Measles (Rubeola) (cont.)
Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH
Dr. Eddie Hooker is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Services Administration at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is also an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville and at Wright State University. His areas of expertise include emergency medicine, epidemiology, health-services management, and public health.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
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Is measles contagious?
Measles is a highly contagious viral illness that is easily spread from person to person, especially in those without previous vaccination.
What is the contagious period for measles?
The infected person is highly contagious for four days before the rash appears until four days after the rash appears. The measles virus can remain in the air (and still be able to cause disease) for up to two hours after an infected person has left a room.
What causes measles? How is measles spread?
Measles is caused by the measles virus (a paramyxovirus).
Measles is spread through droplet transmission from the nose, throat, and mouth of someone who is infected with the virus. These droplets are sprayed out when the infected person coughs or sneezes. Among unimmunized people exposed to the virus, over 90% will contract the disease.
How does one become immune to measles?
Anyone who has had measles is believed to be immune for life. People who have received two doses of vaccine after their first birthday have a 98% likelihood of being immune. Infants receive some immunity from their mother. Unfortunately, this immunity is not complete, and infants are at increased risk for infection until they receive the vaccination at 12 to 15 months of age.
Who is at risk for getting measles?
Those people at high risk for measles include
- children less than 1 year of age (although they have some immunity passed from their mother, it is not 100% effective);
- people who have not received the proper vaccination series;
- people who received immunoglobulin at the time of measles vaccination;
- people immunized from 1963 until 1967 with an older ineffective killed measles vaccine.
Is measles deadly?
While measles can be fatal, it has rarely been fatal for the last 20 years in the United States. This is due to the fact that most people were immunized, which resulted in very infrequent outbreaks. However, with increasing numbers of people who refuse vaccination in the U.S., there are likely going to be more complications and deaths from measles in the future. The people most likely to have complications (including death) are those who are malnourished or who have weakened immune systems.
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