PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM
Renal Replacement Solution
PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM solutions are clear, sterile, free of bacterial endotoxins and contain no bacteriostatic or antimicrobial agents. These solutions are used in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies (CRRT) as a replacement solution in hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration. Depending on the product (see Table 2), the two compartments contain:
Calcium chloride, USP, is chemically designated calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2 • 2H2O).
Magnesium chloride, USP, is chemically designated magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 • 6H2O).
Sodium chloride, USP, is chemically designated NaCl. Potassium chloride, USP, is chemically designated KCl. Sodium bicarbonate, USP, is chemically designated NaHCO3.
Dextrose, USP, is chemically designated D-Glucose anhydrous (C6H12O6) or D-Glucose monohydrate (C6H12O6 • H2O).
Lactic acid, USP, is chemically designated CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Dibasic sodium phosphate, USP, is chemically designated as disodium hydrogen phosphate, dihydrate (Na2HPO4 • 2H2O)
Table 2 : Compartment Composition (Before Mixing)
|Compartment A (g/L)||Compartment B (g/L)|
|Calcium Chloride • 2H2O||Magnesium Chloride • 6H2O||Dextrose anhydrous (as monohydrate)||Lactic Acid||Sodium Chloride||Sodium bicarbonate||Potassium Chloride||Sodium Phosphate • 2H2O|
|BGK 0/2.5||3.68||3.05||20 (22)||5.40||6.46||3.09||0||0|
|BGK 4/2.5||3.68||3.05||20 (22)||5.40||6.46||3.09||0.314||0|
|BGK 4/3.5||5.15||2.03||20 (22)||5.40||6.46||3.09||0.314||0|
|BGK 2/3.5||5.15||2.03||20 (22)||5.40||6.46||3.09||0.157||0|
|BGK 2/0||0||2.03||20 (22)||5.40||6.46||3.09||0.157||0|
|B22GK 4/0||0||3.05||20 (22)||5.40||7.07||2.21||0.314||0|
|BK 0/0/1.2||0||2.44||0 (0)||5.40||6.46||3.09||0||0|
|BGK 4/0/1.2||0||2.44||20 (22)||5.40||6.46||3.09||0.314||0|
|BK 4/2.5||3.68||3.05||0 (0)||0||6.34||3.09||0.314||0.187|
|B22K 4/0||0||3.05||0 (0)||0||6.95||2.21||0.314||0.187|
The pH of the final solution is in the range of 7.0 to 8.5.
PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM solutions are indicated in pediatric and adult patients for use as a replacement solution in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) to replace plasma volume removed by ultrafiltration and to correct electrolyte and acid-base imbalances. They may also be used in case of drug poisoning when CRRT is used to remove dialyzable substances.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Visually inspect PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.
The prepared solution is for single patient use only.
Aseptic technique should be used throughout administration to the patient.
Discard any unused solution.
PRISMASOL replacement solutions contain 4 different combinations of active ingredients (8 different products with varying ingredient amounts). PHOXILLUM replacement solutions contain 2 different combinations of active ingredients (2 different products with varying ingredient amounts). PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM are supplied in a two-compartment bag that must be mixed immediately prior to use [see Preparing the Solution]:
- Small compartment A (250 mL) containing an electrolyte solution, and
- Large compartment B (4750 mL) containing the buffer solution.
See Table 1 for the concentrations of the active ingredients (after mixing) in these 10 different replacement solutions (total volume is 5 Liters).
Table 1: Concentrations of
Active Ingredients in the 8 PRISMASOL and 2 PHOXILLUM Replacement Solutions
|Ca2+ mEq/L||HCO3 -mEq/L||K+ mEq/L||Mg2+ mEq/L||Na+ mEq/L||HPO4 2mmol/L||Cl- mEq/L||Lactate mEq/L||Dextrose mg/dL||Osmolarity mOsm/L|
|PRISMASOL Replacement Solutions|
|Ca2+ = calcium, HCO3 = bicarbonate, K+ = potassium, Mg2+ = magnesium, Na+ = sodium, HPO4 2-= phosphate, Cl= chloride; osmolarity is estimated|
The mode of therapy, solute formulation, flow rates, and length of PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM replacement therapy in CRRT should be established by a physician based on the patientâ€™s clinical condition, blood concentration of phosphate and other electrolytes, acid-base and glucose balance. Administer either PRISMASOL or PHOXILLUM into the extracorporeal circuit:
- Before (pre-dilution) the hemofilter or hemodiafilter,
- After (post-dilution) the hemofilter or hemodiafilter, or
- Before and after the hemofilter or hemodiafilter.
Preparing The Solution
Use only if the overwrap is not damaged, all seals are intact, frangible pin or peel seal is not broken, and the solution is clear.
The solution may be warmed to 37°C/98.6°F inside of the overwrap to enhance patient comfort. However, only dry heat should be used. Solutions should not be heated in water or in a microwave oven. After heating, verify that the solution remains clear and contains no particulate matter.
