- What other names is Niacinamide known by?
- What is Niacinamide?
- How does Niacinamide work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Niacinamide.
3-Pyridine Carboxamide, 3-Pyridinecarboxamide, Amide de l'Acide Nicotinique, B Complex Vitamin, Complexe de Vitamines B, Niacinamida, Nicamid, Nicosedine, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic Acid Amide, Nicotylamidum, Pyridine-3-carboxamide, Vitamin B3, Vitamina B3, Vitamine B3.
There are two forms of vitamin B3. One form is niacin, the other is niacinamide. Niacinamide is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains. Niacinamide is also found in many vitamin B complex supplements with other B vitamins. Niacinamide can also be formed in the body from dietary niacin.
Do not confuse niacinamide with niacin, inositol nicotinate, or tryptophan. See the separate listings for these topics.
Niacinamide is taken by mouth for preventing vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra. It is also taken by mouth for schizophrenia, hallucinations due to drugs, Alzheimer's disease and age-related loss of thinking skills, chronic brain syndrome, muscle spasms, depression, motion sickness, alcohol dependence, blood vessel swelling caused by skin lesions, and fluid collection (edema). Niacinamide is also taken by mouth for treating diabetes and two skin conditions called bullous pemphigoid and granuloma annulare.
Some people take niacinamide by mouth for acne, a skin condition called rosacea, leprosy, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), memory loss, arthritis, preventing premenstrual headache, improving digestion, protecting against toxins and pollutants, reducing the effects of aging, lowering blood pressure, improving circulation, promoting relaxation, improving orgasm, and preventing cataracts.
Likely Effective for...
- Treatment and prevention of niacin deficiency, and certain conditions related to niacin deficiency such as pellagra. . Niacinamide is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these uses. Niacinamide is sometimes preferred over niacin because it does not cause "flushing," (redness, itching and tingling), a side effect of niacin treatment.
Possibly Effective for...
- Acne. Early research shows that taking tablets containing niacinamide and other ingredients for 8 weeks improves skin appearance in people with acne. Other research shows that applying a cream containing niacinamide improves the appearance of skin in people with acne.
- Diabetes. Some research shows that taking niacinamide might help prevent the loss of insulin production in children and adults at risk for type 1 diabetes. It might also prevent the loss of insulin production and reduce the dose of insulin needed by children recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. However, niacinamide does not seem to prevent the development of type 1 diabetes in at-risk children. In people with type 2 diabetes, niacinamide seems to help protect insulin production and improve blood sugar control.
- High levels of phosphate in the blood (hyperphosphatemia). High blood levels of phosphate can be caused by reduced kidney function. In people with kidney dysfunction who have high levels of blood phosphate, taking niacinamide seems to help decrease phosphate levels when taken with or without phosphate binders.
- Cancer of the larynx. Research shows that taking niacinamide while receiving radiotherapy and a type of treatment called carbogen might help control tumor growth and increase survival in some people with cancer of the larynx. Taking niacinamide while receiving radiotherapy and carbogen seems to benefit people with cancer of the larynx who are also anemic. It also seems to help people who have tumors that are deprived of oxygen.
- Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Taking niacinamide seems to help prevent new skin cancer or precancerous spots (actinic keratosis) from forming in people with a history of skin cancer or actinic keratosis.
- Osteoarthritis. Taking niacinamide seems to improve joint flexibility and reduce pain and swelling in people with osteoarthritis. Also, some people with osteoarthritis who take niacinamide might need to take less painkilling medications.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Brain tumor. Early research shows that treating people with surgically removed brain tumors with niacinamide, radiotherapy, and carbogen does not improve survival compared to radiotherapy or radiotherapy and carbogen.
- Bladder cancer. Treating people with bladder cancer with niacinamide, radiotherapy, and carbogen does not appear to decrease tumor growth or improve survival compared to radiotherapy or radiotherapy and carbogen.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Age-related vision loss due to retina damage. Early research suggests that taking niacinamide, vitamin E, and lutein for a year improves how well the retina works in people with age-related vision loss due to retina damage.
- Aging skin. Early research shows that taking niacinamide, vitamin E, and lutein for almost a year improves how well the retina works in people with age-related vision loss due to retina damage.
- Eczema. Early research shows that applying cream containing 2% niacinamide decreases water loss and improves hydration, and reduces redness and scaling, in people with eczema.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is conflicting evidence regarding the usefulness of niacinamide in combination with other vitamins for the treatment of ADHD.
