- What other names is Phenylalanine known by?
- What is Phenylalanine?
- How does Phenylalanine work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Phenylalanine.
2-amino-3-phenyl-propanoic acid, Acide Alpha-aminohydrocinnamique, Acide Isovalérique de Phénylalanine, Alpha-aminohydrocinnamic Acid, Beta-phenyl-alanine, Bêta-phenyl-alanine, DLPA, D-Phenylalanine, D-Phénylalanine, DL-Phenylalanine, DL-Phénylalanine, D,L-Phenylalanine, D,L-Phénylalanine, Fenilalanina, L-Phenylalanine, L-Phénylalanine, Phenylalanine Ethyl Ester HCl, Phenylalanine Isovaleric Acid, Phenylalanine Methyl Ester HCl.
Phenylalanine is an amino acid, a "building block" of protein. There are three forms of phenylalanine: D-phenylalanine, L-phenylalanine, and the mix made in the laboratory called DL-phenylalanine. D-phenylalanine is not an essential amino acid, and its role in people is not currently understood. L-phenylalanine is an essential amino acid and is the only form of phenylalanine found in proteins. Major dietary sources of L-phenylalanine include meat, fish, eggs, cheese, and milk.
Phenylalanine is used for depression, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and a skin disease called vitiligo.
Some people apply it directly to the skin for vitiligo.
Possibly Effective for...
- A skin condition called vitiligo. Taking L-phenylalanine by mouth in combination with UVA exposure or applying L-phenylalanine to the skin in combination with UVA exposure seems to be effective for treating vitiligo in adults and in children.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some research suggests that patients with ADHD have lower levels of amino acids such as phenylalanine, so there was hope that providing phenylalanine might treat ADHD. However, taking phenylalanine by mouth does not seem to have any effect on ADHD symptoms.
- Pain. Taking D-phenylalanine by mouth does not need to reduce pain.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Acupuncture anesthesia. Early research suggests that taking D-phenylalanine by mouth might enhance acupuncture anesthesia while having a tooth pulled. However, it does not seem to improve acupuncture anesthesia for back pain.
- Alcoholism. Early research suggests that taking a combination of D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan for 40 days can improve some symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.
- Depression. Limited clinical research performed in the 1980s suggests L-phenylalanine or DL-phenylalanine might be useful for depression. However, this research needs to be confirmed. Taking D-phenylalanine does not appear to improve symptoms of depression.
- Multiple sclerosis. Early research suggests that using Cari Loder's regiment, which includes L-phenylalanine, lofepramine, and intramuscular vitamin B12 for 24 weeks, does not improve disability in people with multiple sclerosis.
- Parkinson's disease. Limited research suggests taking one form of phenylalanine (D-phenylalanine) might decrease symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, taking another form (DL-phenylalanine) does not seem to work.
- Phenylalanine deficiency. Early research suggests that taking phenylalanine by mouth might improve phenylalanine deficiency in children with tyrosinemia.
- Other conditions.
The body uses phenylalanine to make chemical messengers, but it is not clear how phenylalanine might work.
L-phenylalanine is LIKELY SAFE for most people when consumed in amounts commonly found in foods.
Phenylalanine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as medicine.
There is not enough reliable information available about the safety of D-phenylalanine.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Phenylalanine is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts commonly found in foods by pregnant women who have normal phenylalanine levels. However, having too much phenylalanine in the mother's system during pregnancy can increase the chances of birth defects. The risk for facial defects is highest at weeks 10-14, nervous system and growth defects between 3-16 weeks, and heart defects at 3-8 weeks. For women who process phenylalanine normally and have normal levels, it is probably fine to get the amount of phenylalanine found in food, but not in higher doses. Do not take supplements. For women who have high levels of phenylalanine, even normal food amounts are UNSAFE. Additionally, experts recommend a low phenylalanine diet for at least 20 weeks before getting pregnant. This should reduce the risk of birth defects.
