Prostate cancer gene: One of the genes that influences the origin and/or progression of prostate cancer, cancer of the prostate gland. Prostate cancer genes are scattered around in the human genome. They have been found to date on chromosome Xq27-q28 (on the X chromosome in region Xq27-q28) and on chromosomes 1q25, 1q42.2-q43, 7p22, 8p22, 10q25, 11p11.2 and 17p11. Thus, prostate cancer is a genetically complex disease.
A gene for hereditary prostate cancer, HPC1 (hereditary prostate cancer 1), has been identified on the long (q) arm of chromosome 1 in region 1q24-q25. The gene encodes the enzyme ribonuclease L (RNASEL), which acts as a tumor suppressor. Germline (hereditary) mutations in this gene result in hereditary prostate cancer.
Another hereditary prostate cancer gene, HPCX (hereditary prostate cancer on the X), is on the X chromosome in region Xq27-q28. Together, HPC1 and HPCX together account for but a fraction of all prostate cancer.
A bevy of other genes play a role in prostate cancer. These include the KAI1 antimetastasis gene on chromosome 11p11.2 and a gene predisposing to early-onset prostate cancer (PCAP) which has been mapped to chromosome 1 at some distance from the HPC1 gene.