Other Name(s):

American Mandrake, Citron Sauvage, Citronnier, Devil's Apple, Duck's Foot, Ground Lemon, Himalayan Mayapple, Hog Apple, Indian Apple, Indian Podophyllum, Ipécacuanha de la Caroline, Mandrake, Mayapple, Pa Giao Lian, Pied de Canard, Podófilo, Podophyllin, Podophyll Pelati Rhizoma/Resina, Podophylle, Podophylle en Bouclier, Podophylle à Feuilles Peltées, Podophylle Indien, Podophylle Pelté, Podophyllum emodi, Podophyllum hexandrum, Podophyllum peltatum, Pomme de Mai, Raccoon Berry, Sinopodophyllum emodi, Umbrella Plant, Vegetable Calomel, Vegetable Mercury, Wild Lemon, Wild Mandrake.


Podophyllum is a plant. The root and underground stem (rhizome) are used to make medicine.

Podophyllum is highly poisonous when taken by mouth. Nevertheless, some people take it orally for yellowed skin (jaundice), liver ailments, fever, syphilis, hearing loss, and cancer. Podophyllum is also used to empty the bowels, kill parasitic worms in the intestine, and counteract snakebite. Some women take it to cause an abortion.

Podophyllum has been used as a laxative. (It was an ingredient in Carter's Little Liver Pills.) But it has been removed from the market due to safety concerns.

Podophyllum is applied directly to the skin for removal of warts, including plantar warts and sexually transmitted (venereal) warts. It is also used topically for treating pre-cancerous white patches on the tongue and mouth (oral hairy leukoplakia).

Intravaginally, podophyllum is used to treat gynecologic infections.

How does it work?

Podophyllum can stop cell duplication and new growth. It can also have laxative effects.


12 Preventable STDs: Pictures, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment See Slideshow

Uses & Effectiveness

Likely Effective for...

  • Genital warts. Applying podophyllum resin, also called podophyllin, as a 10% to 25% suspension in tincture of benzoin or as a 2% to 4% gel directly to the affected area is effective for the removal of warts caused by human papillomavirus. However, podophyllotoxin (podofilox, Condylox), a chemical found in podophyllum and an FDA-approved drug, is usually used instead because it is less toxic and might be more effective. But some research suggests that using a 20% podophyllum resin is equally effective as 8% solutions of podophyllotoxin or colchicine for removing penile warts.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Corns. Early research suggests that applying a specific product (Canthacur PS) containing cantharidin, salicylic acid, and 5% podophyllum resin to the affected area after corn removal can clear corns without causing scarring.
  • White patches growing on the tongue (hairy leukoplakia). Early research suggests that a single application of 25% podophyllum resin in tincture of benzoin to the affected area can help heal wounds caused by hairy leukoplakia. Other research shows that adding acyclovir cream to 25% podophyllum resin is more effective than the 25% podophyllum resin alone for treating oral leukoplakia.
  • Liver problems.
  • Cancer.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of podophyllum for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

When applied by medical professionals in low concentration to unbroken skin, podophyllum is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people. It should be washed off within 4 to 6 hours. Podophyllum should not be used in higher concentrations or over large areas of the body. It is absorbed through the skin and can cause the same serious harmful effects as taking podophyllum by mouth. Podophyllotoxin, a chemical found in podophyllum, is safer and has largely replaced podophyllum as a treatment.

Podophyllum is LIKELY UNSAFE when taken by mouth or applied to the skin in higher concentrations over large areas of the body. It is poisonous. It may cause nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, spasms, fever, visual changes and hallucinations, low blood pressure, bone marrow problems, paralysis, coma, liver problems, and kidney problems. It can take up to 13 hours for symptoms of poisoning to appear. Some deaths after taking podophyllum by mouth or applying it to the skin in large amounts have been reported. Podophyllum poisoning has been successfully treated in some cases by using activated charcoal.