Phenylalanine is LIKELY SAFE for breast-feeding mothers whose bodies' process phenylalanine normally to consume the amount of phenylalanine found in food. However, do not take more. Not enough is known about the safety of taking phenylalanine in medicinal amounts during breast-feeding.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) and other conditions that cause high levels of phenylalanine: Phenylalanine should be avoided in people with certain inherited disorders that cause their bodies to build up too much phenylalanine. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of these diseases. People with this disorder can develop mental retardation, high blood pressure, stroke, and many other serious health issues if they consume phenylalanine. PKU is so serious that babies are screened at birth to determine whether they have the disorder and will need a special diet to avoid these problems.
LevodopaInteraction Rating: Major Do not take this combination.
Levodopa is used for Parkinson's disease. Taking phenylalanine along with levodopa can make Parkinson's disease worse. Do not take phenylalanine if you are taking levodopa.
BaclofenInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Phenylalanine might decrease how much baclofen the body absorbs. Be cautious when taking this combination.
Medications for depression (MAOIs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Phenylalanine can increase a chemical in the body called tyramine. Large amounts of tyramine can cause high blood pressure. But the body naturally breaks down tyramine to get rid of it. This usually prevents the tyramine from causing high blood pressure. Some medications used for depression stop the body from breaking down tyramine. This can cause there to be too much tyramine and lead to dangerously high blood pressure.
Medications for mental conditions (Antipsychotic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications for mental conditions might cause jerky muscle movements. Taking phenylalanine along with some medications for mental conditions might increase the risk of jerky muscle movements.
Some medications for mental conditions include chlorpromazine (Thorazine), clozapine (Clozaril), fluphenazine (Prolixin), haloperidol (Haldol), olanzapine (Zyprexa), perphenazine (Trilafon), prochlorperazine (Compazine), quetiapine (Seroquel), risperidone (Risperdal), thioridazine (Mellaril), thiothixene (Navane), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For a skin disease that produces white unpigmented patches (vitiligo): in adults, 50-100 mg/kg of L-phenylalanine is typically used per day along with exposure to sunlight.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Beckmann, H. and Ludolph, E. [DL-phenylalanine as an antidepressant. Open study (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1978;28(8):1283-1284. View abstract.
Beckmann, H., Strauss, M. A., and Ludolph, E. Dl-phenylalanine in depressed patients: an open study. J.Neural Transm. 1977;41(2-3):123-134. View abstract.
Beelen, M., Tieland, M., Gijsen, A. P., Vandereyt, H., Kies, A. K., Kuipers, H., Saris, W. H., Koopman, R., and van Loon, L. J. Coingestion of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate stimulates muscle protein synthesis during exercise in young men, with no further increase during subsequent overnight recovery. J Nutr 2008;138(11):2198-2204. View abstract.
Berger, M. M., Binnert, C., Chiolero, R. L., Taylor, W., Raffoul, W., Cayeux, M. C., Benathan, M., Shenkin, A., and Tappy, L. Trace element supplementation after major burns increases burned skin trace element concentrations and modulates local protein metabolism but not whole-body substrate metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85(5):1301-1306. View abstract.
Boirie, Y., Albright, R., Bigelow, M., and Nair, K. S. Impairment of phenylalanine conversion to tyrosine in end-stage renal disease causing tyrosine deficiency. Kidney Int 2004;66(2):591-596. View abstract.
Burd, N. A., Yang, Y., Moore, D. R., Tang, J. E., Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Phillips, S. M. Greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with ingestion of whey protein isolate v. micellar casein at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Br.J Nutr 9-28-2012;108(6):958-962. View abstract.
Camacho, F. and Mazuecos, J. Oral and topical L-phenylalanine, clobetasol propionate, and UVA/sunlight--a new study for the treatment of vitiligo. J Drugs Dermatol 2002;1(2):127-131. View abstract.
Camacho, F. and Mazuecos, J. Treatment of vitiligo with oral and topical phenylalanine: 6 years of experience. Arch Dermatol 1999;135(2):216-217. View abstract.
Cotzias, G. C., Van Woert, M. H., and Schiffer, L. M. Aromatic amino acids and modification of parkinsonism. N Engl.J Med 2-16-1967;276(7):374-379. View abstract.
