Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (cont.)
Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- PTSD facts
- What is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
- What are the effects of PTSD?
- What causes PTSD?
- What are PTSD risk factors and protective factors?
- What are PTSD symptoms and signs?
- How is PTSD assessed?
- What is the treatment for PTSD?
- What is the prognosis for PTSD?
- Is it possible to prevent PTSD?
- How can people cope with PTSD?
- Where can people get help for PTSD?
- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) FAQs
- Find a local Psychiatrist in your town
Where can people get help for PTSD?
Air Force Palace HART
American Love and Appreciation Fund (for veterans)
Army Wounded Warrior Program
Phone: 800-237-1336 or 800-833-6622
DHSD Deployment Helpline
Marine for Life
Military One Source
Military Severely Injured Center
National Coalition Against Sexual Assault
National Alliance for Mentally Ill
National Mental Health Association
Navy Safe Harbor
Operation Comfort (for veterans and their families)
Phone: 866-632-7868 (1-866-NEAR TO U)
PTSD Information Hotline
Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network
As the use of the Internet continues to expand, so will Internet psychiatry. This is particularly true given that it may be quite useful in specifically providing access to psychotherapy for individuals with PTSD. Other areas that researchers are targeting to improve recovery for PTSD sufferers include expanding research on eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), studying how PTSD can be more specifically treated in various ethnic groups, and discovering how to best prevent people from developing the illness. For military personnel, the more access to care that can be made available and the more comfortable active duty and veteran military men and women can be made to seek those services, the better the outcome that can be expected for service individuals with PTSD.
Medically reviewed by Ashraf Ali, MD; American Board of Psychiatry & Neurology with subspecialty in Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Ahmed, A.S. "Post-traumatic stress disorder, resilience and vulnerability." Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 13 (2007): 369-375.
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Child and adolescent mental health statistics Resources for Families, 2007.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic Criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition, Treatment Revision, Washington, D.C., 2013.
Andreasen, N.C. "Acute and delayed posttraumatic stress disorders: a history and some issues." American Journal of Psychiatry 161 August 2004:1321-1323.
Autry, D. "VA to review 72,000 PTSD claims." Disabled American Veterans Magazine Nov.-Dec. 2005.
Beals, J., Novins, D.K., Whitesell, N.R., Spicer, P., Mitchell, C.M., Manson, S.M. "American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project Team. Prevalence of mental disorders and utilization of mental health Services in two American Indian reservation populations: mental health disparities in a national context." American Journal of Psychiatry 162 September 2005: 1723-1732.
Benedek, D.M., M.J. Friedman, D. Zatzick, and R.J. Ursano. "Guideline watch: Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder." Arlington, Virginia: American Psychiatric Association, 2009.
Bryant, R.A., Harvey, A.G. "Gender differences in the relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 37.2 April 2003: 226-229.
Cahill, S.P. "Counterpoint: evaluating EMDR in treating PTSD." Psychiatric Times 17.7, July 2000.
Cohen, L.R., and D.A. Hien. Treatment outcomes for women with substance abuse and PTSD who have experienced complex trauma. Psychiatric Services 2006 January; 57: 100-106.
Davidson, J.R.T. "Effective Management Strategies for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder." Focus 1 (2003): 239-243.
Davidson, J.R.T. "Surviving disaster: what comes after the trauma?" The British Journal of Psychiatry 181 (2002): 366-368.
Davidson, J.R.T, Stein, D.J., Shalev, A.Y., Yehuda, R. "Posttraumatic stress disorder: acquisition, recognition, course and treatment." Journal of Neuropsychiatry 16 May 2004: 135-147.
Department of Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities. Initiatives promoting mental health, 2007.
Ferenc, M., Brown, E.B., Zhang, H., Koke, S.C., Prakash, A. "Fluoxetine v. placebo in prevention of relapse in post-traumatic stress disorder." The British Journal of Psychiatry 181 (2002): 315-320.
Friedman, M.J. "Acknowledging the psychiatric cost of war." New England Journal of Medicine 351.1 July 1, 2004: 75-77.
Friedman, M.J. "Posttraumatic stress disorder among military returnees from Afghanistan and Iraq." American Journal Psychiatry 163 April 2006: 586-593.
Giannopoulou, I., Dikaiakou, A., Yule, W. "Cognitive-behavioral group intervention for PTSD symptoms in children following the Athens 1999 earthquake: a pilot study." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 11.4 (2006): 543-553.
Holtzheimer, P.E., Russo, J., Zatzick, D., Bundy, C., Roy-Byrne, P.P. The impact of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder on short-term clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 162: 970-976, May 2005.
Kaminer, D., Seedat, S., Stein, D.J. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children. World Psychiatry 4(2): 121-125, June 2005.
Keane, T.M., Marshall, A.D., Taft, C.T. Posttraumatic stress disorder: etiology, epidemiology and treatment outcome. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 2: 161-197, April 2006.
Kenardy, J.A., Spence, S.H., Macleod, A.C. Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder in children after accidental injury. Pediatrics 118: 1002-1009. 2006.
Knaevelsrud, C., Maercker, A. Internet-based treatment for PTSD reduces distress and facilitates the development of a strong therapeutic alliance: a randomized controlled clinical trial. BioMed Central Psychiatry 7: 13, 4/19/07.
