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Last reviewed on RxList: 11/15/2017
Nebupent Side Effects Center

Last reviewed on RxList 11/15/2017

NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat serious infections such as Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), often seen in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Common side effects of NebuPent include cough, upset stomach, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, burning feeling in the throat, unusual taste in the mouth, or dry mouth.

The recommended adult dosage of NebuPent for the prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia is 300 mg once every four weeks administered via the Respirgard II nebulizer. NebuPent may interact with azathioprine, carbamazepine, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, cisplatin, didanosine, zidovudine, birth control pills, ganciclovir, blood pressure medications, medication for diabetes, valproic acid, medication for psychiatric disorders, or metoclopramide. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use. During pregnancy, NebuPent should be used only when prescribed. It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Because breast milk can transmit HIV, do not breastfeed.

Our NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Nebupent Consumer Information

Side effects with pentamidine are not common. Serious side effects include:

  • an allergic reaction (shortness of breath; closing of the throat; hives; swelling of the lips, face, or tongue; rash; or fainting);
  • blurred vision;
  • chest pain or irregular heart beat;
  • difficulty breathing;
  • dizziness, confusion, fainting spells or excessive tiredness;
  • drastic appetite changes;
  • pain or irritation at the injection site;
  • mouth ulcers or irritations;
  • severe stomach pain;
  • bleeding or bruising;
  • severe headache;
  • chills;
  • increased thirst; or
  • seizures.

Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Talk to your doctor if you experience

  • taste changes;
  • diarrhea; or
  • nausea or vomiting.

Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the entire detailed patient monograph for Nebupent (Pentamidine Isethionate)

Nebupent Professional Information


The most frequently reported unsolicited adverse events (1 to 5%) in clinical trials, regardless of their relation to NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) therapy were as follows (n=931):

Body as a Whole: Night sweats.

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea and nausea.

Hematologic: Anemia.

Infection: Bronchitis, non-specific herpes, herpes zoster, non-specific influenza, oral Candida, pharyngitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract.

Nervous System: Headache.

Respiratory System: Chest pain, cough, and wheezing.

Special Senses: Bad taste.

Adverse events of less than 1% incidence were as follows (No causal relationship to treatment has been established for these adverse events):

Body as a Whole: Allergic reaction, non-specific allergy, body odor, facial edema, fever, leg edema, lethargy, low body temperature, and temperature abnormality.

Cardiovascular: Cerebrovascular accident, hypotension, hypertension, palpitations, poor circulation, syncope, tachycardia, vasodilatation and vasculitis.

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal cramps, abdominal pain, constipation, dry mouth, dyspepsia, gastritis, gastric ulcer, gingivitis, hiatal hernia, hypersalivation, oral ulcer/abscess, splenomegaly, and vomiting.

Hematological: Eosinophilia, neutropenia, non-specific cytopenia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia.

Hepatic: Hepatitis, hepatomegaly, and hepatic dysfunction.

Infection: Bacterial pneumonia, central venous line related sepsis, cryptococcal meningitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, CMV retinitis, esophageal Candida, histoplasmosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, non-specific mycoplasma, oral herpes, non- specific otitis, non-specific pharyngitis, pharyngeal herpes, non-specific serious infection, tonsillitis, tuberculosis, and viral encephalitis.

Metabolic: Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and hypocalcemia.

Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, gout, and myalgia.

Neurological: Anxiety, confusion, depression, drowsiness, emotional lability, hallucination, hypesthesia, insomnia, memory loss, neuralgia, neuropathy, non- specific neuropathy, nervousness, paranoia, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, seizure, tremors, unsteady gait, and vertigo.

Reproductive: Miscarriage.

Respiratory system: Asthma, bronchitis, bronchospasm, chest congestion, chest tightness, coryza, cyanosis, eosinophilic or interstitial pneumonitis, gagging, hemoptysis, hyperventilation, laryngitis, laryngospasm, non-specific lung disorder, nasal congestion, pleuritis, pneumothorax, rales, rhinitis, shortness of breath, non-specific sputum, and tachypnea.

Skin: Desquamation, dry and breaking hair, dry skin, erythema, non-specific dermatitis, pruritus, rash, and urticaria.

Special senses: Blepharitis, blurred vision, conjunctivitis, contact lens discomfort, eye pain or discomfort, hemianopsia, loss of taste, non-specific odor, and smell.

Urogenital: Flank pain, incontinence, nephritis, renal failure, and renal pain.

In a clinical trial where some adverse events were solicited by investigators, the incidences were as follows:

Cough (62.7%)
Decreased appetite (50.0%)
Dizziness or light-headedness (45.1%)
Fatigue (65.7%)
Fever (51.0%)
Non-specific serious infection (15.2%)
Shortness of breath (48.3%)
Wheezing (32.4%)

From post-marketing clinical experience with NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) the following spontaneous adverse events have been reported: anaphylaxis, colitis, diabetes, dyspnea, esophigitis, hematochezia, increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels, melena, pancreatitis (see WARNINGS), syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), and torsade de pointes.

Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Nebupent (Pentamidine Isethionate)

Related Resources for Nebupent

© Nebupent Patient Information is supplied by Cerner Multum, Inc. and Nebupent Consumer information is supplied by First Databank, Inc., used under license and subject to their respective copyrights.

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