Darling, P. B., Dunn, M., Gilani, G. S., Ball, R. O., and Pencharz, P. B. Phenylalanine kinetics differ between formula-fed and human milk-fed preterm infants. J Nutr 2004;134(10):2540-2545. View abstract.
Deutz, N. E., Safar, A., Schutzler, S., Memelink, R., Ferrando, A., Spencer, H., van, Helvoort A., and Wolfe, R. R. Muscle protein synthesis in cancer patients can be stimulated with a specially formulated medical food. Clin Nutr 2011;30(6):759-768. View abstract.
Durham, W. J., Miller, S. L., Yeckel, C. W., Chinkes, D. L., Tipton, K. D., Rasmussen, B. B., and Wolfe, R. R. Leg glucose and protein metabolism during an acute bout of resistance exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 2004;97(4):1379-1386. View abstract.
Feillet, F. and Agostoni, C. Nutritional issues in treating phenylketonuria. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 2010;33(6):659-664. View abstract.
Festi, D., Capodicasa, S., Sandri, L., Colaiocco-Ferrante, L., Staniscia, T., Vitacolonna, E., Vestito, A., Simoni, P., Mazzella, G., Portincasa, P., Roda, E., and Colecchia, A. Measurement of hepatic functional mass by means of 13C-methacetin and 13C-phenylalanine breath tests in chronic liver disease: comparison with Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels. World J Gastroenterol 1-7-2005;11(1):142-148. View abstract.
Fischer, E., Heller, B., Nachon, M., and Spatz, H. Therapy of depression by phenylalanine. Preliminary note. Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(1):132. View abstract.
Hjiej, H., Doyen, C., Couprie, C., Kaye, K., and Contejean, Y. [Substitutive and dietetic approaches in childhood autistic disorder: interests and limits]. Encephale 2008;34(5):496-503. View abstract.
Hoskin, R. Dietary Treatment of the Untreated Adult PKU. United Kingdom: The National Society for Phenylketonuria;2009.
Huang, L., Hogewind-Schoonenboom, J. E., van Dongen, M. J., de, Groof F., Voortman, G. J., Schierbeek, H., Twisk, J. W., Vermes, A., Chen, C., Huang, Y., and van Goudoever, J. B. Methionine requirement of the enterally fed term infant in the first month of life in the presence of cysteine. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95(5):1048-1054. View abstract.
Katsanos, C. S., Chinkes, D. L., Paddon-Jones, D., Zhang, X. J., Aarsland, A., and Wolfe, R. R. Whey protein ingestion in elderly persons results in greater muscle protein accrual than ingestion of its constituent essential amino acid content. Nutr Res 2008;28(10):651-658. View abstract.
Koch, R., Hanley, W., Levy, H., Matalon, K., Matalon, R., Rouse, B., Trefz, F., Guttler, F., Azen, C., Platt, L., Waisbren, S., Widaman, K., Ning, J., Friedman, E. G., and de la, Cruz F. The Maternal Phenylketonuria International Study: 1984-2002. Pediatrics 2003;112(6 Pt 2):1523-1529. View abstract.
Koopman, R., Verdijk, L. B., Beelen, M., Gorselink, M., Kruseman, A. N., Wagenmakers, A. J., Kuipers, H., and van Loon, L. J. Co-ingestion of leucine with protein does not further augment post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates in elderly men. Br.J Nutr 2008;99(3):571-580. View abstract.
Kravitz, H. M., Sabelli, H. C., and Fawcett, J. Dietary supplements of phenylalanine and other amino acid precursors of brain neuroamines in the treatment of depressive disorders. J Am Osteopath.Assoc 1984;84(1 Suppl):119-123. View abstract.
Levy, H. L., Waisbren, S. E., Guttler, F., Hanley, W. B., Matalon, R., Rouse, B., Trefz, F. K., de la, Cruz F., Azen, C. G., and Koch, R. Pregnancy experiences in the woman with mild hyperphenylalaninemia. Pediatrics 2003;112(6 Pt 2):1548-1552. View abstract.
