Slideshows Images Quizzes

Copyright © 2018 by RxList Inc. RxList does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. See additional information.

Neupogen

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/11/2018
Neupogen Side Effects Center

Last reviewed on RxList 7/11/2018

Neupogen (filgrastim) is a man-made form of a protein that stimulates the growth of white blood cells in your body used to treat neutropenia, a lack of certain white blood cells caused by cancer, bone marrow transplant, receiving chemotherapy, or by other conditions. Common side effects of Neupogen include:

  • aching or pain in the bones and muscles,
  • diarrhea,
  • constipation,
  • hair loss,
  • headache,
  • tired feeling,
  • skin rash,
  • nosebleeds, or
  • injection site reactions (redness, swelling, itching, lumps or bruising).

Tell your doctor if you have rare but very serious side effects of Neupogen including:

  • easy bleeding or bruising,
  • bloody urine,
  • bloody vomit,
  • fast or irregular heartbeat, or
  • fever.

Dose of Neupogen is individualized, and is determined by the condition being treated and the patient's weight. Neupogen may interact with lithium. Other drugs can interact with Neupogen. Tell your doctor all prescription and over-the-counter medications and supplements you use. Neupogen should be used only when prescribed during pregnancy. It is not known whether this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.

Our Neupogen (filgrastim) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Neupogen Consumer Information

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives, sweating; dizziness, fast heart rate; wheezing, difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Filgrastim can cause your spleen to become enlarged and it could rupture (tear). Call your doctor right away if you have sudden or severe pain in your left upper stomach spreading up to your shoulder.

Stop using filgrastim and call your doctor at once if you have:

  • fever, tiredness, stomach pain, back pain;
  • rapid breathing, feeling short of breath, pain while breathing;
  • capillary leak syndrome--sudden dizziness or light-headed feeling, tiredness, trouble breathing, swelling or puffiness and feeling full;
  • kidney problems--little or no urinating, blood in your urine, swelling in your face or ankles;
  • low red blood cells (anemia)--pale skin, unusual tiredness, feeling light-headed or short of breath, cold hands and feet; or
  • signs of infection--fever, chills, sore throat, flu symptoms, easy bruising or bleeding (nosebleeds, bleeding gums), loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, mouth sores, unusual weakness.

Common side effects may include:

  • fever, cough, trouble breathing;
  • nosebleeds;
  • bone pain, muscle or joint pain;
  • diarrhea;
  • headache;
  • numbness; or
  • rash, thinning hair.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the entire detailed patient monograph for Neupogen (Filgrastim Injection)

Neupogen Professional Information

SIDE EFFECTS

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Adverse Reactions In Patients With Cancer Receiving Myelosuppressive Chemotherapy

The following adverse reaction data in Table 2 are from three randomized, placebo-controlled studies in patients with:

  • small cell lung cancer receiving standard dose chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (Study 1)
  • small cell lung cancer receiving ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (Study 2), and
  • non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) receiving doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, methylprednisolone, and methotrexate (“ACVBP”) or mitoxantrone, ifosfamide, mitoguazone, teniposide, methotrexate, folinic acid, methylprednisolone, and methotrexate (“VIM3”) (Study 3).

A total of 451 patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous NEUPOGEN 230 mcg/m² (Study 1), 240 mcg/m² (Study 2) or 4 or 5 mcg/kg/day (Study 3) (n = 294) or placebo (n = 157). The patients in these studies were median age 61 (range 29 to 78) years and 64% were male. The ethnicity was 95% Caucasian, 4% African American, and 1% Asian.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions in Patients with Cancer Receiving Myelosuppressive Chemotherapy (With ≥ 5% Higher Incidence in NEUPOGEN Compared to Placebo)

System Organ Class
Preferred Term
NEUPOGEN
(N = 294)
Placebo
(N = 157)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Thrombocytopenia 38% 29%
Gastrointestinal disorders
Nausea 43% 32%
General disorders and administration site conditions
Pyrexia 48% 29%
Chest pain 13% 6%
Pain 12% 6%
Fatigue 20% 10%
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Back pain 15% 8%
Arthralgia 9% 2%
Bone pain 11% 6%
Pain in extremity* 7% 3%
Nervous system disorders
Dizziness 14% 3%
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Cough 14% 8%
Dyspnea 13% 8%
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Rash 14% 5%
Investigations
Blood lactate dehydrogenase increased 6% 1%
Blood alkaline phosphatase increased 6% 1%
* Percent difference (NEUPOGEN - Placebo) was 4%.

Adverse events with ≥ 5% higher incidence in NEUPOGEN patients compared to placebo and associated with the sequelae of the underlying malignancy or cytotoxic chemotherapy delivered included anemia, constipation, diarrhea, oral pain, vomiting, asthenia, malaise, edema peripheral, hemoglobin decreased, decreased appetite, oropharyngeal pain, and alopecia.

Adverse Reactions In Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Adverse reaction data below are from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with AML (Study 4) who received an induction chemotherapy regimen of intravenous daunorubicin days 1, 2, and 3; cytosine arabinoside days 1 to 7; and etoposide days 1 to 5 and up to 3 additional courses of therapy (induction 2, and consolidation 1, 2) of intravenous daunorubicin, cytosine arabinoside, and etoposide. The safety population included 518 patients randomized to receive either 5 mcg/kg/day NEUPOGEN (n = 257) or placebo (n = 261). The median age was 54 (range 16 to 89) years and 54% were male.

