Acide Pectinique, Acide Pectique, Apple Pectin, Citrus Pectin, Fruit Pectin, Grapefruit Pectin, Lemon Pectin, MCP, Modified Citrus Pectin, Pectina, Pectine, Pectine d'Agrume, Pectine d'Agrume Modifiée, Pectine de Citron, Pectine de Fruit, Pectine de Pamplemousse, Pectine de Pomme, Pectinic Acid.
Pectin is a fiber found in fruits. It is used to make medicine.
People use pectin for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, and to prevent colon cancer and prostate cancer. It is also used for diabetes and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Some people use pectin to prevent poisoning caused by lead, strontium, and other heavy metals.
Pectin was used for years in combination with kaolin (Kaopectate) to control diarrhea. However, in April 2003, the FDA found ruled that scientific evidence does not support the use of pectin for diarrhea. Since April 2004, pectin has not been permitted as an anti-diarrhea agent in over-the-counter (OTC) products. As a result, Kaopectate no longer contains pectin and kaolin.
Some people apply pectin to the skin to protect raw or ulcerated mouth and throat sores.
Pectin is used as a thickening agent in cooking and baking. In manufacturing, pectin is an ingredient in some denture adhesives.
How does it work?
Pectin binds substances in the intestine and adds bulk to the stools.
Possibly Effective for...
- High cholesterol. Taking pectin by mouth seems to lower cholesterol. Taking it along with guar gum and small amounts of insoluble fiber lowers total and “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, the combination doesn't seem to affect “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or triglycerides.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Diarrhea in young children. Pectin seems to shorten bouts of diarrhea and vomiting and lessen the need for replacement fluids in children aged 5-12 months from developing nations who experience ongoing diarrhea.
- Prostate cancer. Early research suggests that taking a specific modified citrus pectin product (Pectasol by Econugenics) after prostate surgery or radiation might lengthen the time to prostate cancer recurrence.
- Colon cancer.
- Mouth and throat sores.
- Damage from radiation.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
In most people, including adults, children, and women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, pectin is LIKELY SAFE when taken in food amounts and POSSIBLY SAFE when used in larger medicinal amounts.
When taken by mouth in combination with guar gum and insoluble fiber (the combination used to lower cholesterol and other blood fats), pectin can cause diarrhea, gas, and loose stools.
People who are exposed to pectin dust at work, such as in manufacturing, may develop asthma.
Antibiotics (Tetracycline antibiotics)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Pectin might decrease the amount of tetracycline antibiotics that can be taken in and used by the body. Taking pectin with tetracycline antibiotics might decrease the effectiveness of tetracyclines. To avoid this interaction, take pectin two hours before or four hours after taking tetracycline antibiotics.
Digoxin (Lanoxin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can decrease the amount of digoxin (Lanoxin) that the body takes in and uses. This can decrease the drug's effectiveness. Take pectin four hours before or one hour after digoxin (Lanoxin) to prevent this interaction.
Lovastatin (Mevacor)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can decrease the amount of lovastatin (Mevacor) that the body takes in and uses. This can decrease the drug's effectiveness. Take pectin at least one hour after lovastatin (Mevacor) to prevent this interaction.
Medications taken by mouth (Oral drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can stick to some medications in the stomach and intestines. Taking pectin at the same time as medications that you take by mouth might decrease how much medication your body absorbs. This can decrease how well these drugs work. Take pectin at least one hour after medications you take by mouth to prevent this interaction.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Bresalier, R. S., Yan, P. S., Byrd, J. C., Lotan, R., and Raz, A. Expression of the endogenous galactose- binding protein galectin-3 correlates with the malignant potential of tumors in the central nervous system. Cancer 8-15-1997;80(4):776-787.
Eastwood, M. and Kritchevsky, D. Dietary fiber: how did we get where we are? Annu Rev Nutr 2005;25:1-8. View abstract.
Eliaz, I. Modified Citrus Pectin. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine 2001;2(3)
Fox, R. Report: Modified Citrus Pectin. Life Extension Magazine 2004.
Hayashi, A., Gillen, A. C., and Lott, J. R. Effects of daily oral administration of quercetin chalcone and modified citrus pectin on implanted colon-25 tumor growth in Balb-c mice. Altern Med Rev 2000;5(6):546-552. View abstract.
Hsieh, T. C. and Wu, J. M. Changes in cell growth, cyclin/kinase, endogenous phosphoproteins and nm23 gene expression in human prostatic JCA-1 cells treated with modified citrus pectin. Biochem Mol.Biol Int 1995;37(5):833-841. View abstract.
Kidd, P. A new approach to metastatic cancer prevention: modified citrus pectin (MCP), a unique pectin that blocks cell surface lectins. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:4-10.
Marounek, M., Volek, Z., Synytsya, A., and Copikova, J. Effect of pectin and amidated pectin on cholesterol homeostasis and caecal metabolism in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Physiol Res 8-22-2006; View abstract.
Modified citrus pectin-monograph. Altern Med Rev 2000;5(6):573-575. View abstract.
