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Multiple Myeloma (cont.)

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What are risk factors for multiple myeloma? Is multiple myeloma hereditary?

The definitive cause of multiple myeloma has not been established, but research has suggested several factors may be risk factors or contribute to multiple myeloma development in an individual. A genetic abnormality such as c-myc oncogenes and others have been associated with multiple myeloma development. Currently, there is no evidence that heredity plays a role in multiple myeloma development so it is not considered to be a hereditary disease. Environmental exposures to herbicides, insecticides, benzene, hair dyes, and radiation have been suggested as causes but definitive data is lacking. Inflammation and infection have been suggested but again not proven to cause multiple myeloma. However, a benign proliferation of a plasma cell can result in a situation where a monoclonal antibody is produced in high amounts (but not as high as seen with multiple myeloma). This result is termed monoclonal gammopathy of unknown or undetermined significance (abbreviated as MGUS). About 19% of MGUS patients develop multiple myeloma in about two to 19 years after MGUS diagnosis. In addition, smoldering multiple myeloma (also termed inactive) is an early precursor to multiple myeloma. Abnormal proteins in blood or urine are detectable with special testing before multiple myeloma symptoms occur.

What are multiple myeloma symptoms and signs?

Patients with myeloma may be found asymptomatic with an unexplained increase in protein in the blood. With more advanced disease, some myeloma patients may present with weakness due to anemia caused by inadequate production of red blood cells, with bone pain due to the aforementioned bone damage, and as the abnormal M protein can accumulate in and damage the kidneys thereby resulting in a patient being found to have otherwise unexplained kidney damage and decreased kidney function.

The following is a list symptoms and signs of multiple myeloma:

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 2/27/2017

Source: MedicineNet.com
https://www.medicinenet.com/multiple_myeloma/article.htm

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