Osteomyelitis (Bone Infection)
John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone.
- Osteomyelitis can occur in any age group.
- Treatment of osteomyelitis can include antibiotics, splinting, or surgery.
- A delay in diagnosis or treatment of osteomyelitis can lead to permanent deficits.
What is osteomyelitis?
Osteomyelitis is infection in the bone. Osteomyelitis can occur in infants, children, and adults. Different types of bacteria typically affect the different age groups. In children, osteomyelitis most commonly occurs at the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs, affecting the hips, knees, shoulders, and wrists. In adults, it is more common in the bones of the spine (vertebrae), feet, or in the pelvis.
What causes osteomyelitis?
There are several different ways to develop the bone infection of osteomyelitis. The first is for bacteria to travel through the bloodstream (bacteremia) and spread to the bone, causing an infection. This most often occurs when the patient has an infection elsewhere in the body, such as pneumonia, an abscessed tooth, or a urinary tract infection that spreads through the blood to the bone.
An open wound over a bone can lead to osteomyelitis. This happens most commonly with underlying peripheral vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, or diabetes. With an open fracture (compound fracture), the bone that punctures through the skin is exposed to bacteria. This increases the risk of osteomyelitis.
A recent surgery or injection around a bone can also expose the bone to bacteria and lead to osteomyelitis.
Patients with conditions or taking medications that weaken their immune system are at a higher risk of developing osteomyelitis. Risk factors include cancer, chronic steroid use, sickle cell disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diabetes, hemodialysis, intravenous drug users, infants, and the elderly.
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