Condoms are the best protection from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). See Answer

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding:It is LIKELY UNSAFE to take podophyllum by mouth or apply it to your skin if you are pregnant. There have been reports of death and multiple birth defects in babies whose mothers used podophyllum during pregnancy.

It is also LIKELY UNSAFE to use podophyllum if you are breast-feeding. The poisons in podophyllum can endanger you and your nursing baby.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • Podophyllum should not be used for self-treatment. Covering too much skin with podophyllum or applying it to broken skin increases the chance of getting poisoned. It's safer to use podophyllotoxin (one of the chemicals in podophyllum).
  • For genital warts caused by human papilloma virus (HPV): A 0.5% podophyllotoxin gel is applied twice daily for three days in a row and repeated for two to four cycles. Podophyllotoxin is a chemical taken from podophyllum. Podophyllotoxin (podofilox, Condylox) is an FDA-approved drug. Podophyllotoxin might be more effective than podophyllum and is less toxic.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Agrawala, P. K., Mittal, A., Bala, M., and Goel, H. C. Mitochondrial involvement in RP-1 mediated apoptosis in U 87 cells. Biomed.Pharmacother. 2004;58(2):129-135. View abstract.

Akdemir, O., Bilkay, U., Tiftikcioglu, Y. O., Ozek, C., Yan, H., Zhang, F., and Akin, Y. New alternative in treatment of callus. J Dermatol 2011;38(2):146-150. View abstract.

Bakardzhiev, I. and Kovachev, E. [Comparative assessment of the methods of treatment of Condylomata acuminata]. Akush.Ginekol.(Sofiia) 2011;50(4):45-51. View abstract.

Batista, C. S., Atallah, A. N., Saconato, H., and da Silva, E. M. 5-FU for genital warts in non-immunocompromised individuals. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(4):CD006562. View abstract.

Bedows, E. and Hatfield, G. M. An investigation of the antiviral activity of Podophyllum peltatum. J Nat Prod 1982;45(6):725-729. View abstract.

Botachini, D. D. G., Valente, M. N., Lascasa, R. C., Batista, K. J., and Rodrigues, D. L. G. Therapeutic of cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection. Randomized study with four drugs [Tratamento da infecção por papilomavirus humano (HPV). Estudo aleatorizado com quatro fármacos]. J Bras Ginecol 1993;103(6):205-210.

But, P. P. Herbal poisoning caused by adulterants or erroneous substitutes. J Trop.Med Hyg. 1994;97(6):371-374. View abstract.

Chamberlain, M. J., Reynolds, A. L., and Yeoman, W. B. Medical memoranda. Toxic effect of podophyllum application in pregnancy. Br.Med.J. 8-12-1972;3(823):391-392. View abstract.

Chang, L. W., Yang, C. M., Chen, C. F., and Deng, J. F. Experimental podophyllotoxin (bajiaolian) poisoning: I. Effects on the nervous system. Biomed.Environ.Sci 1992;5(4):283-292. View abstract.

Chang, L. W., Yang, C. M., Chen, C. F., and Deng, J. F. Experimental podophyllotoxin (bajiaolian) poisoning: II. Effects on the liver, intestine, kidney, pancreas and testis. Biomed.Environ.Sci 1992;5(4):293-302. View abstract.

Chattopadhyay, S., Bisaria, V. S., Panda, A. K., and Srivastava, A. K. Cytotoxicity of in vitro produced podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum hexandrum on human cancer cell line. Nat.Prod.Res. 2004;18(1):51-57. View abstract.

Chen, M. C., Pan, S. L., Shi, Q., Xiao, Z., Lee, K. H., Li, T. K., and Teng, C. M. QS-ZYX-1-61 induces apoptosis through topoisomerase II in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. Cancer Sci 2012;103(1):80-87. View abstract.

Chengniu, W., Zhonghua, W., Yu, Z., Chunyan, N., Xiaodong, Z., and Li, Z. Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of novel podophyllotoxin derivatives. Arch.Pharm (Weinheim) 2011;344(11):735-740. View abstract.