The solutions are supplied in two different two-compartment bags, one made of polyvinyl chloride with a frangible pin separating compartment A and B (see Figure 1) and one made of polyolefin with a peel seal separating compartment A and B (see Figure 6).
Follow the instructions below when connecting the solution bags for correct use of the access ports.
Instructions for preparing solutions supplied in a two-compartment, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag with a red frangible pin:
Step 1: Immediately before use, remove the overwrap from the bag and mix the solutions in the two different compartments. After removing the overwrap, inspect the container for leakage by pressing firmly on the bag. Discard the bag if any leakage is detected since sterility cannot be assured. As soon as the overwrap is removed, the reconstitution of compartments A and B should be done and the mixed solution should be used immediately. After removal of the overwrap, the solution is stable for 24 hours including the duration of the treatment. Open the seal by breaking the red frangible pin between the two compartments of the bag. The frangible pin will remain in the bag. (See Figure 2 beside)
Step 2: Make sure all the fluid from the small compartment A is transferred into the large compartment B. (See Figure 3 beside)
Step 3: Rinse the small compartment A twice by pressing the mixed solution back into the small compartment A and then back into the large compartment B. (See Figure 3 beside)
Step 4: When the small compartment A is empty, shake the large compartment B so that the contents mix completely. (See Figure 4 beside) The solution is now ready to use and the bag can be hung on the equipment.
Step 5: The replacement line may be connected to the bag through either the luer connector or the injection connector (spike connector).
Step 5a: The luer connector is a needle-less and swabbable connector. Remove the cap with a twist and pull motion, and connect the male luer lock on the replacement line to the female luer receptor on the bag. (See Figure 5a beside) Ensure that the connection is fully seated and tighten. The connector is now open. Verify that the fluid is flowing freely during use. When the replacement line is disconnected from the luer connector, the connector will close and the flow of the solution will stop.
Step 5b: If the injection connector (spike connector) is used, first remove the snap-off cap. Then introduce the replacement line spike through the rubber septum of the bag connector. (See Figure 5b beside)
Ensure that the spike is fully inserted and verify that the fluid is flowing freely during use.
Instructions for preparing solutions supplied in a two-compartment, polyolefin bag with a peel seal:
Step 1: Immediately before use, remove the overwrap from the bag and mix the solutions in the two different compartments. After removing the overwrap, inspect the container for leakage by pressing firmly on the bag. Discard the bag if any leakage is detected since sterility cannot be assured. As soon as the overwrap is removed, the reconstitution of compartments A and B should be done and the mixed solution should be used immediately.
After removal of the overwrap, the solution is stable for 24 hours including the duration of the treatment.
Hold the small compartment with both hands and squeeze it until an opening is created in the peel seal. (See Figure 7 beside)
Step 2: Squeeze with both hands on the large compartment until the peel seal between the two compartments is entirely open. Shake gently to mix. (See Figure 8 beside)
The solution is now ready to use and the bag can be hung on the equipment.
Step 3: The replacement line may be connected to the bag through either of the luer connector or the injection connector (spike connector).
Step 3a: The luer connector is a needle-less and swabbable connector. Remove the cap with a twist and pull motion, and connect the male luer lock on the replacement line to the female luer receptor on the bag. (See Figure 9a beside)
Ensure that the connection is fully seated and tighten. The connector is now open. Verify that the fluid is flowing freely during use.
When the replacement line is disconnected from the luer connector, the connector will close and the flow of the solution will stop.
Step 3b: If the injection connector (spike connector) is used, first remove the snap-off cap. Then introduce the replacement line spike through the rubber septum of the bag connector. (See Figure 9b beside)
Ensure that the spike is fully inserted and verify that the fluid is flowing freely during use.
Adding Drugs To The Solutions
After mixing, additional drugs may be added to the bag via injection connector (spike connector) in large compartment B. In general, drugs other than phosphate should be administered through a different access line.
When introducing drugs, use aseptic techniques and mix thoroughly. Do not use if there is a color change and/or the appearance of precipitates, insoluble complexes or crystals after addition of medication.
Phosphate: Phosphate up to 1.2 mmol/L may be added to the solution. If potassium phosphate is added, the total potassium concentration should not exceed 4 mEq/L.
Phosphate: Phosphate up to 0.2 mmol/L may be added to the solution. Use sodium phosphate if adding phosphate to bag. The total phosphate concentration should not exceed 1.2 mmol/L.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
See Table 1 for the concentrations of the active ingredients (after mixing) in these 10 different replacement solutions [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Storage And Handling
PHOXILLUM solutions are supplied in a two-compartment bag made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PRISMASOL solutions are supplied in a two-compartment bag made of either polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polyolefin. The 5000 mL bag is composed of a small compartment (250 mL) and a large compartment (4750 mL). The two compartments are separated by a red frangible pin in the PVC bag and by a peel seal in the polyolefin bag.