Adverse reactions with ≥ 2% higher incidence in NEUPOGEN patients compared to placebo included epistaxis, back pain, pain in extremity, erythema, and rash maculo-papular.

Adverse events with ≥ 2% higher incidence in NEUPOGEN patients compared to placebo and associated with the sequelae of the underlying malignancy or cytotoxic chemotherapy included diarrhea, constipation, and transfusion reaction.

Adverse Reactions In Patients With Cancer Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation

The following adverse reaction data are from one randomized, no treatment-controlled study in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma receiving high-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide or cytarabine, and melphalan) and total body irradiation (Study 5) and one randomized, no treatment-controlled study in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) and NHL undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (Study 6). Patients receiving autologous bone marrow transplantation only were included in the analysis. A total of 100 patients received either 30 mcg/kg/day as a 4-hour infusion (Study 5) or 10 mcg/kg/day or 30 mcg/kg/day as a 24-hour infusion (Study 6) NEUPOGEN (n = 72), no treatment control or placebo (n = 28). The median age was 30 (range 15 to 57) years, 57% were male.

Adverse reactions with ≥ 5% higher incidence in NEUPOGEN patients compared to patients receiving no NEUPOGEN included rash and hypersensitivity.

Adverse reactions in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous BMT with ≥ 5% higher incidence in NEUPOGEN patients compared to patients receiving no NEUPOGEN included thrombocytopenia, anemia, hypertension, sepsis, bronchitis, and insomnia.

Adverse Reactions In Patients With Cancer Undergoing Autologous Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cell Collection

The adverse reaction data in Table 3 are from a series of 7 trials in patients with cancer undergoing mobilization of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells for collection by leukapheresis. Patients (n = 166) in all these trials underwent a similar mobilization/collection regimen: NEUPOGEN was administered for 6 to 8 days, in most cases the apheresis procedure occurred on days 5, 6, and 7. The dosage of NEUPOGEN ranged between 5 to 30 mcg/kg/day and was administered subcutaneously by injection or continuous infusion. The median age was 39 (range 15 to 67) years, and 48% were male.

Table 3: Adverse Reactions in Patients with Cancer Undergoing Autologous PBPC in the Mobilization Phase (≥ 5% Incidence in NEUPOGEN Patients)

System Organ Class
Preferred Term
Mobilization Phase
(N = 166)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Bone pain 30%
General disorders and administration site conditions
Pyrexia 16%
Investigations
Blood alkaline phosphatase increased 11%
Nervous system disorders
Headache 10%

Adverse Reactions In Patients With Severe Chronic Neutropenia

The following adverse reaction data were identified in a randomized, controlled study in patients with SCN receiving NEUPOGEN (Study 7). 123 patients were randomized to a 4-month observation period followed by subcutaneous NEUPOGEN treatment or immediate subcutaneous NEUPOGEN treatment. The median age was 12 years (range 7 months to 76 years) and 46% were male. The dosage of NEUPOGEN was determined by the category of neutropenia. Initial dosage of NEUPOGEN:

  • Idiopathic neutropenia: 3.6 mcg/kg/day
  • Cyclic neutropenia: 6 mcg/kg/day
  • Congenital neutropenia: 6 mcg/kg/day divided 2 times per day

The dosage was increased incrementally to 12 mcg/kg/day divided 2 times per day if there was no response.

Adverse reactions with ≥ 5% higher incidence in NEUPOGEN patients compared to patients receiving no NEUPOGEN included arthralgia, bone pain, back pain, muscle spasms, musculoskeletal pain, pain in extremity, splenomegaly, anemia, upper respiratory tract infection, and urinary tract infection (upper respiratory tract infection and urinary tract infection were higher in the NEUPOGEN arm, total infection related events were lower in NEUPOGEN treated patients), epistaxis, chest pain, diarrhea, hypoesthesia, and alopecia.

Immunogenicity

As with all therapeutic proteins, there is a potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay, and the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to filgrastim in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.

The incidence of antibody development in patients receiving NEUPOGEN has not been adequately determined. While available data suggest that a small proportion of patients developed binding antibodies to filgrastim, the nature and specificity of these antibodies has not been adequately studied. In clinical studies using NEUPOGEN, the incidence of antibodies binding to filgrastim was 3% (11/333). In these 11 patients, no evidence of a neutralizing response was observed using a cell based bioassay.

Cytopenias resulting from an antibody response to exogenous growth factors have been reported on rare occasions in patients treated with other recombinant growth factors.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of NEUPOGEN. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

  • splenic rupture and splenomegaly (enlarged spleen) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • acute respiratory distress syndrome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • anaphylaxis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • sickle cell disorders [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • glomerulonephritis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • alveolar hemorrhage and hemoptysis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • capillary leak syndrome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • leukocytosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • cutaneous vasculitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis)
  • decreased bone density and osteoporosis in pediatric patients receiving chronic treatment with NEUPOGEN aortitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Neupogen (Filgrastim Injection)

Related Resources for Neupogen

Read the Neupogen User Reviews »

© Neupogen Patient Information is supplied by Cerner Multum, Inc. and Neupogen Consumer information is supplied by First Databank, Inc., used under license and subject to their respective copyrights.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

CONTINUE SCROLLING FOR RELATED ARTICLE