What is Mifeprex and how is it used?
Mifeprex RU486 is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Cushing Syndrome and pregnancy termination. Mifeprex RU486 may be used alone or with other medications.
Mifeprex RU486 belongs to a class of drugs called Antiprogestins; Cortisol Receptor Blockers.
It is not known if Mifeprex RU486 is safe and effective in children.
What are the possible side effects of ?
Mifeprex may cause serious side effects including:
- a fever higher than 100.4 degrees (38 degrees C), lasting longer than 4 hours,
- general ill feeling,
- fast heartbeats,
- severe pelvic pain or tenderness,
- severe or ongoing nausea,
- weakness, and
- no vaginal bleeding at all after taking Mifeprex RU486
Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above.
The most common side effects of Mifeprex include:
- heavy vaginal bleeding for 2 days,
- light vaginal bleeding or spotting for up to 16 days,
- vomiting, and
Tell the doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of Mifeprex. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
SERIOUS AND SOMETIMES FATAL INFECTIONS OR BLEEDING
Serious and sometimes fatal infections and bleeding occur very rarely following spontaneous, surgical, and medical abortions, including following MIFEPREX use. No causal relationship between the use of MIFEPREX and misoprostol and these events has been established.
- Atypical Presentation of Infection. Patients with serious bacterial infections (e.g.,Clostridium sordellii) and sepsis can present without fever, bacteremia, or significant findings on pelvic examination following an abortion. Very rarely, deaths have been reported in patients who presented without fever, with or without abdominal pain, but with leukocytosis with a marked left shift, tachycardia,hemoconcentration, and general malaise. A high index of suspicion is needed to rule out serious infection and sepsis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Bleeding. Prolonged heavy bleeding may be a sign of incomplete abortion or othercomplications and prompt medical or surgical intervention may be needed. Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience prolonged heavyvaginal bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Because of the risks of serious complications described above, MIFEPREX is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy(REMS) called the MIFEPREX REMS Program [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Before prescribing MIFEPREX, inform the patient about the risk of these seriousevents. Ensure that the patient knows whom to call and what to do, including going to an Emergency Room if none of the provided contacts are reachable, if she experiences sustained fever, severe abdominal pain, prolonged heavy bleeding, or syncope, or ifshe experiences abdominal pain or discomfort, or general malaise (including weakness, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea) for more than 24 hours after taking misoprostol.
Advise the patient to take the Medication Guide with her if she visits an emergencyroom or a healthcare provider who did not prescribe MIFEPREX, so that the provider knows that she is undergoing a medical abortion.
MIFEPREX tablets each contain 200 mg of mifepristone, a synthetic steroid with antiprogestational effects. The tablets are light yellow in color, cylindrical, and bi-convex, and are intended for oral administration only. The tablets include the inactive ingredients colloidal silica anhydrous, corn starch, povidone, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate.
Mifepristone is a substituted 19-nor steroid compound chemically designated as 11β-[p-(Dimethylamino)phenyl]-17β-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl)estra-4,9-dien-3-one. Its empirical formula is C29H35NO2. Its structural formula is:
The compound is a yellow powder with a molecular weight of 429.6 and a melting point of 192-196°C. It is very soluble in methanol, chloroform and acetone and poorly soluble in water, hexane and isopropyl ether.
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MIFEPREX is indicated, in a regimen with misoprostol, for the medical termination of intrauterine pregnancy through 70 days gestation.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
For purposes of this treatment, pregnancy is dated from the first day of the last menstrual period. The duration of pregnancy may be determined from menstrual history and clinical examination. Assess the pregnancy by ultrasonographic scan if the duration of pregnancy is uncertain or if ectopic pregnancy is suspected.
Remove any intrauterine device (“IUD”) before treatment with MIFEPREX begins [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
The dosing regimen for MIFEPREX and misoprostol is:
- MIFEPREX 200 mg orally + misoprostol 800 mcg buccally
- Day One: MIFEPREX Administration
One 200 mg tablet of MIFEPREX is taken in a single oral dose.
- Day Two or Three: Misoprostol Administration (minimum
24-hour interval between MIFEPREX and misoprostol)
Four 200 mcg tablets (total dose 800 mcg) of misoprostol are taken by the buccal route.
- Day One: MIFEPREX Administration
Tell the patient to place two 200 mcg misoprostol tablets in each cheek pouch (the area between the cheek and gums) for 30 minutes and then swallow any remnants with water or another liquid (see Figure 1).
