Danette C. Taylor, DO, MS, FACN
Dr. Taylor has a passion for treating patients as individuals. In practice since 1994, she has a wide range of experience in treating patients with many types of movement disorders and dementias. In addition to patient care, she is actively involved in the training of residents and medical students, and has been both primary and secondary investigator in numerous research studies through the years. She is a Clinical Assistant Professor at Michigan State University's College of Osteopathic Medicine (Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology). She graduated with a BS degree from Alma College, and an MS (biomechanics) from Michigan State University. She received her medical degree from Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Her internship and residency were completed at Botsford General Hospital. Additionally, she completed a fellowship in movement disorders with Dr. Peter LeWitt. She has been named a fellow of the American College of Neuropsychiatrists. She is board-certified in neurology by the American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry. She has authored several articles and lectured extensively; she continues to write questions for two national medical boards. Dr. Taylor is a member of the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MSAC) of the Alzheimer's Association of Michigan, and is a reviewer for the journal Clinical Neuropharmacology.
Benjamin Wedro, MD, FACEP, FAAEM
Dr. Ben Wedro practices emergency medicine at Gundersen Clinic, a regional trauma center in La Crosse, Wisconsin. His background includes undergraduate and medical studies at the University of Alberta, a Family Practice internship at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario and residency training in Emergency Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Migraine headache definition and facts
- What is a migraine headache?
- What is migraine with aura?
- What are migraine triggers?
- What are the signs and symptoms?
- What causes migraines?
- What are the risk factors?
- How can I tell if it's a migraine or a different type of headache?
- What are the treatments for migraine headaches?
- Migraine medications
- What remedies and lifestyle changes help manage and decrease the frequency of migraines?
- How are migraines managed during pregnancy?
- How are migraines managed in children?
- What is the prognosis for a person with migraines?
- Can the frequency of headaches be prevented?
- Headaches FAQs
- Find a local Neurologist in your town
What are the treatments for migraine headaches?
The treatment for migraines depends upon on how frequently the headaches occur and how long the headaches last.
The treatment of an acute migraine headache may vary from over-the-counter medicines (OTC), like acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, etc.), naproxen sodium (Aleve) to prescription medications.
- Triptans (sumatriptan, rizatriptan, eletriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan, and frovatriptan), may be extremely effective in treating migraines and may be prescribed to help the patient treat their migraine at home. A combination of naproxen and sumatriptan is now available. Additionally, sumatriptan is now available as a patch which delivers the medication though the skin.
- Not every patient can take these medications, and there are specific limitations regarding how often these medications can be used.
- Other medication regimens may also be used to control migraine headache.
- Some medications are appropriate for home use and others require a visit to the health-care professional's office or emergency department.
Other migraine treatments
- Dihydroergotamine (DHE 45) can be administered intravenously or by nasal spray; this medication cannot be used if a triptan has been used within the preceding 24 hours.
- Diclofenac potassium for oral solution (Cambia) is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication approved for treatment of migraine.
- Antiemetic medications, including intravenous (IV) metoclopramide, and IV or intramuscular (IM) chlorpromazine and prochlorperazine can be used both to relieve nausea and vomiting and migraine pain.
Learn more about: DHE 45
Narcotic pain medications are not necessarily appropriate for the treatment of migraine headaches and are associated with the phenomenon of rebound headache, where the headache returns -- sometimes more intensely -- when the narcotics wear off. In all cases of migraine, the use of acute pain therapies must be watched closely so that a patient does not develop medication overuse headache.
Overuse of many of the medications used to treat migraine headache can lead to increased headache frequency, or even daily headaches. This type of headache phenomenon is known as medication overuse headache.
If an individual experiences frequent headaches, or if the headaches routinely last for several days, then preventive medications may be indicated. These may be prescribed on a daily basis in an effort to decrease the frequency, severity, and duration of migraine headaches. There are many different medications which have been shown to be effective in this role, including:
- blood pressure medications, for example, propranolol (Inderal), nadolol (Corgard), verapamil (Clan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan), and flunarizine),
- anti-seizure medications, for example, divalproex sodium (Depakote and others), topiramate (Topamax), and gabapentin (Neurontin, Gralise),
- antidepressant medications (amitriptyline and venlafaxine) and
- other supplements (magnesium, butterbur, and riboflavin).
Learn more about: Corgard
The specific medication which is selected for a patient is dependent on many other factors, including age, sex, blood pressure, and other pre-existing medical conditions.
Some patients who experience more than 15 headache days every month might benefit from Botox injections.
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