- Itchy skin in people with kidney disease (chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus). Early research shows that taking niacinamide does not help reduce itchiness in people with kidney disease.
- Patches of skin that have darkened. Early research shows that applying moisturizer containing 5% niacinamide or 2% niacinamide with 2% tranexamic acid for 4-8 weeks helps lighten skin in people with darkened patches of skin.
- A type of cancer of white blood cells called lymphoma. Early research shows that taking niacinamide as part of treatment with a drug called vorinostat might help people with lymphoma go in to remission.
- A skin condition called rosacea. Early research shows that taking tablets containing niacinamide and other ingredients for 8 weeks improves skin appearance in people with rosacea.
- A skin condition called seborrheic dermatitis. Early research shows that applying a cream containing 4% niacinamide can reduce redness and scaling of the skin in people with seborrheic dermatitis.
- Alcohol dependence.
- Alzheimer's disease and age-related mental decline.
- High blood pressure.
- Motion sickness.
- Premenstrual headache.
- Other conditions.
Niacinamide can be made from niacin in the body. Niacin is converted to niacinamide when it is taken in amounts greater than what is needed by the body. Niacinamide is easily dissolved in water and is well-absorbed when taken by mouth.
Niacinamide is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth. Unlike niacin, niacinamide does not cause flushing. However, niacinamide might cause minor adverse effects such as stomach upset, intestinal gas, dizziness, rash, itching, and other problems. When applied on the skin, niacinamide cream might cause mild burning, itching, or redness.
Niacinamide is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth and appropriately in children or when applied to the skin of adults.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Niacinamide is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant and breast-feeding women when taken in the recommended amounts. The recommended amount of niacin for pregnant or breast-feeding women is 30 mg per day for women under 18 years of age, and 35 mg for women over 18.
Allergies: Niacinamide can make allergies more severe because they cause histamine, the chemical responsible for allergic symptoms, to be released.
Diabetes: Niacinamide might increase blood sugar. People with diabetes who take niacinamide should check their blood sugar carefully.
Gallbladder disease: Niacinamide might make gallbladder disease worse.
Gout: Large amounts of niacinamide might bring on gout.
Liver disease: Niacinamide might increase liver damage. Don't use it if you have liver disease.
Stomach or intestinal ulcers: Niacinamide might make ulcers worse. Don't use it if you have ulcers.
Surgery: Niacinamide might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking niacinamide at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Carbamazepine (Tegretol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) is broken down by the body. There is some concern that niacinamide might decrease how fast the body breaks down carbamazepine (Tegretol). But there is not enough information to know if this is important.
Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Niacinamide might harm the liver, especially when used in high doses. Taking niacinamide along with medication that might also harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage. Do not take niacinamide if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.
Some medications that can harm the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), amiodarone (Cordarone), carbamazepine (Tegretol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), methyldopa (Aldomet), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), erythromycin (Erythrocin, Ilosone, others), phenytoin (Dilantin), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Niacinamide might slow blood clotting. Taking niacinamide along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (Indocin), ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Primidone (Mysoline)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Primidone (Mysoline) is broken down by the body. There is some concern that niacinamide might decrease how fast the body breaks down primidone (Mysoline). But there is not enough information to know if this is important.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For acne: Tablets containing 750 mg of niacinamide, 25 mg of zinc, 1.5 mg of copper, and 500 mcg of folic acid (Nicomide) once or twice daily have been used. Also, 1-4 tablets containing niacinamide, azelaic acid, zinc, vitamin B6, copper, and folic acid (NicAzel, Elorac Inc., Vernon Hills, IL) have been taken daily.
- For vitamin B3 deficiency symptoms such as pellagra: 300-500 mg per day of niacinamide is given in divided doses.
- For diabetes: Niacinamide 1.2 grams/m2 (body surface area) or 25-50 mg/kg is used daily for slowing progression of type 1 diabetes. Also, 0.5 grams of niacinamide three times daily is used to slow the progression of type 2 diabetes.
- For high levels of phosphate in the blood (hyperphosphatemia): Niacinamide from 500 mg up to 1.75 grams daily in divided doses is used for 8-12 weeks.
- For cancer of the larynx: 60 mg/kg of niacinamide is given 1-1.5 hours before inhaling carbogen (2% carbon dioxide and 98% oxygen) before and during radiotherapy.