MacDonald, A., Evans, S., Cochrane, B., and Wildgoose, J. Weaning infants with phenylketonuria: a review. J Hum.Nutr Diet. 2012;25(2):103-110. View abstract.
Manders, R. J., Koopman, R., Beelen, M., Gijsen, A. P., Wodzig, W. K., Saris, W. H., and van Loon, L. J. The muscle protein synthetic response to carbohydrate and protein ingestion is not impaired in men with longstanding type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2008;138(6):1079-1085. View abstract.
Mann, J., Peselow, E. D., Snyderman, S., and Gershon, S. D-phenylalanine in endogenous depression. Am.J.Psychiatry 1980;137(12):1611-1612. View abstract.
Moats, R. A., Moseley, K. D., Koch, R., and Nelson, M., Jr. Brain phenylalanine concentrations in phenylketonuria: research and treatment of adults. Pediatrics 2003;112(6 Pt 2):1575-1579. View abstract.
Okano, Y., Hase, Y., Kawajiri, M., Nishi, Y., Inui, K., Sakai, N., Tanaka, Y., Takatori, K., Kajiwara, M., and Yamano, T. In vivo studies of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine breath test: diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin-responsive phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Pediatr Res 2004;56(5):714-719. View abstract.
Pasiakos, S. M., McClung, H. L., McClung, J. P., Margolis, L. M., Andersen, N. E., Cloutier, G. J., Pikosky, M. A., Rood, J. C., Fielding, R. A., and Young, A. J. Leucine-enriched essential amino acid supplementation during moderate steady state exercise enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94(3):809-818. View abstract.
Puntis, J. W., Ball, P. A., Preece, M. A., Green, A., Brown, G. A., and Booth, I. W. Egg and breast milk based nitrogen sources compared. Arch Dis Child 1989;64(10):1472-1477. View abstract.
Rocha, J. C. and Martel, F. Large neutral amino acids supplementation in phenylketonuric patients. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 2009;32(4):472-480. View abstract.
Rucklidge, J. J., Johnstone, J., and Kaplan, B. J. Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD. Expert.Rev.Neurother. 2009;9(4):461-476. View abstract.
Sabelli, H. C., Fawcett, J., Gusovsky, F., Javaid, J. I., Wynn, P., Edwards, J., Jeffriess, H., and Kravitz, H. Clinical studies on the phenylethylamine hypothesis of affective disorder: urine and blood phenylacetic acid and phenylalanine dietary supplements. J Clin Psychiatry 1986;47(2):66-70. View abstract.
Schallreuter, K. U., Wood, J. M., Pittelkow, M. R., Gutlich, M., Lemke, K. R., Rodl, W., Swanson, N. N., Hitzemann, K., and Ziegler, I. Regulation of melanin biosynthesis in the human epidermis by tetrahydrobiopterin. Science 3-11-1994;263(5152):1444-1446. View abstract.
Tang, J. E., Lysecki, P. J., Manolakos, J. J., MacDonald, M. J., Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Phillips, S. M. Bolus arginine supplementation affects neither muscle blood flow nor muscle protein synthesis in young men at rest or after resistance exercise. J Nutr 2011;141(2):195-200. View abstract.
ten Hoedt, A. E., de Sonneville, L. M., Francois, B., ter Horst, N. M., Janssen, M. C., Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E., Wijburg, F. A., Hollak, C. E., and Bosch, A. M. High phenylalanine levels directly affect mood and sustained attention in adults with phenylketonuria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 2011;34(1):165-171. View abstract.
Thompson, P., Balis, F., Serabe, B. M., Berg, S., Adamson, P., Klenke, R., Aiken, A., Packer, R., Murry, D. J., Jakacki, R., and Blaney, S. M. Pharmacokinetics of phenylacetate administered as a 30-min infusion in children with refractory cancer. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol 2003;52(5):417-423. View abstract.
van Spronsen, F. J., de Groot, M. J., Hoeksma, M., Reijngoud, D. J., and van, Rijn M. Large neutral amino acids in the treatment of PKU: from theory to practice. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 2010;33(6):671-676. View abstract.
