ. 5-23-1994;146-147:309-319. View abstract.
Wheeler, M., Bennett, B., and Marks, H. Isolation of light filth from ground oregano and ground marjoram: a modification using isopropanol as a defatting agent: in-house study. J AOAC Int 2002;85(3):676-681. View abstract.
Yang, Y. C., Lee, H. S., Clark, J. M., and Ahn, Y. J. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol. 2004;41(4):699-704. View abstract.
Yano, Y., Satomi, M., and Oikawa, H. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Int.J Food Microbiol. 8-15-2006;111(1):6-11. View abstract.
Yazdanparast, R. and Shahriyary, L. Comparative effects of Artemisia dracunculus, Satureja hortensis and Origanum majorana on inhibition of blood platelet adhesion, aggregation and secretion. Vascul.Pharmacol 2008;48(1):32-37. View abstract.
Yi, C. G., Choi, B. R., Park, H. M., Park, C. G., and Ahn, Y. J. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils to Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). J Econ.Entomol. 2006;99(5):1733-1738. View abstract.
Anderson C, Lis-Balchin M, Kirk-Smith M. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema. Phytother Res 2000;14(6):452-6. View abstract.
Benito M, Jorro G, Morales C, et al. Labiatae allergy: systemic reactions due to ingestion of oregano and thyme. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;76:416-8. View abstract.
Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polissiou MG. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:2576-81. View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.