Measles (Rubeola) (cont.)
Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH
Dr. Eddie Hooker is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Services Administration at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is also an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville and at Wright State University. His areas of expertise include emergency medicine, epidemiology, health-services management, and public health.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Measles facts
- What is measles? What does measles look like?
- What is rubeola? What is rubella? What are other names for measles?
- What is the history of measles?
- Is measles contagious?
- What is the contagious period for measles?
- What causes measles? How is measles spread?
- How does one become immune to measles?
- Who is at risk for getting measles?
- Is measles deadly?
- What are measles symptoms and signs?
- What is the danger of getting measles while pregnant?
- What is the incubation period for measles?
- What is atypical measles?
- What is modified measles?
- What types of doctors treat measles?
- How is the diagnosis of measles made?
- What should someone do if he or she has been exposed to measles?
- If it is not measles, what else could it be?
- Is there any treatment for measles after symptoms and signs develop?
- What are complications seen with measles?
- Is it possible to prevent measles with a vaccine? How effective is the measles vaccine?
- What is the prognosis for measles?
- Why should people get vaccinated against measles?
- Is there any truth to the fear of getting autism from the MMR or MMRV?
- Who should not receive measles vaccinations?
- Do people need to be revaccinated against measles if they are traveling to Europe?
- What adverse reactions or side effects can occur with the measles vaccination?
- If a child has an egg allergy, can they still receive the measles vaccine?
- Who should be revaccinated (receive a booster shot) against measles?
- What should I do if I am not sure if I have been properly vaccinated or my vaccine records have been lost?
- What is herd immunity? Why should people care if others choose not to be vaccinated?
- Can the measles virus be used to cure cancer?
- Where can I find more information about measles?
Is it possible to prevent measles with a vaccine? How effective is the measles vaccine?
The only way to prevent measles is by receiving measles immunization: This is commonly given as a two-shot series that contains measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) or a shot containing measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine (MMRV). The MMRV is not recommended for anyone older than 12 years of age. The current recommendation is that everyone receive two doses of the vaccine after 1 year of age. If the vaccine is received before 1 year of age, the person should receive two additional doses.
The MMR vaccine is not 100% effective, and this is why it is critical that everyone be immunized. When people are allowed to skip vaccinations, they put others at risk. This is why most states have laws requiring vaccination. Unfortunately, many states allow people to refuse vaccination based on varying criteria. Due to a sharp increase in the number of cases of measles in 2014 and 2015, there has been a renewed urgency to require everyone to get immunized.
No vaccine is 100% effective. In 2012, the Cochrane Collaboration estimated that one dose of MMR would protect prevent 92% of secondary cases (a case caused by exposure to another person with the disease), and two doses would be 95% effective. However, if most of the population is immunized (known as herd immunity), the effectiveness of the vaccine is markedly increased.
The measles vaccine is also available as a single vaccine. However, in most cases, there is no reason to utilize the measles vaccine alone without mumps and rubella vaccine. The complete schedule of recommended vaccinations is available from the CDC (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html).
What is the prognosis for measles?
Most people who contract measles will recover completely. Very few people who get measles will die. People who are malnourished or immunocompromised are more likely to have complications or die. However, it is possible for any person to die from the measles, which highlights the importance of becoming vaccinated. Almost no one who has been vaccinated has died from the disease.
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