Chernysheva, N. B., Tsyganov, D. V., Philchenkov, A. A., Zavelevich, M. P., Kiselyov, A. S., Semenov, R. V., Semenova, M. N., and Semenov, V. V. Synthesis and comparative evaluation of 4-oxa- and 4-aza-podophyllotoxins as antiproliferative microtubule destabilizing agents. Bioorg.Med.Chem Lett. 4-1-2012;22(7):2590-2593. View abstract.

Chou, S. L., Chou, M. Y., Kao, W. F., Yen, D. H., Huang, C. I., and Lee, C. H. Cessation of nail growth following Bajiaolian intoxication. Clin Toxicol.(Phila) 2008;46(2):159-163. View abstract.

CostaPinto, L., Grassi, M. F., Serravalle, K., Travessa, A. C., Olavarria, V. N., and Santiago, M. B. Giant disseminated condylomatosis in SLE. Lupus 2012;21(3):332-334. View abstract.

Coward, J. I., Ding, N. L., Feakins, R., Kocher, H., Popat, S., and Szlosarek, P. W. Chemotherapy-induced bowel obstruction in small cell lung cancer: a case report. Med.Oncol. 2012;29(4):2623-2625. View abstract.

Dedo, H. H. and Jackler, R. K. Laryngeal papilloma: results of treatment with the CO2 laser and podophyllum. Ann.Otol.Rhinol.Laryngol. 1982;91(4 Pt 1):425-430. View abstract.

Dorsey, K. E., Gallagher, R. L., Davis, R., and Rodman, O. G. Histopathologic changes in condylomata acuminata after application of podophyllum. J.Natl.Med.Assoc. 1987;79(12):1285-1288. View abstract.

Economou, M. A., Andersson, S., Vasilcanu, D., All-Ericsson, C., Menu, E., Girnita, A., Girnita, L., Axelson, M., Seregard, S., and Larsson, O. Oral picropodophyllin (PPP) is well tolerated in vivo and inhibits IGF-1R expression and growth of uveal melanoma. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86 Thesis 4:35-41. View abstract.

Fait, T., Dvorak, V., Skrivanek, A., Rokyta, Z., and Pilka, R. [Epidemiology of genital warts in female population of Czech Republic]. Ceska.Gynekol. 2012;77(4):360-363. View abstract.

Gilson, R. J., Ross, J., Maw, R., Rowen, D., Sonnex, C., and Lacey, C. J. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study of cryotherapy versus cryotherapy and podophyllotoxin cream as treatment for external anogenital warts. Sex Transm.Infect. 2009;85(7):514-519. View abstract.

Goel, H. C., Prasad, J., Sharma, A., and Singh, B. Antitumour and radioprotective action of Podophyllum hexandrum. Indian J Exp Biol 1998;36(6):583-587. View abstract.

Gombos, D. S., Hungerford, J., Abramson, D. H., Kingston, J., Chantada, G., Dunkel, I. J., Antoneli, C. B., Greenwald, M., Haik, B. G., Leal, C. A., Medina-Sanson, A., Schefler, A. C., Veerakul, G., Wieland, R., Bornfeld, N., Wilson, M. W., and Yu, C. B. Secondary acute myelogenous leukemia in patients with retinoblastoma: is chemotherapy a factor? Ophthalmology 2007;114(7):1378-1383. View abstract.

Gowdey, G., Lee, R. K., and Carpenter, W. M. Treatment of HIV-related hairy leukoplakia with podophyllum resin 25% solution. Oral Surg.Oral Med.Oral Pathol.Oral Radiol.Endod. 1995;79(1):64-67. View abstract.

Jernberg-Wiklund, H. and Nilsson, K. Control of apoptosis in human multiple myeloma by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Adv.Cancer Res 2007;97:139-165. View abstract.

Kacar, N., Tasli, L., Korkmaz, S., Ergin, S., and Erdogan, B. S. Cantharidin-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid versus cryotherapy in the treatment of plantar warts: a randomized prospective study. J Eur Acad.Dermatol Venereol. 2012;26(7):889-893. View abstract.

