Paleness of the skin refers to an abnormal lightening of the skin or mucous membranes. Pale skin may be generalized (occurring all over the body) or localized to one area. It is often accompanied by paleness or pallor in the linings of the eyes, inside of the mouth, and on the surface of the tongue. True paleness of the skin is related to the thickness and density of blood vessels beneath the skin and not to the amount of melanin (skin pigment) that is present. However, some people may confuse loss of skin pigmentation (as with albinism) with paleness. In dark-skinned people, paleness may only be apparent when examining the mucous membranes. Pale skin generally results from a decrease in blood flow, as with fainting or shock. It may also result from a reduction in the number of red blood cells (anemia).
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
Causes of Pale Skin
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Congenital Heart Defects
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Frostbite (Frostnip and Other Cold Weather-Related Injuries)
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Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
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Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Readings, and Treatments
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Sickle Cell Disease (Sickle Cell Anemia)
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Other Causes of Pale Skin
- Aplastic Anemia
- Arterial Occlusion
- Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
- Chemical Poisoning
- Diamond-Blackfan Syndrome
- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
- Fair Complexion
- Fanconi Anemia
- Fear or Panic Reaction
- Folic Acid Deficiency
- Lack of Sun Exposure
- Low Environmental Temperature
- Medication Side Effects
- Respiratory Failure
- Severe Trauma
- Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
- Transient Erythroblastopenia of Childhood (TEC)
- Vitamin B12 Deficiency