Measles (Rubeola) (cont.)
Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH
Dr. Eddie Hooker is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Services Administration at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is also an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville and at Wright State University. His areas of expertise include emergency medicine, epidemiology, health-services management, and public health.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
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What is rubeola? What is rubella? What are other names for measles?
Rubella is the scientific name used of German measles, a different viral illness. While German measles is rarely fatal, it is dangerous in that infection of pregnant women causes birth defects and can cause miscarriage and fetal death.
Other terms have been used to describe measles. These include (erroneously) rubella, hard measles, red measles, seven-day measles, eight-day measles, nine-day measles, 10-day measles, and morbilli.
What is the history of measles?
Cases of measles were described as early as the seventh century. However, it was not until 1963 that researchers first developed a vaccine to prevent measles. Before the vaccine was made available, almost every child became infected with the virus because it is so easily spread. Before routine vaccination, there were approximately 3-4 million cases of measles and 500 deaths due to measles each year in the United States.
There were initially two types of vaccines developed against measles. One was developed from a virus that had been killed, and the other was developed using a live measles virus that was weakened (attenuated) and could no longer cause the disease. Unfortunately, the killed measles virus (KMV) vaccine was not effective in preventing people from getting the disease, and its use was discontinued in 1967. The live virus vaccine has been modified a number of times to make it safer (further attenuated) and today is extremely effective in preventing the disease. The currently used vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine.
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