Wade, D. T., Young, C. A., Chaudhuri, K. R., and Davidson, D. L. A randomised placebo controlled exploratory study of vitamin B-12, lofepramine, and L-phenylalanine (the "Cari Loder regime") in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 2002;73(3):246-249. View abstract.
Webster, D. and Wildgoose, J. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(8):CD001507. View abstract.
Widaman, K. F. and Azen, C. Relation of prenatal phenylalanine exposure to infant and childhood cognitive outcomes: results from the International Maternal PKU Collaborative Study. Pediatrics 2003;112(6 Pt 2):1537-1543. View abstract.
Zhao, G., P6u H, and Fan, M. [Improvement of the pre-hypertensive inherited cardiac dearangements with phenylalanine in essential hypertension]. Zhonghua Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1997;77(1):58-61. View abstract.
Antoniou C, Schulpis H, Michas T, et al. Vitiligo therapy with oral and topical phenylalanine with UVA exposure. Int J Dermatol 1989;28:545-7. View abstract.
Baker GB, Bornstein RA, Rouget AC, et al. Phenylethylaminergic mechanisms in attention-deficit disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1991;29:15-22.. View abstract.
Baruzzi A, Contin M, Riva R, et al. Influence of meal ingestion time on pharmacokinetics of orally administered levodopa in parkinsonian patients. Clin Neuropharmacol 1987;10:527-37. View abstract.
Beckmann H, Athen D, Olteanu M, Zimmer R. DL-phenylalanine versus imipramine: a double-blind controlled study. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 1979;227:49-58. View abstract.
Birkmayer W, Riederer P, Linauer W, Knoll J. L-deprenyl plus L-phenylalanine in the treatment of depression. J Neural Transm 1984;59:81-7. View abstract.
Bornstein RA, Baker GB, Carroll A, et al. Plasma amino acids in attention deficit disorder. Psychiatry Res 1990;33:301-6.. View abstract.
Cederbaum S. Phenylketonuria: an update. Curr Opin Pediatr 2002;14:702-6. View abstract.
Cejudo-Ferragud, E., Nacher, A., Polache, A., Cercos-Fortea, T., Merino, M., and Casabo, V. G. Evidence of competitive inhibition for the intestinal absorption of baclofen by phenylalanine. Int J of Pharm (Amsterdam) 1996;132:63-69.
Cormane RH, Siddiqui AH, Westerhof W, Schutgens RB. Phenylalanine and UVA light for the treatment of vitiligo. Arch Dermatol Res 1985;277:126-30. View abstract.
Cotzias GC, Van Woert MH, Schiffer LM. Aromatic amino acids and modification of parkinsonism. N Engl J Med 1967;276:374-9.
Eriksson T, Granerus AK, Linde A, et al. "On-off" phenomenon in Parkinson's disease: relationship between dopa and other large neutral amino acids in plasma. Neurology 1988;38:1245-8. View abstract.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309085373/html/.
Gardos G, Cole JO, Matthews JD, et al. The acute effects of a loading dose of phenylalanine in unipolar depressed patients with and without tardive dyskinesia. Neuropsychopharmacology 1992;6:241-7. View abstract.
Heller B, Fischer BE, Martin R. Therapeutic action of D-phenylalanine in Parkinson's disease. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26:577-9. View abstract.
Jardim LB, Palma-Dias R, Silva LC, et al. Maternal hyperphenylalaninaemia as a cause of microcephaly and mental retardation. Acta Paediatr 1996;85:943-6. View abstract.
Jukic T, Rojc B, Boben-Bardutzky D, Hafner M, Ihan A. The use of a food supplementation with D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytriptophan in the alleviation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Coll Antropol 2011;35:1225-30. View abstract.
Juncos JL, Fabbrini G, Mouradian MM, et al. Dietary influences on the antiparkinsonian response to levodopa. Arch Neurol 1987;44:1003-5. View abstract.
Kasa RM. Vitamin C: from scurvy to the common cold. Am J Med Technol 1983;49:23-6. View abstract.