2 pills between cheek and gum on left side + 2 pills between cheek and gum on right side
Patients taking MIFEPREX must take misoprostol within 24 to 48 hours after taking MIFEPREX. The effectiveness of the regimen may be lower if misoprostol is administered less than 24 hours or more than 48 hours after mifepristone administration.
Because most women will expel the pregnancy within 2 to 24 hours of taking misoprostol [see Clinical Studies], discuss with the patient an appropriate location for her to be when she takes the misoprostol, taking into account that expulsion could begin within 2 hours of administration.
Patient Management Following Misoprostol Administration
During the period immediately following the administration of misoprostol, the patient may need medication for cramps or gastrointestinal symptoms [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Give The Patient
- Instructions on what to do if significant discomfort, excessive vaginal bleeding or other adverse reactions occur
- A phone number to call if she has questions following the administration of the misoprostol
- The name and phone number of the healthcare provider who will be handling emergencies.
Post-treatment Assessment: Day 7 To 14
Patients should follow-up with their healthcare provider approximately 7 to 14 days after the administration of MIFEPREX. This assessment is very important to confirm that complete termination of pregnancy has occurred and to evaluate the degree of bleeding. Termination can be confirmed by medical history, clinical examination, human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) testing, or ultrasonographic scan. Lack of bleeding following treatment usually indicates failure; however, prolonged or heavy bleeding is not proof of a complete abortion.
The existence of debris in the uterus (e.g., if seen on ultrasonography) following the treatment procedure will not necessarily require surgery for its removal.
Women should expect to experience vaginal bleeding or spotting for an average of 9 to 16 days. Women report experiencing heavy bleeding for a median duration of 2 days. Up to 8% of women may experience some type of bleeding for more than 30 days. Persistence of heavy or moderate vaginal bleeding at the time of follow-up, however, could indicate an incomplete abortion.
If complete expulsion has not occurred, but the pregnancy is not ongoing, women may be treated with another dose of misoprostol 800 mcg buccally. There have been rare reports of uterine rupture in women who took MIFEPREX and misoprostol, including women with prior uterine rupture or uterine scar and women who received multiple doses of misoprostol within 24 hours. Women who choose to use a repeat dose of misoprostol should have a follow-up visit with their healthcare provider in approximately 7 days to assess for complete termination.
Surgical evacuation is recommended to manage ongoing pregnancies after medical abortion [see Use In Specific Populations]. Advise the patient whether you will provide such care or will refer her to another provider as part of counseling prior to prescribing MIFEPREX.
Contact For Consultation
For consultation 24 hours a day, 7 days a week with an expert in mifepristone, call Danco Laboratories at 1-877-4 Early Option (1-877-432-7596).
Dosage Forms And Strengths
Tablets containing 200 mg of mifepristone each, supplied as 1 tablet on one blister card. MIFEPREX tablets are light yellow, cylindrical, and bi-convex tablets, approximately 11 mm in diameter and imprinted on one side with “MF.”
Storage And Handling
MIFEPREX is only available through a restricted program called themifepristone REMS Program [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
MIFEPREX is supplied as light yellow, cylindrical, and bi-convex tablets imprinted on one side with “MF.” Each tablet contains 200 mg of mifepristone. One tablet is individually blistered on one blister card that is packaged in an individual package (National Drug Code 64875-001-01).
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Manufactured for: Danco Laboratories, LLC, P.O. Box 4816, New York, NY 10185, 1-877-4 Early Option (1-877-432-7596). Revised: N/A
The following adverse reactions are described in greater detail in other sections:
- Infection and sepsis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Uterine bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Information presented on common adverse reactions relies solely on data from U.S. studies, because rates reported in non-U.S. studies were markedly lower and are not likely generalizable to the U.S. population. In three U.S. clinical studies totaling 1,248 women through 70 days gestation who used mifepristone 200 mg orally followed 24-48 hours later by misoprostol 800 mcg buccally, women reported adverse reactions in diaries and in interviews at the follow-up visit. These studies enrolled generally healthy women of reproductive age without contraindications to mifepristone or misoprostol use according to the MIFEPREX product label.
Gestational age was assessed prior to study enrollment using the date of the woman's last menstrual period, clinical evaluation, and/or ultrasound examination.
About 85% of patients report at least one adverse reaction following administration of MIFEPREX and misoprostol, and many can be expected to report more than one such reaction. The most commonly reported adverse reactions (>15%) were nausea, weakness, fever/chills, vomiting, headache, diarrhea, and dizziness (see Table 1). The frequency of adverse reactions varies between studies and may be dependent on many factors, including the patient population and gestational age.