Kaipiainen-Seppanen, O., Savolainen, E., Elfving, P., and Kononoff, A. [Adverse muscle effects of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product with simvastatin]. Duodecim 2009;125(7):788-791. View abstract.

Kao, W. F., Hung, D. Z., Tsai, W. J., Lin, K. P., and Deng, J. F. Podophyllotoxin intoxication: toxic effect of Bajiaolian in herbal therapeutics. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 1992;11(6):480-487. View abstract.

Karol, M. D., Conner, C. S., Watanabe, A. S., and Murphrey, K. J. Podophyllum: suspected teratogenicity from topical application. Clin.Toxicol. 1980;16(3):283-286. View abstract.

Keefe, D., Lees, J., and Horvath, N. Palifermin for oral mucositis in the high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant setting: the Royal Adelaide Hospital Cancer Centre experience. Support.Care Cancer 2006;14(6):580-582. View abstract.

Komericki, P., Akkilic-Materna, M., Strimitzer, T., and Aberer, W. Efficacy and safety of imiquimod versus podophyllotoxin in the treatment of anogenital warts. Sex Transm.Dis. 2011;38(3):216-218. View abstract.

Kumar, A., Kumar, V., Alegria, A. E., and Malhotra, S. V. Synthetic and application perspectives of azapodophyllotoxins: alternative scaffolds of podophyllotoxin. Curr Med.Chem 2011;18(25):3853-3870. View abstract.

Kumar, I. P. and Goel, H. C. Iron chelation and related properties of Podophyllum hexandrum, a possible role in radioprotection. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;38(10):1003-1006. View abstract.

Kumar, M., Shanmugham, A., Prabha, S., Adhisivam, B., Narayanan, P., and Biswal, N. Permanent neurological sequelae following accidental podophyllin ingestion. J Child Neurol. 2012;27(2):209-210. View abstract.

Larsen, A., Petersson, I., and Svensson, B. Podophyllum derivatives (CPH 82) compared with placebo in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Br.J.Rheumatol. 1989;28(2):124-127. View abstract.

Martin, L. K., Rubin, A. I., Theocharous, C., and Murrell, D. F. Podophyllin reaction mimicking Bowen's disease in a patient with delusions of verrucosis. Clin Exp.Dermatol 2008;33(4):443-445. View abstract.

Melgoza, F., Narula, N., and Wu, M. L. Docetaxel-induced mitotic arrest in epithelium of gallbladder: a hitherto unreported occurrence. Int J Surg.Pathol. 2008;16(2):186-188. View abstract.

Mittal, A., Pathania, V., Agrawala, P. K., Prasad, J., Singh, S., and Goel, H. C. Influence of Podophyllum hexandrum on endogenous antioxidant defence system in mice: possible role in radioprotection. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76(3):253-262. View abstract.

Moher, L. M. and Maurer, S. A. Podophyllum toxicity: case report and literature review. J.Fam.Pract. 1979;9(2):237-240. View abstract.

Moraes, R. M., Bedir, E., Barrett, H., Burandt, C., Jr., Canel, C., and Khan, I. A. Evaluation of Podophyllum peltatum accessions for podophyllotoxin production. Planta Med 2002;68(4):341-344. View abstract.

Moura, M. D., Guimaraes, T. R., Fonseca, L. M., de, Almeida Pordeus, I, and Mesquita, R. A. A random clinical trial study to assess the efficiency of topical applications of podophyllin resin (25%) versus podophyllin resin (25%) together with acyclovir cream (5%) in the treatment of oral hairy leukoplakia. Oral Surg.Oral Med.Oral Pathol.Oral Radiol.Endod. 2007;103(1):64-71. View abstract.

Moura, M. D., Haddad, J. P., Senna, M. I., Ferreira e Ferreira, and Mesquita, R. A. A new topical treatment protocol for oral hairy leukoplakia. Oral Surg.Oral Med.Oral Pathol.Oral Radiol.Endod. 2010;110(5):611-617. View abstract.

