Measles (Rubeola) (cont.)
Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH
Dr. Eddie Hooker is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Services Administration at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is also an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville and at Wright State University. His areas of expertise include emergency medicine, epidemiology, health-services management, and public health.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Measles facts
- What is measles? What does measles look like?
- What is rubeola? What is rubella? What are other names for measles?
- What is the history of measles?
- Is measles contagious?
- What is the contagious period for measles?
- What causes measles? How is measles spread?
- How does one become immune to measles?
- Who is at risk for getting measles?
- Is measles deadly?
- What are measles symptoms and signs?
- What is the danger of getting measles while pregnant?
- What is the incubation period for measles?
- What is atypical measles?
- What is modified measles?
- What types of doctors treat measles?
- How is the diagnosis of measles made?
- What should someone do if he or she has been exposed to measles?
- If it is not measles, what else could it be?
- Is there any treatment for measles after symptoms and signs develop?
- What are complications seen with measles?
- Is it possible to prevent measles with a vaccine? How effective is the measles vaccine?
- What is the prognosis for measles?
- Why should people get vaccinated against measles?
- Is there any truth to the fear of getting autism from the MMR or MMRV?
- Who should not receive measles vaccinations?
- Do people need to be revaccinated against measles if they are traveling to Europe?
- What adverse reactions or side effects can occur with the measles vaccination?
- If a child has an egg allergy, can they still receive the measles vaccine?
- Who should be revaccinated (receive a booster shot) against measles?
- What should I do if I am not sure if I have been properly vaccinated or my vaccine records have been lost?
- What is herd immunity? Why should people care if others choose not to be vaccinated?
- Can the measles virus be used to cure cancer?
- Where can I find more information about measles?
Why should people get vaccinated against measles?
Although measles was extremely rare in the United States in the 1990s and early 2000s, recently, there has been a marked increased number of cases.
When the number of vaccinated individuals starts to decrease, the disease starts to occur more frequently. This occurred from 1989 until 1991 in the U.S. During that period, there were 55,000 cases and 123 deaths from measles in the U.S. Due to a massive public-health effort, almost all children in the U.S. received measles vaccine before they were allowed to enter school. The number of cases of measles in the U.S. dropped to only 37 in 2004. At that time, most cases originated outside of the U.S. These cases came from three common sources: infants being adopted from China, U.S. travelers being exposed while out of the country (now most commonly from European travel), and from foreign travelers visiting the U.S.
However, in 2011, the number of cases grew to 222 because more people are not being vaccinated. Fortunately, there were no deaths among those 222. In 2014, the number of cases jumped dramatically to 644 cases, and there were 14 separate outbreaks. The largest outbreak was due to many unvaccinated children and adults in an Amish community in Ohio. A large multistate outbreak of measles started in December 2014 at Disneyland in California and continued into 2015. There were 48 cases of measles in 13 states in the first half of 2016. Most of the recent outbreaks are being traced back to individuals who refused vaccination and had foreign travel prior to onset of the illness.
Many states allow people to refuse vaccination for religious reasons (although no organized religion prohibits vaccination) and 17 states allow parents to refuse vaccinations for philosophical reasons. The only way to prevent this problem is to change laws to no longer allow refusal of vaccination except for documented allergy to vaccine components. Many states have up to 40% of preschoolers without proper vaccinations.
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