Abdominal pain/cramping is expected in all medical abortion patients and its incidence is not reported in clinical studies. Treatment with MIFEPREX and misoprostol is designed to induce uterine bleeding and cramping to cause termination of an intrauterine pregnancy. Uterine bleeding and cramping are expected consequences of the action of MIFEPREX and misoprostol as used in the treatment procedure. Most women can expect bleeding more heavily than they do during a heavy menstrual period [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Table 1 lists the adverse reactions reported in U.S. clinical studies with incidence >15% of women.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in Women Following
Administration of Mifepristone (oral) and Misoprostol (buccal) in U.S. Clinical
|Adverse Reaction||# U.S. studies||Number of Evaluable Women||Range of frequency (%)||Upper Gestational Age of Studies Reporting Outcome|
One study provided gestational-age stratified adverse reaction rates for women who were 57-63 and 64-70 days; there was little difference in frequency of the reported common adverse reactions by gestational age.
Information on serious adverse reactions was reported in six U.S. and four non-U.S. clinical studies, totaling 30,966 women through 70 days gestation who used mifepristone 200 mg orally followed 24-48 hours later by misoprostol 800 mcg buccally. Serious adverse reaction rates were similar between U.S. and non-U.S. studies, so rates from both U.S. and non-U.S. studies are presented. In the U.S. studies, one studied women through 56 days gestation, four through 63 days gestation, and one through 70 days gestation, while in the non-U.S. studies, two studied women through 63 days gestation, and two through 70 days gestation. Serious adverse reactions were reported in <0.5% of women. Information from the U.S. and non-U.S. studies is presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Serious Adverse Reactions Reported in Women
Following Administration of Mifepristone (oral) and Misoprostol (buccal) in
U.S. and Non-U.S. Clinical Studies
|# of studies||Number of Evaluable Women||Range of frequency (%)||# of studies||Number of Evaluable Women||Range of frequency (%)|
|Hospitalization Related to Medical Abortion||3||14,339||0.04-0.6%||3||1,286||0-0.7%|
|Infection without sepsis||1||216||0||1||11,155||0.2%|
|NR= Not reported
* This outcome represents a single patient who experienced death related to sepsis.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of MIFEPREX and misoprostol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Infections and infestations: post-abortal infection (including endometritis, endomyometritis, parametritis, pelvic infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis)
Blood and the lymphatic system disorders: anemia
Immune system disorders: allergic reaction (including anaphylaxis, angioedema, hives, rash, itching)
Psychiatric disorders: anxiety
Cardiac disorders: tachycardia (including racing pulse, heart palpitations, heart pounding)
Vascular disorders: syncope, fainting, loss of consciousness, hypotension (including orthostatic), light-headedness
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: shortness of breath
Gastrointestinal disorders: dyspepsia
Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders: back pain, leg pain
Reproductive system and breast disorders: uterine rupture, ruptured ectopic pregnancy, hematometra, leukorrhea
General disorders and administration site conditions: pain
Drugs That May Reduce MIFEPREX Exposure (Effect Of CYP 3A4 Inducers On MIFEPREX)
CYP450 3A4 is primarily responsible for the metabolism of mifepristone. CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampin, dexamethasone, St. John's Wort, and certain anticonvulsants (such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine) may induce mifepristone metabolism (lowering serum concentrations of mifepristone). Whether this action has an impact on the efficacy of the dose regimen is unknown. Refer to the follow-up assessment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION] to verify that treatment has been successful.
Drugs That May Increase MIFEPREX Exposure (Effect Of CYP 3A4 Inhibitors On MIFEPREX)
Although specific drug or food interactions with mifepristone have not been studied, on the basis of this drug's metabolism by CYP 3A4, it is possible that ketoconazole, itraconazole, erythromycin, and grapefruit juice may inhibit its metabolism (increasing serum concentrations of mifepristone). MIFEPREX should be used with caution in patients currently or recently treated with CYP 3A4 inhibitors.
Effects Of MIFEPREX On Other Drugs (Effect Of MIFEPREX On CYP 3A4 Substrates)
Based on in vitro inhibition information, coadministration of mifepristone may lead to an increase in serum concentrations of drugs that are CYP 3A4 substrates. Due to the slow elimination of mifepristone from the body, such interaction may be observed for a prolonged period after its administration. Therefore, caution should be exercised when mifepristone is administered with drugs that are CYP 3A4 substrates and have narrow therapeutic range.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Infection And Sepsis
As with other types of abortion, cases of serious bacterial infection, including very rare cases of fatal septic shock, have been reported following the use of MIFEPREX [see BOXED WARNING]. Healthcare providers evaluating a patient who is undergoing a medical abortion should be alert to the possibility of this rare event. A sustained (> 4 hours) fever of 100.4°F or higher, severe abdominal pain, or pelvic tenderness in the days after a medical abortion may be an indication of infection.