Owatari, S., Otsuka, M., Uozumi, K., Takeshita, T., and Hanada, S. Two cases of secondary acute myeloid leukemia accompanying adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Int J Hematol. 2007;85(1):32-35. View abstract.

Paeschke, K. D. [Radio-chemotherapy of cervix carcinoma. I. Clinical part]. Strahlentherapie. 1976;151(4):311-317. View abstract.

Passarella, D., Giardini, A., Peretto, B., Fontana, G., Sacchetti, A., Silvani, A., Ronchi, C., Cappelletti, G., Cartelli, D., Borlak, J., and Danieli, B. Inhibitors of tubulin polymerization: synthesis and biological evaluation of hybrids of vindoline, anhydrovinblastine and vinorelbine with thiocolchicine, podophyllotoxin and baccatin III. Bioorg.Med.Chem 6-1-2008;16(11):6269-6285. View abstract.

Prakash, H., Ali, A., Bala, M., and Goel, H. C. Anti-inflammatory effects of Podophyllum hexandrum (RP-1) against lipopolysaccharides induced inflammation in mice. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2005;8(1):107-114. View abstract.

Puig, N., de la Rubia, J., Remigia, M. J., Jarque, I., Martin, G., Cupelli, L., Sanz, G. F., Lorenzo, I., Sanz, J., Martinez, J. A., Jimenez, C., and Sanz, M. A. Morbidity and transplant-related mortality of CBV and BEAM preparative regimens for patients with lymphoid malignancies undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation. Leuk.Lymphoma 2006;47(8):1488-1494. View abstract.

Qin, L., Xue, M., Wang, W., Zhu, R., Wang, S., Sun, J., Zhang, R., and Sun, X. The in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effect of layered double hydroxides nanoparticles as delivery for podophyllotoxin. Int J Pharm 3-30-2010;388(1-2):223-230. View abstract.

Sherrard, J. and Riddell, L. Comparison of the effectiveness of commonly used clinic-based treatments for external genital warts. Int J STD AIDS 2007;18(6):365-368. View abstract.

Sinkule, J. A. Etoposide: a semisynthetic epipodophyllotoxin. Chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and use as an antineoplastic agent. Pharmacotherapy 1984;4(2):61-73. View abstract.

Stockfleth, E. and Meyer, T. The use of sinecatechins (polyphenon E) ointment for treatment of external genital warts. Expert.Opin.Biol Ther 2012;12(6):783-793. View abstract.

Strobel, E. S., Bauchmuller, K., Ihorst, G., and Engelhardt, M. Frequency, severity and risk factors for oral mucositis after BEAM conditioning and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a single center analysis and review of the literature. Leuk.Lymphoma 2007;48(11):2255-2260. View abstract.

Suh, S. J., Kim, J. R., Jin, U. H., Choi, H. S., Chang, Y. C., Lee, Y. C., Kim, S. H., Lee, I. S., Moon, T. C., Chang, H. W., and Kim, C. H. Deoxypodophyllotoxin, flavolignan, from Anthriscus sylvestris Hoffm. inhibits migration and MMP-9 via MAPK pathways in TNF-alpha-induced HASMC. Vascul.Pharmacol 2009;51(1):13-20. View abstract.

Svecova, D., Havrankova, M., Weismanova, E., and Babal, P. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2012;113(4):246-248. View abstract.

Tchernev, G. Sexually transmitted papillomavirus infections: epidemiology pathogenesis, clinic, morphology, important differential diagnostic aspects, current diagnostic and treatment options. An Bras.Dermatol 2009;84(4):377-389. View abstract.

Triantos, D., Porter, S. R., Scully, C., and Teo, C. G. Oral hairy leukoplakia: clinicopathologic features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical significance. Clin Infect.Dis. 1997;25(6):1392-1396. View abstract.

von Krogh, G. Topical treatment of penile condylomata acuminata with podophyllin, podophyllotoxin and colchicine. A comparative study. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1978;58(2):163-168. View abstract.