Lamarche, L.J., De Koninck, J. Sleep disturbance in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: a review. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68(8): 1257-1270. August 2007.
Levin, A. "Early intervention offers hope for preventing PTSD." Psychiatric News 48.1 Jan. 2013: 21.
Levin, A. "Role of sociodemographics still unclear in PTSD." Psychiatric News 43.21 (2008): 17.
Loo, C.M. PTSD among ethnic minority veterans. National Center for PTSD, 2007.
Lorber, J. "For the battle-scarred, comfort at leash's end." The New York Times, 2010.
McLean, L.M., Gallop, R. Implications of childhood sexual abuse for adult borderline personality disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 160: 369-371, April 2003.
Meiser-Stedman, R., Smith, P., Glucksman, W.Y., Dalgleish, T. parent and child agreement for acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychopathology in a prospective study of children and adolescents exposed to single-event trauma. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 35(2): 191-201. April 2007.
Mental Health News. Prevalence and Correlates of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Severe Pain in Psychiatric Outpatients. June 1, 2007.
Mol, S.S.L., Arntz, A., Metsemakers, J.F.M., et al. "Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after non-traumatic events: evidence from an open population study." The British Journal of Psychiatry 186 (2005): 494-499.
NARSAD. Post-traumatic stress disorder can damage children's brain development. www.narsad.org, 11/20/07.
NIMH. Post traumatic stress disorder: a real illness. www.nimh.nih.gov, 11/19/07.
Perilla, J.L., Norris, F.H., Lavizzo. Ethnicity, culture and disaster response: identifying and explaining ethnic differences in PTSD six months after hurricane Andrew. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 21(1): 20-45, March 2002.
Perrin, M.A., DiGrande, L., Wheeler, K., Thorpe, L., Farfel, M., Brackbill, R. Differences in PTSD prevalence and associated risk factors among World Trade Center disaster rescue and recovery workers. American Journal of Psychiatry 164(9): 1385-1394, September 2007.
Pole, N., Best, S.R., Metzer, T., Marmar, C.R. Why are Hispanics at greater risk for PTSD? Cultural, Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 11(2): 144-161, 2005.
Psychology Today. "Complex PTSD." Psychology Today, 2010.
Reeves, R.R. Diagnosis and management of posttraumatic stress disorder in returning veterans. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 107(5): 181-189, May 2007.
Ruchkin, V., Schwab-Stone, M., Jones, S., Cicchetti, D.V., Koposov, R., Vermeiren. R. Is posttraumatic stress in youth a culture-bound phenomenon? A comparison of symptom trends in selected U.S. and Russian communities. American Journal of Psychiatry 162: 538-544, March 2005.
Ruzek, J. "Coping with PTSD and recommended lifestyle changes for PTSD patients." National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, May 22, 2007.
Schneider, S.L., L. Haack, J. Owens, et al. "An interdisciplinary treatment approach for soldiers with TBI/PTSD: issues and outcomes." Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders 19.2 June 2009: 36-46.
Schoenfeld, F.B., Marmar, C.R., Neylan, T.C. "Current concepts in pharmacotherapy for post traumatic stress disorder." Psychiatric Services 55 May 2004: 519-531.
Schuster, M.A., Stein, B.D., Jaycox, L.H., Collins, R.L., Marshall, G.N., Elliott, M.N., Zhou, A.J., Kanouse, D.E., Morrison, J.L., Berry, S.H. "A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks." New England Journal of Medicine 345.20 Nov. 15, 2001: 1507-1512.
Seng, J.S., Graham-Bermann, S.A., Clark, M.K., McCarthy, A.M., Ronis, D.L. "Posttraumatic stress disorder and physical comorbidity among female children and adolescents: results form service-use data." Pediatrics 116.6 December 2005: 767-776.
Smith, M.V., K. Poschman, and M.A. Cavaleri, et al. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of low-income pregnant women. American Journal of Psychiatry 2006 May; 163: 881-884.
Udwin, O., Boyle, S., Yule, W., Bolton, D., O'Ryan, D. "Risk factors for long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: predictors of post traumatic stress disorder." The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 41 (2000): 969-979.
Vlahov, D., Galea, S., Resnick, H., et al. "Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana among Manhattan, New York residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks." American Journal of Epidemiology 155.11 (2002): 988-996.
Winter, H., Irle, E. "Hippocampal volume in adult burn patients with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." American Journal of Psychiatry 161 (2004): 2194-2200.
Wu, P., Duarte, C.S., Mandell, D.J., Fan, B., Liu, X., Fuller, C.J., Musa, G., Cohen, M., Cohen, P., Hoven, C.W. "Exposure to the World Trade Center attack and the use of cigarettes and alcohol among New York City public high-school students." American Journal of Public Health 96.5 (2006): 804-807.
Yehunda, R., Engel, S. M., Brand, S.R., Seckl, J., Marcus, S.M., Berkowitz, G.S. "Transgenerational effects of post traumatic stress disorder in babies of mothers exposed to the World Trade Center attacks during pregnancy." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90.7 (2005): 4115-4118.
Zayfert, C., DeViva, J., Hofmann, S.G. "Comorbid PTSD and social phobia in a treatment-seeking population: an exploratory study." The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 193.2 (2005): 93-101.
Get tips on therapy and treatment.