A high index of suspicion is needed to rule out sepsis (e.g., from Clostridium sordellii) if a patient reports abdominal pain or discomfort or general malaise (including weakness, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea) more than 24 hours after taking misoprostol. Very rarely, deaths have been reported in patients who presented without fever, with or without abdominal pain, but with leukocytosis with a marked left shift, tachycardia, hemoconcentration, and general malaise. No causal relationship between MIFEPREX and misoprostol use and an increased risk of infection or death has been established. Clostridium sordellii infections have also been reported very rarely following childbirth (vaginal delivery and caesarian section), and in other gynecologic and non-gynecologic conditions.
Uterine bleeding occurs in almost all patients during a medical abortion. Prolonged heavy bleeding (soaking through two thick full-size sanitary pads per hour for two consecutive hours) may be a sign of incomplete abortion or other complications, and prompt medical or surgical intervention may be needed to prevent the development of hypovolemic shock. Counsel patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience prolonged heavy vaginal bleeding following a medical abortion [see BOXED WARNING].
Women should expect to experience vaginal bleeding or spotting for an average of 9 to 16 days. Women report experiencing heavy bleeding for a median duration of 2 days. Up to 8% of all subjects may experience some type of bleeding for 30 days or more. In general, the duration of bleeding and spotting increased as the duration of the pregnancy increased.
Decreases in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and red blood cell count may occur in women who bleed heavily.
Excessive uterine bleeding usually requires treatment by uterotonics, vasoconstrictor drugs, surgical uterine evacuation, administration of saline infusions, and/or blood transfusions. Based on data from several large clinical trials, vasoconstrictor drugs were used in 4.3% of all subjects, there was a decrease in hemoglobin of more than 2 g/dL in 5.5% of subjects, and blood transfusions were administered to ≤ 0.1% of subjects. Because heavy bleeding requiring surgical uterine evacuation occurs in about 1% of patients, special care should be given to patients with hemostatic disorders, hypocoagulability, or severe anemia.
Mifepristone REMS Program
MIFEPREX is available only through a restricted program under a REMS called the mifepristone REMS Program, because of the risks of serious complications [see Sections above].
Notable requirements of the mifepristone REMS Program include the following:
- Prescribers must be certified with the program by completing the Prescriber Agreement Form.
- Patients must sign a Patient Agreement Form.
- MIFEPREX must be dispensed to patients only in certain healthcare settings, specifically clinics, medical offices and hospitals by or under the supervision of a certified prescriber.
Further information is available at 1-877-4 Early Option (1-877-432-7596).
MIFEPREX is contraindicated in patients with a confirmed or suspected ectopic pregnancy because MIFEPREX is not effective for terminating ectopic pregnancies [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Healthcare providers should remain alert to the possibility that a patient who is undergoing a medical abortion could have an undiagnosed ectopic pregnancy because some of the expected symptoms experienced with a medical abortion (abdominal pain, uterine bleeding) may be similar to those of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. The presence of an ectopic pregnancy may have been missed even if the patient underwent ultrasonography prior to being prescribed MIFEPREX.
Women who became pregnant with an IUD in place should be assessed for ectopic pregnancy.
The use of MIFEPREX is assumed to require the same preventive measures as those taken prior to and during surgical abortion to prevent rhesus immunization.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide), included with each package of MIFEPREX. Additional copies of the Medication Guide are available by contacting Danco Laboratories at 1-877-4 Early Option (1-877-432-7596) or from www.earlyoptionpill.com.
Serious Infections And Bleeding
- Inform the patient that uterine bleeding and uterine cramping will occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Advise the patient that serious and sometimes fatal infections and bleeding can occur very rarely [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- MIFEPREX is only available
through a restricted program called the mifepristone REMS Program [see
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Under the mifepristone REMS
- Patients must sign a Patient Agreement Form.
- MIFEPREX is only available in clinics, medical offices and hospitals and not through retail pharmacies.
Provider Contacts And Actions In Case Of Complications
- Ensure that the patient knows whom to call and what to do, including going to an Emergency Room if none of the provided contacts are reachable, or if she experiences complications including prolonged heavy bleeding, severe abdominal pain, or sustained fever [see BOXED WARNING].
- Advise the patient to take the Medication Guide with her if she visits an emergency room or another healthcare provider who did not prescribe MIFEPREX, so that provider will be aware that the patient is undergoing a medical abortion with MIFEPREX.