- For skin cancers other than melanoma: 500 mg of niacinamide once or twice daily for 4-12 months.
- For treating osteoarthritis: 3 grams of niacinamide per day in divided doses for 12 weeks.
- Acne: A gel containing 4% niacinamide twice daily.
- Acne: In children at least 12 years of age, 1-4 tablets containing niacinamide, azelaic acid, zinc, vitamin B6, copper, and folic acid (NicAzel, Elorac Inc., Vernon Hills, IL) are taken daily.
- For pellagra: 100-300 mg of niacinamide is given daily in divided doses.
- For type 1 diabetes: 1.2 grams/m2 (body surface area) or 25-50 mg/kg of niacinamide is used daily for slowing progression of or preventing type 1 diabetes.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Falsini, B., Piccardi, M., Iarossi, G., Fadda, A., Merendino, E., and Valentini, P. Influence of short-term antioxidant supplementation on macular function in age-related maculopathy: a pilot study including electrophysiologic assessment. Ophthalmology 2003;110(1):51-60. View abstract.
Amengual JE, Clark-Garvey S, Kalac M, Scotto L, Marchi E, Neylon E, Johannet P, Wei Y, Zain J, O'Connor OA. Sirtuin and pan-class I/II deacetylase (DAC) inhibition is synergistic in preclinical models and clinical studies of lymphoma. Blood. 2013 Sep 19;122(12):2104-13. View abstract.
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ASHP Therapeutic Position Statement on the safe use of niacin in the management of dyslipidemias. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1997;54:2815-9. View abstract.
Anon. Niacinamide Monograph. Alt Med Rev 2002;7:525-9. View abstract.
Bissett DL, Oblong JE, Berge CA. Niacinamide: A B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(7 Pt 2):860-5; discussion 865. View abstract.
Bourgeois BF, Dodson WE, Ferrendelli JA. Interactions between primidone, carbamazepine, and nicotinamide. Neurology 1982;32:1122-6. View abstract.
Brenner A. The effects of megadoses of selected B complex vitamins on children with hyperkinesis: controlled studies with long-term follow-up. J Learn Disabil 1982;15:258-64. View abstract.
Brooks-Hill RW, Bishop ME, Vellend H. Pellagra-like encephalopathy complicating a multiple drug regimen for the treatment of pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (letter). Am Rev Resp Dis 1985;131:476. View abstract.
Cabrera-Rode E, Molina G, Arranz C, Vera M, et al. Effect of standard nicotinamide in the prevention of type 1 diabetes in first degree relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes. Autoimmunity. 2006;39(4):333-40. View abstract.
Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE (UK). Hyperphosphataemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: Management of Hyperphosphataemia in Patients with Stage 4 or 5 Chronic Kidney Disease. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Clinical Guidelines. Manchester: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK); 2013 Mar.
Cheng SC, Young DO, Huang Y, Delmez JA, Coyne DW. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of niacinamide for reduction of phosphorus in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Jul;3(4):1131-8. View abstract.
Crouse JR III. New developments in the use of niacin for treatment of hyperlipidemia: new considerations in the use of an old drug. Coron Artery Dis 1996;7:321-6. View abstract.
Elliott RB, Pilcher CC, Fergusson DM, Stewart AW. A population based strategy to prevent insulin-dependent diabetes using nicotinamide. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1996;9:501-9. View abstract.
Elliott RB, Pilcher CC, Stewart A, Fergusson D, McGregor MA. The use of nicotinamide in the prevention of type 1 diabetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993;696:333-41. View abstract.
Eustace A, Irlam JJ, Taylor J, Denley H, Agrawal S, Choudhury A, Ryder D, Ord JJ, Harris AL, Rojas AM, Hoskin PJ, West CM. Necrosis predicts benefit from hypoxia-modifying therapy in patients with high risk bladder cancer enrolled in a phase III randomised trial. Radiother Oncol. 2013 Jul;108(1):40-7. View abstract .
Fabbrocini G, Cantelli M, Monfrecola G. Topical nicotinamide for seborrheic dermatitis: an open randomized study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014 Jun;25(3):241-5. View abstract.
Fatigante L, Ducci F, Cartei F, et al. Carbogen and nicotinamide combined with unconventional radiotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme: a new modality treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;37:499-504. View abstract.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309065542/html/.
Gale EA, Bingley PJ, Emmett CL, Collier T; European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT) Group. European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT): a randomised controlled trial of intervention before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Lancet. 2004;363(9413):925-31. View abstract.