Kitade T, Odahara Y, Shinohara S, et al. Studies on the enhanced effect of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture anesthesia by D-phenylalanine (2nd report)- schedule of administration and clinical effects in low back pain and tooth extraction. Acupunct Electrother Res 1990;15:121-35. View abstract.
Kuiters GR, et al. Oral phenylalanine loading and sunlight as source of UVA irradiation in vitiligo on the Caribbean island of Curacao NA. J Trop Med Hyg 1986;89:149-55. View abstract.
Lehmann WD, Theobald N, Fischer R, Heinrich HC. Stereospecificity of phenylalanine plasma kinetics and hydroxylation in man following oral application of a stable isotope-labelled pseudo-racemic mixture of L- and D-phenylalanine. Clin Chim Acta 1983;128:181-98. View abstract.
Mitchell MJ, Daines GE, Thomas BL. Effect of L-tryptophan and phenylalanine on burning pain threshold. Phys Ther 1987;67:203-5. View abstract.
Mosnik DM, Spring B, Rogers K, Baruah S. Tardive dyskinesia exacerbated after ingestion of phenylalanine by schizophrenic patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 1997;16:136-46. View abstract.
National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Phenylketonuria: Screening and Management https://consensus.nih.gov/2000/2000phenylketonuria113html.htm (Accessed 30 October 2015).
NIH Consensus Statement. Phenylketonuria: Screening and Management. October 16-18, 2000. Pediatrics 2001;108:972-82. View abstract.
Nutt JG, Woodward WR, Hammerstad JP, et al. The "on-off" phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Relation to levodopa absorption and transport. N Engl J Med 1984;310:483-8. View abstract.
PKU - Dietary Treatment of the Untreated Adult PKU. National Society for Phenylketonuria (NSPKU). 1996-2001. Available at: web.ukonline.co.uk/nspku/untreatd.htm
Rouse B, Azen C, Koch R, et al. Maternal phenylketonuria collaborative Study (MPKUCS) offspring: facial anomalies, malformations, and early neurological sequelae. Am J Med Genet 1997;69:89-95. View abstract.
Schulpis CH, Antoniou C, Michas T, Strarigos J. Phenylalanine plus ultraviolet light: preliminary report of a promising treatment for childhood vitiligo. Pediatr Dermatol 1989;6:332-5. View abstract.
Siddiqui AH, Stolk LM, Bhaggoe R, et al. L-phenylalanine and UVA irradiation in the treatment of vitiligo. Dermatology 1994;88:215-8. View abstract.
Silkaitis RP, Mosnaim AD. Pathways linking L-phenylalanine and 2-phenylethylamine with p-tyramine in rabbit brain. Brain Res 1976;114:105-15. View abstract.
Sturtevant FM. Use of aspartame in pregnancy. Int J Fertil 1985;30:85-7. View abstract.
Thiele B, Steigleder GK. [Repigmentation treatment of vitiligo with L-phenylalanine and UVA irradiation]. Z Hautkr 1987;62:519-23. View abstract.
Vilter RW. Nutritional aspects of ascorbic acid: uses and abuses. West J Med 1980;133:485-92. View abstract.
Walsh NE, Ramamurthy S, Schoenfeld L, Hoffman J. Analgesic effectiveness of D-phenylalanine in chronic pain patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986;67:436-9. View abstract.
Wilson CJ, Van Wyk KG, Leonard JV, Clayton PT. Phenylalanine supplementation improves the phenylalanine profile in tyrosinaemia. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2000;23:677-83. View abstract.
Wood DR, Reimherr FW, Wender PH. Treatment of attention deficit disorder with DL-phenylalanine. Psychiatry Res 1985;16:21-6.. View abstract.
Zametkin AJ, Karoum F, Rapoport JL. Treatment of hyperactive children with D-phenylalanine. Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:792-4.. View abstract.
Zhao G. [Inherited metabolic aberration of phenylalanine in the family members of patients with essential hypertension and stroke]. Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 1991;71:28, 388-90. View abstract.