Compliance With Treatment Schedule And Follow-up Assessment
- Advise the patient that it is necessary to complete the treatment schedule, including a follow-up assessment approximately 7 to14 days after taking MIFEPREX [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- Explain that
- prolonged heavy vaginal bleeding is not proof of a complete abortion,
- if the treatment fails and the pregnancy continues, the risk of fetal malformation is unknown,
- it is recommended that ongoing pregnancy be managed by surgical termination [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Advise the patient whether you will provide such care or will refer her to another provider.
- Inform the patient that another pregnancy can occur following medical abortion and before resumption of normal menses.
- Inform the patient that contraception can be initiated as soon as pregnancy expulsion has been confirmed, or before she resumes sexual intercourse.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No long-term studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of mifepristone have been performed.
Results from studies conducted in vitro and in animals have revealed no genotoxic potential for mifepristone. Among the tests carried out were: Ames test with and without metabolic activation; gene conversion test in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4 cells; forward mutation in Schizosaccharomyces pompe P1 cells; induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured HeLa cells; induction of chromosome aberrations in CHO cells; in vitro test for gene mutation in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells; and micronucleus test in mice.
Impairment Of Fertility
In rats, administration of 0.3 mg/kg mifepristone per day caused severe disruption of the estrus cycles for the three weeks of the treatment period. Following resumption of the estrus cycle, animals were mated and no effects on reproductive performance were observed.
Use In Specific Populations
Mifepristone is indicated, in a regimen with misoprostol, for the medical termination of intrauterine pregnancy through 70 days gestation. Risks to pregnant women are discussed throughout the labeling.
Refer to misoprostol labeling for risks to pregnant women with the use of misoprostol.
The risk of adverse developmental outcomes with a continued pregnancy after a failed pregnancy termination with MIFEPREX in a regimen with misoprostol is unknown; however, the process of a failed pregnancy termination could disrupt normal embryo-fetal development and result in adverse developmental effects. Birth defects have been reported with a continued pregnancy after a failed pregnancy termination with MIFEPREX in a regimen with misoprostol. In animal reproduction studies, increased fetal losses were observed in mice, rats, and rabbits and skull deformities were observed in rabbits with administration of mifepristone at doses lower than the human exposure level based on body surface area.
In teratology studies in mice, rats and rabbits at doses of 0.25 to 4.0 mg/kg (less than 1/100 to approximately 1/3 the human exposure based on body surface area), because of the antiprogestational activity of mifepristone,fetal losses were much higher than in control animals. Skull deformities were detected in rabbit studies at approximately 1/6 the human exposure, although no teratogenic effects of mifepristone have been observed to date in rats or mice. These deformities were most likely due to the mechanical effects of uterine contractions resulting from inhibition of progesterone action.
MIFEPREX is present in human milk. Limited data demonstrate undetectable to low levels of the drug in human milk with the relative (weight-adjusted) infant dose 0.5% or less as compared to maternal dosing. There is no information on the effects of MIFEPREX in a regimen with misoprostol in a breastfed infant or on milk production. Refer to misoprostol labeling for lactation information with the use of misoprostol. The developmental and health benefits of breast-feeding should be considered along with any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed child from MIFEPREX in a regimen with misoprostol.
Safety and efficacy of MIFEPREX have been established in pregnant females. Data from a clinical study of MIFEPREX that included a subset of 322 females under age 17 demonstrated a safety and efficacy profile similar to that observed in adults.
No serious adverse reactions were reported in tolerance studies in healthy non-pregnant female and healthy male subjects where mifepristone was administered in single doses greater than 1800 mg (ninefold the recommended dose for medical abortion). If a patient ingests a massive overdose, she should be observed closely for signs of adrenal failure.
- Administration of MIFEPREX and misoprostol for the
termination of pregnancy (the “treatment procedure”) is contraindicated in
patients with any of the following conditions:
- Confirmed or suspected ectopic pregnancy or undiagnosed adnexal mass (the treatment procedure will not be effective to terminate an ectopic pregnancy) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Chronic adrenal failure (risk of acute renal insufficiency)
- Concurrent long-term corticosteroid therapy (risk of acute renal insufficiency)
- History of allergy to mifepristone, misoprostol, or other prostaglandins (allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, hives, and itching have been reported [see ADVERSE REACTIONS])
- Hemorrhagic disorders or concurrent anticoagulant therapy (risk of heavy bleeding)
- Inherited porphyrias (risk of worsening or of precipitation of attacks)
- Use of MIFEPREX and misoprostol for termination of intrauterine pregnancy is contraindicated in patients with an intrauterine device (“IUD”) in place (the IUD might interfere with pregnancy termination). If the IUD is removed, MIFEPREX may be used.