Gale EA. Theory and practice of nicotinamide trials in pre-type 1 diabetes. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1996;9:375-9. View abstract.
Garg A, Grundy SM. Nicotinic acid as therapy for dyslipidemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1990;264:723-6. View abstract.
Greenbaum CJ, Kahn SE, Palmer JP. Nicotinamide's effects on glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for IDDM. Diabetes 1996;45:1631-4. View abstract.
Hakozaki T, Minwalla L, Zhuang J, et al. The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer. Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jul;147(1):20-31. View abstract .
Hardman JG, Limbird LL, Molinoff PB, eds. Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
Harvengt C, Desager JP. HDL-cholesterol increase in normolipaemic subjects on khellin: a pilot study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1983;3:363-6. View abstract.
Haslam RH, Dalby JT, Rademaker AW. Effects of megavitamin therapy on children with attention deficit disorders. Pediatrics 1984;74:103-11.. View abstract.
Hoskin PJ, Rojas AM, Bentzen SM, Saunders MI. Radiotherapy with concurrent carbogen and nicotinamide in bladder carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Nov 20;28(33):4912-8. View abstract.
Hoskin PJ, Rojas AM, Phillips H, Saunders MI. Acute and late morbidity in the treatment of advanced bladder carcinoma with accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen, and nicotinamide. Cancer. 2005;103(11):2287-97. View abstract.
Hoskin PJ, Stratford MR, Saunders MI, et al. Administration of nicotinamide during chart: pharmacokinetics, dose escalation, and clinical toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32:1111-9. View abstract.
Janssens GO, Rademakers SE, Terhaard CH, Doornaert PA, Bijl HP, van den Ende P, Chin A, Marres HA, de Bree R, van der Kogel AJ, Hoogsteen IJ, Bussink J, Span PN, Kaanders JH. Accelerated radiotherapy with carbogen and nicotinamide for laryngeal cancer: results of a phase III randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 May 20;30(15):1777-83. View abstract.
Janssens GO, Rademakers SE, Terhaard CH, Doornaert PA, Bijl HP, van den Ende P, Chin A, Takes RP, de Bree R, Hoogsteen IJ, Bussink J, Span PN, Kaanders JH. Improved recurrence-free survival with ARCON for anemic patients with laryngeal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Mar 1;20(5):1345-54. View abstract.
Jonas WB, Rapoza CP, Blair WF. The effect of niacinamide on osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Inflamm Res 1996;45:330-4. View abstract.
Jorgensen J. Pellagra probably due to pyrazinamide: development during combined chemotherapy of tuberculosis. Int J Dermatol 1983;22:44-5. View abstract.
Kamal M, Abbasy AJ, Muslemani AA, Bener A. Effect of nicotinamide on newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic children. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006;27(6):724-7. View abstract.
Khodaeiani E, Fouladi RF, Amirnia M, Saeidi M, Karimi ER. Topical 4% nicotinamide vs. 1% clindamycin in moderate inflammatory acne vulgaris. Int J Dermatol. 2013 Aug;52(8):999-1004. View abstract.
Kolb H, Burkart V. Nicotinamide in type 1 diabetes. Mechanism of action revisited. Diabetes Care 1999;22:B16-20. View abstract.
Lampeter EF, Klinghammer A, Scherbaum WA, et al. The Deutsche Nicotinamide Intervention Study: an attempt to prevent type 1 diabetes. DENIS Group. Diabetes 1998;47:980-4. View abstract.
Lee DH, Oh IY, Koo KT, Suk JM, Jung SW, Park JO, Kim BJ, Choi YM. Reduction in facial hyperpigmentation after treatment with a combination of topical niacinamide and tranexamic acid: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. Skin Res Technol. 2014 May;20(2):208-12. View abstract.
Martin AJ, Chen A, Choy B, et al. Oral nicotinamide to reduce actinic cancer: A phase 3 double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 33, 2015 (suppl; abstr 9000).
McCarty MF, Russell AL. Niacinamide therapy for osteoarthritis--does it inhibit nitric oxide synthase induction by interleukin 1 in chondrocytes? Med Hypotheses 1999;53:350-60. View abstract.
McKenney J. New perspectives on the use of niacin in the treatment of lipid disorders. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:697-705. View abstract.
Miralbell R, Mornex F, Greiner R, et al. Accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen, and nicotinamide in glioblastoma multiforme: report of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trial 22933. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:3143-9. View abstract.
