Measles (Rubeola) (cont.)
Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH
Dr. Eddie Hooker is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Services Administration at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is also an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville and at Wright State University. His areas of expertise include emergency medicine, epidemiology, health-services management, and public health.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Measles facts
- What is measles? What does measles look like?
- What is rubeola? What is rubella? What are other names for measles?
- What is the history of measles?
- Is measles contagious?
- What is the contagious period for measles?
- What causes measles? How is measles spread?
- How does one become immune to measles?
- Who is at risk for getting measles?
- Is measles deadly?
- What are measles symptoms and signs?
- What is the danger of getting measles while pregnant?
- What is the incubation period for measles?
- What is atypical measles?
- What is modified measles?
- What types of doctors treat measles?
- How is the diagnosis of measles made?
- What should someone do if he or she has been exposed to measles?
- If it is not measles, what else could it be?
- Is there any treatment for measles after symptoms and signs develop?
- What are complications seen with measles?
- Is it possible to prevent measles with a vaccine? How effective is the measles vaccine?
- What is the prognosis for measles?
- Why should people get vaccinated against measles?
- Is there any truth to the fear of getting autism from the MMR or MMRV?
- Who should not receive measles vaccinations?
- Do people need to be revaccinated against measles if they are traveling to Europe?
- What adverse reactions or side effects can occur with the measles vaccination?
- If a child has an egg allergy, can they still receive the measles vaccine?
- Who should be revaccinated (receive a booster shot) against measles?
- What should I do if I am not sure if I have been properly vaccinated or my vaccine records have been lost?
- What is herd immunity? Why should people care if others choose not to be vaccinated?
- Can the measles virus be used to cure cancer?
- Where can I find more information about measles?
What should I do if I am not sure if I have been properly vaccinated or my vaccine records have been lost?
If you are unsure of your vaccine status against measles (especially if you are going to work in health care), you should have a blood test to measure your titer of antibodies against measles.
What is herd immunity? Why should people care if others choose not to be vaccinated?
Herd immunity is an increased effectiveness of a vaccine because significant proportion of a population is immunized. Some people do not actually develop immunity even though they have received the vaccine, and others, because of legitimate medical conditions (like cancer), cannot receive the vaccine. Those people are put at extreme risk of infection and even death by those who simply choose not to be vaccinated. It is reasonable for everyone to expect others to be vaccinated.
Can the measles virus be used to cure cancer?
In 2014, there were case reports of patients with multiple myeloma (a type of blood "cancer") being treated with a genetically engineered (altered) measles virus that attacks tumor cells. This is called virotherapy. This type of therapy has been used since the 1950s, but now there is renewed hope that this new use of the measles virus will bring hope to many patients with multiple myeloma.
Where can I find more information about measles?
"Measles (Rubeola)," U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Chapter 7: "Measles," VPD Surveillance Manual
"Measles," World Health Organization
Handouts: Clinic Resources, Immunization Action Coalition
"Measles Vaccination Rates for Preschoolers Below 90 Percent in 17 States," Trust for America's Health
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Notes from the Field: Measles Transmission Associated With International Air Travel -- Massachusetts and New York, July -- August 2010." MMWR 59.33 Aug. 2010: 1073.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Use of Combination Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)." MMWR 59(RR03) 2010: 1-12.
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