Mechanism Of Action
The anti-progestational activity of mifepristone results from competitive interaction with progesterone at progesterone-receptor sites. Based on studies with various oral doses in several animal species (mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey), the compound inhibits the activity of endogenous or exogenous progesterone, resulting in effects on the uterus and cervix that, when combined with misoprostol, result in termination of an intrauterine pregnancy.
During pregnancy, the compound sensitizes the myometrium to the contraction-inducing activity of prostaglandins.
Use of MIFEPREX in a regimen with misoprostol disrupts pregnancy by causing decidual necrosis, myometrial contractions, and cervical softening, leading to the expulsion of the products of conception.
Doses of 1 mg/kg or greater of mifepristone have been shown to antagonize the endometrial and myometrial effects of progesterone in women.
Antiglucocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity: Mifepristone also exhibits antiglucocorticoid and weak antiandrogenic activity. The activity of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone in rats was inhibited following doses of 10 to 25 mg/kg of mifepristone. Doses of 4.5 mg/kg or greater in human beings resulted in a compensatory elevation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol. Antiandrogenic activity was observed in rats following repeated administration of doses from 10 to 100 mg/kg.
Mifepristone is rapidly absorbed after oral ingestion with non-linear pharmacokinetics for Cmax after single oral doses of 200 mg and 600 mg in healthy subjects.
The absolute bioavailability of a 20 mg mifepristone oral dose in women of childbearing age is 69%. Following oral administration of a single dose of 600 mg, mifepristone is rapidly absorbed, with a peak plasma concentration of 1.98 ± 1.0 mg/L occurring approximately 90 minutes after ingestion.
Following oral administration of a single dose of 200 mg in healthy men (n=8), mean Cmax was 1.77 ± 0.7 mg/L occurring approximately 45 minutes after ingestion. Mean AUC0-∞ was 25.8 ± 6.2 mg*hr/L.
Mifepristone is 98% bound to plasma proteins, albumin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Binding to the latter protein is saturable, and the drug displays nonlinear kinetics with respect to plasma concentration and clearance.
Following a distribution phase, elimination of mifepristone is slow at first (50% eliminated between 12 and 72 hours) and then becomes more rapid with a terminal elimination half-life of 18 hours.
Metabolism of mifepristone is primarily via pathways involving N-demethylation and terminal hydroxylation of the 17-propynyl chain. In vitro studies have shown that CYP450 3A4 is primarily responsible for the metabolism. The three major metabolites identified in humans are: (1) RU 42 633, the most widely found in plasma, is the N-monodemethylated metabolite; (2) RU 42 848, which results from the loss of two methyl groups from the 4-dimethylaminophenyl in position 11ß; and (3) RU 42 698, which results from terminal hydroxylation of the 17-propynyl chain.
By 11 days after a 600 mg dose of tritiated compound, 83% of the drug has been accounted for by the feces and 9% by the urine. Serum concentrations are undetectable by 11 days.
The effects of age, hepatic disease and renal disease on the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of mifepristone have not been investigated.
Safety and efficacy data from clinical studies of mifepristone 200 mg orally followed 24-48 hours later by misoprostol 800 mcg buccally through 70 days gestation are reported below. Success was defined as the complete expulsion of the products of conception without the need for surgical intervention. The overall rates of success and failure, shown by reason for failure based on 22 worldwide clinical studies (including 7 U.S. studies) appear in Table 3.
The demographics of women who participated in the U.S. clinical studies varied depending on study location and represent the racial and ethnic variety of American females. Females of all reproductive ages were represented, including females less than 18 and more than 40 years of age; most were 27 years or younger.
Table 3: Outcome Following Treatment with Mifepristone
(oral) and Misoprostol (buccal) Through 70 Days Gestation
|U.S. Trials||Non-U.S. Trials|
|Complete Medical Abortion||97.4%||96.2%|
|* Reasons for surgical intervention include ongoing
pregnancy, medical necessity, persistent or heavy bleeding after treatment,
patient request, or incomplete expulsion.
** Ongoing pregnancy is a subcategory of surgical intervention, indicating the percent of women who have surgical intervention due to an ongoing pregnancy.
The results for clinical studies that reported outcomes, including failure rates for ongoing pregnancy, by gestational age are presented in Table 4.