The bag is overwrapped with a transparent overwrap. See Table 2 for the concentrations of the active ingredients in each compartment for each product [see DESCRIPTION].
|Container||Fill Volume||NDC||Bag Type|
|PRISMASOL BGK0/2.5||5000 mL||24571-108-05||PVC|
|PRISMASOL BGK4/2.5||5000 mL||24571-105-05|
|PRISMASOL BGK4/3.5||5000 mL||24571-104-05|
|PRISMASOL BGK2/3.5||5000 mL||24571-103-05|
|PRISMASOL BGK2/0||5000 mL||24571-102-05|
|PRISMASOL B22GK4/0||5000 mL||24571-111-05|
|PRISMASOL BK0/0/1.2||5000 mL||24571-113-05|
|PRISMASOL BGK4/0/1.2||5000 mL||24571-114-05|
|PRISMASOL BGK0/2.5||5000 mL||24571-108-06||Polyolefin|
|PRISMASOL BGK4/2.5||5000 mL||24571-105-06|
|PRISMASOL BGK2/3.5||5000 mL||24571-103-06|
|PRISMASOL BGK2/0||5000 mL||24571-102-06|
|PRISMASOL B22GK4/0||5000 mL||24571-111-06|
|PRISMASOL BK0/0/1.2||5000 mL||24571-113-06|
|PRISMASOL BGK4/0/1.2||5000 mL||24571-114-06|
|PHOXILLUM BK4/2.5||5000 mL||24571-116-05||PVC|
|PHOXILLUM B22K4/0||5000 mL||24571-117-05|
Not all formulations may be marketed.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]
Do not freeze or expose to excessive heat. Do not use if precipitate has formed or if container seals have been damaged.
Manufactured for: Baxter Healthcare Corporation One Baxter Parkway Deerfield, Illinois 60015. Revised: Jul 2016
The following adverse reactions have been identified with other similar products and therefore, may occur with use of these products:
- Metabolic acidosis
- Acid-base disorders
- Electrolyte imbalance
- Hyperphosphatemia (for phosphate containing solutions)
- Fluid imbalance
As with the use of other replacement solutions, blood concentrations of dialyzable drugs may be reduced by CRRT due to their removal by the hemofilter or hemodiafilter. The blood concentrations of certain drugs may need to be monitored and appropriate therapy implemented to correct for removal during treatment.
When used as an anticoagulant, citrate contributes to the overall buffer load and can reduce plasma calcium levels. Select the PRISMASOL/PHOXILLUM formulation(s) accordingly.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Electrolyte And Volume Abnormalities
PHOXILLUM and PRISMASOL solutions can affect electrolytes and volume and may result in hyperkalemia or hyperphosphatemia. Monitor hemodynamic status and fluid inputs and outputs, potassium, phosphorous, other electrolytes and acid-base balance throughout the procedure. Abnormalities may be corrected by changing the formulation of replacement solution and/or dialysate, supplementation, or adjusting flow rates appropriately [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
PHOXILLUM replacement solutions contain hydrogen phosphate, a weak acid that may increase the risk of metabolic acidosis.
Hyperglycemia With Dextrose Containing Solutions
The use of PRISMASOL replacement solutions containing dextrose may increase the risk for hyperglycemia in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Patients may require initiation of or modification of antidiabetic therapy during treatment with PRISMASOL solutions containing dextrose. Monitor blood glucose.
Use In Specific Population
Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM solutions. While there are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women, appropriate administration of PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM solutions with monitoring of fluid, electrolyte, acid-base and glucose balance, is not expected to cause fetal harm, or affect reproductive capacity. Maintenance of normal acid-base balance is important for fetal well-being.
The components of PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM solutions are excreted in human milk. Appropriate administration of PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM solutions with monitoring of fluid, electrolyte, acid-base and glucose balance, is not expected to harm a nursing infant.
Safety and effectiveness have been established based on published clinical data of CRRT replacement solutions with compositions similar to PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM used in adults and two hemofiltration studies in pediatric patients, including a study of newborns to 17 years old.
The experience with PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM solutions in geriatric patients has not identified novel concerns.
Mechanism Of Action
PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM solutions are pharmacologically inactive. The electrolyte concentrations in the solutions are chosen to restore plasma levels to clinically desired concentrations or maintain plasma levels at the desired concentrations.
PRISMASOL and PHOXILLUM solutions are used as replacement solution to replace water and electrolytes removed during hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration. Bicarbonate (or precursor lactate) in the solution is used as an alkalinizing buffer to restore acid-base balance to a clinically desirable level.
The elimination and replacement of water, electrolytes and buffer depend on the patient's electrolyte and acid-base balance, metabolic status, residual renal function and ongoing physiologic losses through intestinal, respiratory and cutaneous routes.
No information provided. Please refer to the WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS sections.
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