Ovarian Cancer (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
In this Article
- Ovarian cancer facts
- What is ovarian cancer?
- Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)
- Ovarian low malignant potential tumor (OLMPT; borderline tumor)
- Germ cell ovarian cancers
- Stromal ovarian cancers
- What are ovarian cancer statistics?
- What are ovarian cancer risk factors?
- What are ovarian cancer symptoms and signs?
- How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?
- How is ovarian cancer staging determined?
- What is the treatment for ovarian cancer?
- What is the survival rate and prognosis of ovarian cancer?
- Can ovarian cancer be prevented?
- How does one cope with ovarian cancer?
- Ovarian Cancer FAQs
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?
Often vague symptoms eventually lead to a clinical diagnosis, or one based on suspicion generated by exams, laboratory tests, and imaging. However, an accurate diagnosis requires some of the tumor to be removed, either by biopsy (less often), or preferably, surgery to verify the diagnosis. Often a high clinical suspicion can trigger a referral to a gynecologic oncologist.
Various types of imaging studies can be used to diagnose this disease and lead to tissue sampling. Ultrasound and CT scans are the most commonly done studies. These often can give images that show masses in the abdomen and pelvis, fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites), obstructions of the bowels or kidneys, or disease in the chest or liver. Many times this is all that is necessary to trigger a referral to a specialist, as the suspicion for ovarian cancer can be quite high. PET scans can be used, but often are not necessary if a CT scan is able to be performed.
Blood work can be helpful as well. The CA-125 is a blood test that is often, but not always, elevated with ovarian cancer. If a postmenopausal woman has a mass and an elevated CA-125, she has an extremely high risk of having a cancer. However, in younger women, CA-125 is extraordinarily inaccurate. It is elevated by a large number of disease processes, including but not limited to, diverticulitis, pregnancy, irritable bowel syndrome, appendicitis, liver disease, stomach disease, and more. No one should get this test done unless they actually have a mass, or their doctor has some reason to get it. It should not be drawn just to see the level since it is not a reliable screening test for ovarian cancer.
HE4 is another blood test that is used in the U.S. to monitor patients with ovarian cancer to see if their cancer has recurred. Like CA-125, the HE4 test does not always detect cancer.
OVA-1 is a test that is performed by a private company. This test uses a series of blood tests, and then incorporates the results into an equation that then gives the doctor a result about the likelihood that a mass is cancerous. A high value for the test has been shown in some studies to increase the probability that a cancer is present. This test aids a doctor in planning for surgery when a mass is found.
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