Table 4: Outcome by Gestational Age Following
Treatment with Mifepristone and Misoprostol (buccal) for U.S. and Non-U.S.
|≤49 days||50-56 days||57-63 days||64-70 days|
|N||%||Number of Evaluable Studies||N||%||Number of Evaluable Studies||N||%||Number of Evaluable Studies||N||%||Number of Evaluable Studies|
|Complete medical abortion||12,046||98.1||10||3,941||96.8||7||2,294||94.7||9||479||92.7||4|
|Surgical intervention for ongoing pregnancy||10,272||0.3||6||3,788||0.8||6||2,211||2||8||453||3.1||3|
One clinical study asked subjects through 70 days gestation to estimate when they expelled the pregnancy, with 70% providing data. Of these, 23-38% reported expulsion within 3 hours and over 90% within 24 hours of using misoprostol.
(mifepristone) tablets, for oral use
Read this information carefully before taking Mifeprex and misoprostol. It will help you understand how the treatment works. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking with your healthcare provider.
What is the most important information I should know about Mifeprex?
What symptoms should I be concerned with? Although cramping and bleeding are an expected part of ending a pregnancy, rarely, serious and potentially life-threatening bleeding, infections, or other problems can occur following a miscarriage, surgical abortion, medical abortion, or childbirth. Seeking medical attention as soon as possible is needed in these circumstances. Serious infection has resulted in death in a very small number of cases. There is no information that use of Mifeprex and misoprostol caused these deaths. If you have any questions, concerns, or problems, or if you are worried about any side effects or symptoms, you should contact your healthcare provider. You can write down your healthcare provider’s telephone number here ________________________.
Be sure to contact your healthcare provider promptly if you have any of the following:
- Heavy Bleeding. Contact your healthcare provider right away if you bleed enough to soak through two thick full-size sanitary pads per hour for two consecutive hours or if you are concerned about heavy bleeding. In about 1 out of 100 women, bleeding can be so heavy that it requires a surgical procedure (surgical aspiration or D&C).
- Abdominal Pain or “Feeling Sick.” If you have abdominal pain or discomfort, or you are “feeling sick,” including weakness, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea, with or without fever, more than 24 hours after taking misoprostol, you should contact your healthcare provider without delay. These symptoms may be a sign of a serious infection or another problem (including an ectopic pregnancy, a pregnancy outside the womb).
- Fever. In the days after treatment, if you have a fever of 100.4°F or higher that lasts for more than 4 hours, you should contact your healthcare provider right away. Fever may be a symptom of a serious infection or another problem.
If you cannot reach your healthcare provider, go to the nearest hospital emergency room. Take this Medication Guide with you. When you visit an emergency room or a healthcare provider who did not give you your Mifeprex, you should give them your Medication Guide so that they understand that you are having a medical abortion with Mifeprex.
What to do if you are still pregnant after Mifeprex with misoprostol treatment. If you are still pregnant, your healthcare provider will talk with you about a surgical procedure to end your pregnancy. In many cases, this surgical procedure can be done in the office/clinic. The chance of birth defects if the pregnancy is not ended is unknown.
Talk with your healthcare provider. Before you take Mifeprex, you should read this Medication Guide and you and your healthcare provider should discuss the benefits and risks of your using Mifeprex.
What is Mifeprex?
Mifeprex is used in a regimen with another prescription medicine called misoprostol, to end an early pregnancy. Early pregnancy means it is 70 days (10 weeks) or less since your last menstrual period began. Mifeprex is not approved for ending pregnancies that are further along. Mifeprex blocks a hormone needed for your pregnancy to continue. When you use Mifeprex on Day 1, you also need to take another medicine called misoprostol 24 to 48 hours after you take Mifeprex, to cause the pregnancy to be passed from your uterus.
The pregnancy is likely to be passed from your uterus within 2 to 24 hours after taking Mifeprex and misoprostol. When the pregnancy is passed from the uterus, you will have bleeding and cramping that will likely be heavier than your usual period. About 2 to 7 out of 100 women taking Mifeprex will need a surgical procedure because the pregnancy did not completely pass from the uterus or to stop bleeding.
Who should not take Mifeprex?
Some women should not take Mifeprex. Do not take Mifeprex if you:
- Have a pregnancy that is more than 70 days (10 weeks). Your healthcare provider may do a clinical examination, an ultrasound examination, or other testing to determine how far along you are in pregnancy.
- Are using an IUD (intrauterine device or system). It must be taken out before you take Mifeprex.
- Have been told by your healthcare provider that you have a pregnancy outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy).
- Have problems with your adrenal glands (chronic adrenal failure).
- Take a medicine to thin your blood.
- Have a bleeding problem.
- Have porphyria.