Nijkamp MM, Span PN, Terhaard CH, Doornaert PA, Langendijk JA, van den Ende PL, de Jong M, van der Kogel AJ, Bussink J, Kaanders JH. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in laryngeal cancer predicts the effect of hypoxia modification as an additive to accelerated radiotherapy in a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Oct;49(15):3202-9. View abstract.
Niren NM, Torok HM. The Nicomide Improvement in Clinical Outcomes Study (NICOS): results of an 8-week trial. Cutis. 2006;77(1 Suppl):17-28. View abstract.
Olmos PR, Hodgson MI, Maiz A, et al. Nicotinamide protected first-phase insulin response (FPIR) and prevented clinical disease in first-degree relatives of type-1 diabetics. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006;71(3):320-33. View abstract.
Omidian M, Khazanee A, Yaghoobi R, Ghorbani AR, Pazyar N, Beladimousavi SS, Ghadimi M, Mohebbipour A, Feily A. Therapeutic effect of oral nicotinamide on refractory uremic pruritus: a randomized, double-blind study. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2013 Sep;24(5):995-9. View abstract.
Papa CM. Niacinamide and acanthosis nigricans (letter). Arch Dermatol 1984;120:1281. View abstract.
Polo V, Saibene A, Pontiroli AE. Nicotinamide improves insulin secretion and metabolic control in lean type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure to sulphonylureas. Acta Diabetol 1998;35:61-4. View abstract.
Powell ME, Hill SA, Saunders MI, Hoskin PJ, Chaplin DJ. Human tumor blood flow is enhanced by nicotinamide and carbogen breathing. Cancer Res. 1997;57(23):5261-4. View abstract.
Pozzilli P, Browne PD, Kolb H. Meta-analysis of nicotinamide treatment in patients with recent-onset IDDM. The Nicotinamide Trialists. Diabetes Care 1996;19:1357-63. View abstract.
Pozzilli P, Visalli N, Cavallo MG, et al. Vitamin E and nicotinamide have similar effects in maintaining residual beta cell function in recent onset insulin-dependent diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol 1997;137:234-9. View abstract.
Pozzilli P, Visalli N, Signore A, et al. Double blind trial of nicotinamide in recent-onset IDDM (the IMDIAB III study). Diabetologia 1995;38:848-52. View abstract.
Raising HDL and Niacin Use. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter 2004;20(5):200504.
Reimers JI, Andersen HU, Pociot F. [Nicotinamide and prevention of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Rationale, effects, toxicology and clinical experiences. ENDIT Group]. Ugeskr Laeger 1994;156:461-5. View abstract.
Rottembourg JB, Launay-Vacher V, Massard J. Thrombocytopenia induced by nicotinamide in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2005;68(6):2911-2. View abstract.
Shalita AR, Falcon R, Olansky A, Iannotta P, Akhavan A, Day D, Janiga A, Singri P, Kallal JE. Inflammatory acne management with a novel prescription dietary supplement. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(12):1428-33. View abstract.
Shalita AR, Smith JG, Parish LC, et al. Topical nicotinamide compared with clindamycin gel in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Int J Dermatol 1995;34:434-7. View abstract.
Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
Soma Y, Kashima M, Imaizumi A, et al. Moisturizing effects of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44(3):197-202. View abstract.
Surjana D, Halliday GM, Martin AJ, Moloney FJ, Damian DL. Oral nicotinamide reduces actinic keratoses in phase II double-blinded randomized controlled trials. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 May;132(5):1497-500. View abstract.
Swash M, Roberts AH. Reversible pellagra-like encephalopathy with ethionamide and cycloserine. Tubercle 1972;53:132. View abstract.
Takahashi Y, Tanaka A, Nakamura T, et al. Nicotinamide suppresses hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2004;65(3):1099-104. View abstract.
Visalli N, Cavallo MG, Signore A, et al. A multi-centre randomized trial of two different doses of nicotinamide in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (the IMDIAB VI). Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999;15:181-5. View abstract.
Visalli N, Cavallo MG, Signore A, et al. A multi-centre randomized trial of two different doses of nicotinamide in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (the IMDIAB VI). Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999;15:181-5. View abstract.
Winter SL, Boyer JL. Hepatic toxicity from large doses of vitamin B3 (nicotinamide). N Engl J Med 1973;289:1180-2. View abstract.