Nangia-Makker, P., Hogan, V., Honjo, Y., Baccarini, S., Tait, L., Bresalier, R., and Raz, A. Inhibition of human cancer cell growth and metastasis in nude mice by oral intake of modified citrus pectin. J Natl.Cancer Inst 12-18-2002;94(24):1854-1862. View abstract.
Pienta, K. J., Naik, H., Akhtar, A., Yamazaki, K., Replogle, T. S., Lehr, J., Donat, T. L., Tait, L., Hogan, V., and Raz, A. Inhibition of spontaneous metastasis in a rat prostate cancer model by oral administration of modified citrus pectin. J Natl.Cancer Inst 3-1-1995;87(5):348-353. View abstract.
Raz, A. and Loton, R. Endogenous galactoside-binding lectins: a new class of functional cell surface molecules related to metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev 1987;6:433-452.
Strum, S., Scholz, M., McDermed, J., and et al. Modified citrus pectin slows PSA doubling time: A pilot clinical trial. Presentation: International Conference on Diet and Prevention of Cancer, . May 28, 1999 - June 2, 1999.
Terpstra, A. H., Lapre, J. A., de Vries, H. T., and Beynen, A. C. The hypocholesterolemic effect of lemon peels, lemon pectin, and the waste stream material of lemon peels in hybrid F1B hamsters. Eur J Nutr 2002;41(1):19-26. View abstract.
Vergara-Jimenez, M., Furr, H., and Fernandez, M. L. Pectin and psyllium decrease the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in guinea pigs. J Nutr Biochem 1999;10(2):118-124. View abstract.
Yarnell, E., Abascal, K., and Hooper.M. Clinical Botanical Medicine. Larchmont, NY: Mary Ann Liebert Inc.;2003.
Albert KS, Ayres JW, DiSanto AR, et al. Influence of kaolin-pectin suspension on digoxin bioavailability. J Pharm Sci 1978;67:1582-6. View abstract.
Albert KS, Welch RD, DeSante KA, et al. Decreased tetracycline bioavailability caused by a bismuth subsalicylate antidiarrheal mixture. J Pharm Sci 1979;68:586-8. View abstract.
Baldwin JL, et al. Pectin-induced occupational asthma. Chest 1993;104:1936-7.
Cerda JJ, Robbins FL, Burgin CW, et al. The effects of grapefruit pectin on patients at risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle. Clin Cardiol 1988;11:589-94. View abstract.
Cohen AJ, Forse MS, Tarlo SM. Occupational asthma caused by pectin inhalation during the manufacture of jam. Chest 1993;103:309-11. View abstract.
Davidson MH, Dugan LD, Stocki J, et al. A low-viscosity soluble-fiber fruit juice supplement fails to lower cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr 1998;128:1927-32. View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Eliaz I, Hotchkiss AT, Fishman ML, Rode D. The effect of modified citrus pectin on urinary excretion of toxic elements. Phytother Res 2006;20:859-64. View abstract.
Federal Register April 17,2003. Anti-Diarrheal Products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/03-9380.pdf (Accessed 27 December 2004).
Guess BW, Scholz MC, Strum SB, et al. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) increases the prostate-specific antigen doubling time in men with prostate cancer: a phase II pilot study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2003;6:301-4. View abstract.
Hillman LC, Peters SG, Fisher CA, et al. The effects of the fiber components pectin, cellulose and lignin on serum cholesterol levels. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:207-13. View abstract.
Jaakkola MS, et al. Asthma caused by occupational exposure to pectin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:575-6. View abstract.
Jackson CL, Dreaden TM, Theobald LK, et al. Pectin induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells: correlation of apoptotic function with pectin structure. Glycobiology 2007;17:805-19. View abstract.
Jenkins DJ, Wesson V, Wolever TM, et al. Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycaemic response. BMJ 1988;297:958-60. View abstract.
Knopp RH, Superko HR, Davidson M, et al. Long-term blood cholesterol-lowering effects of a dietary fiber supplement. Am J Prev Med 1999;17:18-23. View abstract.
Kraut A, et al. Christmas candy maker's asthma. IgG4-mediated pectin allergy. Chest 1992;102:1605-7. View abstract.
Rabbani GH, Teka T, Zaman B, et al. Clinical studies in persistent diarrhea: dietary management with green banana or pectin in Bangladeshi children. Gastroenterology 2001;121:554-60. View abstract.
Richter WO, Jacob BG, Schwandt P. Interaction between fibre and lovastatin. Lancet 1991;338:706.
Rock CL, Swendseid ME. Plasma beta-carotene response in humans after meals supplemented with dietary pectin. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:96-9. View abstract.
Veldman FJ, Nair CH, Vorster HH, et al. Dietary pectin influences fibrin network structure in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Thromb Res 1997;86:183-96. View abstract.
Waterhouse ET, Washington C, Washington N. An investigation into the efficacy of the pectin based anti-reflux formulation-Aflurax. Int J Pharm 2000;209:79-85.. View abstract.
Westphal W, et al. [Exogenous allergic asthma following pectin exposure-a new occupational allergen]. Pneumologie 1990;44(Suppl 1):337-8. View abstract.
Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.