- Take certain steroid medicines.
- Are allergic to mifepristone, misoprostol, or medicines that contain misoprostol, such as Cytotec or Arthrotec.
Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure about all your medical conditions before taking this medicine to find out if you can take Mifeprex.
What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking Mifeprex?
Before you take Mifeprex, tell your healthcare provider if you:
- cannot follow-up within approximately 7 to 14 days of your first visit
- are breastfeeding. Mifeprex can pass into your breast milk. The effect of the Mifeprex and misoprostol regimen on the breastfed infant or on milk production is unknown.
- are taking medicines, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.
Mifeprex and certain other medicines may affect each other if they are used together. This can cause side effects.
How should I take Mifeprex?
- Mifeprex will be given to you by a healthcare provider in a clinic, medical office, or hospital.
- You and your healthcare provider will plan the most appropriate location for you to take the misoprostol, because it may cause bleeding, cramps, nausea, diarrhea, and other symptoms that usually begin within 2 to 24 hours after taking it.
- Most women will pass the pregnancy within 2 to 24 hours after taking the misoprostol tablets.
Follow the instruction below on how to take Mifeprex and misoprostol:
Mifeprex (1 tablet) orally + misoprostol (4 tablets) buccally
- Take 1 Mifeprex tablet by mouth.
- Your healthcare provider will either give you or prescribe for you 4 misoprostol tablets to take 24 to 48 hours later.
24 to 48 hours after taking Mifeprex:
- Place 2 misoprostol tablets in each cheek pouch (the area between your teeth and cheek - see Figure A) for 30 minutes and then swallow anything left over with a drink of water or another liquid.
- The medicines may not work as well if you take misoprostol sooner than 24 hours after Mifeprex or later than 48 hours after Mifeprex.
- Misoprostol often causes cramps, nausea, diarrhea, and other symptoms. Your healthcare provider may send you home with medicines for these symptoms.
Figure A (2 tablets between your left cheek and gum and 2 tablets between your right cheek and gum).
Follow-up Assessment at Day 7 to 14:
- This follow-up assessment is very important. You must follow-up with your healthcare provider about 7 to 14 days after you have taken Mifeprex to be sure you are well and that you have had bleeding and the pregnancy has passed from your uterus.
- Your healthcare provider will assess whether your pregnancy has passed from your uterus. If your pregnancy continues, the chance that there may be birth defects is unknown. If you are still pregnant, your healthcare provider will talk with you about a surgical procedure to end your pregnancy.
- If your pregnancy has ended, but has not yet completely passed from your uterus, your provider will talk with you about other choices you have, including waiting, taking another dose of misoprostol, or having a surgical procedure to empty your uterus.
When should I begin birth control?
You can become pregnant again right after your pregnancy ends. If you do not want to become pregnant again, start using birth control as soon as your pregnancy ends or before you start having sexual intercourse again.
What should I avoid while taking Mifeprex and misoprostol?
Do not take any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines (including herbal medicines or supplements) at any time during the treatment period without first asking your healthcare provider about them because they may interfere with the treatment. Ask your healthcare provider about what medicines you can take for pain and other side effects.
What are the possible side effects of Mifeprex and misoprostol?
Mifeprex may cause serious side effects. See “What is the most important information I should know about Mifeprex?”
Cramping and bleeding. Cramping and vaginal bleeding are expected with this treatment. Usually, these symptoms mean that the treatment is working. But sometimes you can get cramping and bleeding and still be pregnant. This is why you must follow-up with your healthcare provider approximately 7 to 14 days after taking Mifeprex. See “How should I take Mifeprex?” for more information on your follow-up assessment. If you are not already bleeding after taking Mifeprex, you probably will begin to bleed once you take misoprostol, the medicine you take 24 to 48 hours after Mifeprex. Bleeding or spotting can be expected for an average of 9 to16 days and may last for up to 30 days. Your bleeding may be similar to, or greater than, a normal heavy period. You may see blood clots and tissue. This is an expected part of passing the pregnancy.
The most common side effects of Mifeprex treatment include: nausea, weakness, fever/chills, vomiting, headache, diarrhea and dizziness. Your provider will tell you how to manage any pain or other side effects. These are not all the possible side effects of Mifeprex.
Call your healthcare provider for medical advice about any side effects that bother you or do not go away. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
General information about the safe and effective use of Mifeprex.
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about Mifeprex. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You may ask your healthcare provider for information about Mifeprex that is written for healthcare professionals.
For more information about Mifeprex, go to www.earlyoptionpill.com or call 1-877-4 Early Option (1-877-432-7596).
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
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