Parenting a Child With ADHD (cont.)
John Mersch, MD, FAAP
Dr. Mersch received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, San Diego, and prior to entering the University Of Southern California School Of Medicine, was a graduate student (attaining PhD candidate status) in Experimental Pathology at USC. He attended internship and residency at Children's Hospital Los Angeles.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Childhood ADHD facts
- What are the signs and symptoms of childhood ADHD?
- What should parents do if they suspect their child has ADHD?
- What are the causes of childhood ADHD?
- What should parents of children with ADHD expect from their child?
- What type of medical specialist can help diagnose and treat a child with ADHD?
- What treatment options exist for a child with ADHD? How can parents help their child with ADHD?
- What are the risks of the use of stimulant medication and other treatments?
- What are other therapeutic approaches for children with ADHD?
- Is childhood ADHD on the rise?
- What is the outlook for a child with ADHD?
- What can parents of children with ADHD do to help themselves?
- Find a local Psychiatrist in your town
What are the causes of childhood ADHD?
The cause of ADHD has not been defined. One theory springs from observations regarding variations in functional brain-imaging studies of those with and without symptoms. However, these variations have been shown in studies of the structure of the brain of ADHD affected and unaffected individuals. Animal studies have demonstrated differences in the chemistry of brain transmitters involved with judgment, impulse control, alertness, planning, and mental flexibility. A genetic predisposition has been demonstrated in (identical) twin and sibling studies. If one identical twin is diagnosed with ADHD, there is a 92% probability of the same diagnosis in the twin sibling. When comparing nonidentical twin sibling subjects, the probability falls to 33%. The overall population incidence is 3%-10%.
Genes that control the relative levels of chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters seem to be different in ADHD, and levels of these neurotransmitters are out of normal balance.
- MRI and other imaging studies suggest that these imbalances occur in parts of the brain that control certain types of movement and executive function (see below).
- These areas of the brain may be smaller and/or less active in people with ADHD.
While most teens and adults with ADHD are no longer hyperactive in behavior, they commonly have a suboptimal executive function skill set. The six major tasks of executive function that are most commonly distorted with ADHD are the following:
- Shifting from one mindset or strategy to another (that is, flexibility)
- Organization (for example, anticipating both needs and problems)
- Planning (for example, goal setting)
- Working memory (that is, receiving, storing, then retrieving information within short-term memory)
- Separating emotions from reason
- Regulating speech and movements appropriately
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