Wallin, J. 5-Fluorouracil in the treatment of penile and urethral condyloma acuminata. Br J Vener Dis 1977;53(4):240-243.

White, D. J., Billingham, C., Chapman, S., Drake, S., Jayaweera, D., Jones, S., Opaneye, A., and Temple, C. Podophyllin 0.5% or 2.0% v podophyllotoxin 0.5% for the self treatment of penile warts: a double blind randomised study. Genitourin.Med 1997;73(3):184-187. View abstract.

Wollina, U. Er:YAG laser followed by topical podophyllotoxin for hard-to-treat palmoplantar warts. J Cosmet.Laser Ther. 2003;5(1):35-37. View abstract.

Xie, F. M., Zeng, K., Chen, Z. L., Li, G. F., Lin, Z. F., Zhu, X. L., and Sun, L. D. [Treatment of recurrent condyloma acuminatum with solid lipid nanoparticle gel containing podophyllotoxin: a randomized double-blinded, controlled clinical trial]. Nan.Fang Yi.Ke.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao. 2007;27(5):657-659. View abstract.

Zappia, G., Menendez, P., Monache, G. D., Misiti, D., Nevola, L., and Botta, B. The contribution of oxazolidinone frame to the biological activity of pharmaceutical drugs and natural products. Mini.Rev.Med.Chem 2007;7(4):389-409. View abstract.

Zhang, J. Q., Zhang, Z. W., Hui, L., Chen, S. W., and Tian, X. Novel semisynthetic spin-labeled derivatives of podophyllotoxin with cytotoxic and antioxidative activity. Bioorg.Med.Chem Lett. 2-1-2010;20(3):983-986. View abstract.

Zuse, A., Schmidt, P., Baasner, S., Bohm, K. J., Muller, K., Gerlach, M., Gunther, E. G., Unger, E., and Prinz, H. Sulfonate derivatives of naphtho[2,3-b]thiophen-4(9H)-one and 9(10H)-anthracenone as highly active antimicrotubule agents. Synthesis, antiproliferative activity, and inhibition of tubulin polymerization. J Med.Chem 11-29-2007;50(24):6059-6066. View abstract.

Cassidy DE, Drewry J, Fanning JP. Podophyllum toxicity: a report of a fatal case and a review of the literature. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1982;19:35-44. View abstract.

Frasca T, Brett AS, Yoo SD. Mandrake toxicity. A case of mistaken identity. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:2007-9. View abstract.

Gupta D, Arora R, Garg AP, Goel HC. Radiation protection of HepG2 cells by Podophyllum hexandrum Royale. Mol Cell Biochem 2003;250:27-40. View abstract.

Lacey CJ, Goodall RL, Tennvall GR, et al. Randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of podophyllotoxin solution, podophyllotoxin cream, and podophyllin in the treatment of genital warts. Sex Transm Infect 2003;79:270-5. View abstract.

Longstaff E, von Krogh G. Condyloma eradication: self-therapy with 0.15-0.5% podophyllotoxin versus 20-25% podophyllin preparations--an integrated safety assessment. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2001;33:117-37. View abstract.

Lozada-Nur F, Costa C. Retrospective findings of the clinical benefits of podophyllum resin 25% sol on hairy leukoplakia. Clinical results in nine patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992;73:555-8. View abstract.

Mack RB. Living mortals run mad. Mandrake (podophyllum) poisoning. N C Med J 1992;53:98-9. View abstract.

Prem Kumar I, Rana SV, Samanta N, Goel HC. Enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis by Podophyllum hexandrum. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003;55:1267-73. View abstract.

Rosenstein G, Rosenstein H, Freeman M, Weston N. Podophyllum-a dangerous laxative. Pediatrics 1976;57:419-21.

Schwartz J, Norton SA. Useful plants of dermatology. VI. The mayapple (Podophyllum). J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:774-5. View abstract.

Wiley DJ, Douglas J, Beutner K, et al. External genital warts: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:S210-24. View abstract.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors