(methylphenidate hydrochloride) for Extended Release Oral Suspension
ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
CNS stimulants, including QUILLIVANT XR, other methylphenidate-containing products, and amphetamines, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Drug Abuse And Dependence].
QUILLIVANT XR is a powder that, after reconstitution with water, forms an extended-release oral suspension formulation of methylphenidate intended for once daily oral administration. QUILLIVANT XR contains approximately 20% immediate-release and 80% extended-release methylphenidate. After reconstitution, QUILLIVANT XR is available in a 25 mg per 5 mL (5 mg per mL) extended-release oral suspension.
Methylphenidate HCl is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. The chemical name is methyl α-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate hydrochloride, and its structural formula is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Methylphenidate HCl structure
C14H19NO2 •HCl Mol. Wt. 269.77
Methylphenidate HCl is a white, odorless crystalline powder. Its solutions are acid to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and in methanol, soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform and in acetone.
QUILLIVANT XR also contains the following inactive ingredients: sodium polystyrene sulfonate, povidone, triacetin, polyvinyl acetate, sucrose, anhydrous trisodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid, sodium benzoate, sucralose, poloxamer 188, corn starch, xanthan gum, talc, banana flavor, and silicon dioxide.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Prior to treating children, adolescents, and adults with CNS stimulants including QUILLIVANT XR, assess for the presence of cardiac disease (i.e., perform a careful history, family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia, and physical exam) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy. Maintain careful prescription records, educate patients about abuse, monitor for signs of abuse and overdose, and periodically re-evaluate the need for QUILLIVANT XR use [see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Drug Abuse And Dependence].
General Dosing Information
Before administering the dose, VIGOROUSLY SHAKE the bottle of QUILLIVANT XR for at least 10 seconds, to ensure that the proper dose is administered.
The recommended starting dose of QUILLIVANT XR for patients 6 years and above is 20 mg once daily in the morning. The dose may be titrated weekly in increments of 10 mg to 20 mg. Daily doses above 60 mg have not been studied and are not recommended. As with any CNS stimulant, during titration of QUILLIVANT XR, the prescribed dose should be adjusted, if necessary, until a well-tolerated, therapeutic dose is achieved.
Pharmacologic treatment of ADHD may be needed for extended periods. Health care providers should periodically re-evaluate the long-term use of QUILLIVANT XR, and adjust dosage as needed.
Patients should be advised to avoid alcohol while taking QUILLIVANT XR [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
QUILLIVANT XR should be orally administered once daily in the morning with or without food [ see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Switching From Other Methylphenidate Products
If switching from other methylphenidate products, discontinue that treatment, and titrate with QUILLIVANT XR using the above titration schedule.
Do not substitute for other methylphenidate products on a milligram-per-milligram basis, because of different methylphenidate base compositions and differing pharmacokinetic profiles [see DESCRIPTION, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Dose Reduction And Discontinuation
If paradoxical aggravation of symptoms or other adverse effects occur, reduce dosage, or, if necessary, discontinue the drug. QUILLIVANT XR should be periodically discontinued to assess the child's condition. If improvement is not observed after appropriate dosage adjustment over a one-month period, the drug should be discontinued.
Reconstitution Instructions For The Pharmacist
QUILLIVANT XR is supplied as a powder for oral suspension which must be reconstituted with water prior to dispensing.
Preparation instructions: Tap bottle until powder flows freely. Remove bottle cap, and add specified amount of water to the bottle (see Table 1 below). Fully insert bottle adapter into neck of bottle [see Instructions for Use, Figures F and G]. Replace bottle cap. Shake with vigorous back and forth motion for at least 10 seconds to prepare suspension.
Table 1: Product Reconstitution Instructions
|Amount of drug in bottle||Amount of water to add to bottle||Final reconstituted volume (yield)|
|300 mg||53 mL||60 mL|
|600 mg||105 mL||120 mL|
|750 mg||131 mL||150 mL|
|900 mg||158 mL||180 mL|
Store reconstituted QUILLIVANT XR at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). Dispense in original packaging (bottle in carton) with bottle adapter inserted and with enclosed oral dosing dispenser. QUILLIVANT XR is stable for up to 4 months after reconstitution.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
Extended-release oral suspension (after reconstitution with water): 25 mg per 5 mL (5 mg per mL).
QUILLIVANT XR is supplied as powder that, after reconstitution with water, forms an extended-release oral suspension. The product is supplied in a carton. Each carton also contains one bottle, one oral dosing dispenser, and one bottle adapter.
The product must be reconstituted only by the pharmacist and not by the patient or caregiver. After reconstitution, the product is a light beige to tan viscous suspension containing 25 mg per 5 mL (5 mg per mL) of methylphenidate hydrochloride.
Bottles of 300 mg powder (to prepare 60 mL suspension) NDC 24478-190-10
Bottles of 600 mg powder (to prepare 120 mL suspension) NDC 24478-200-20
Bottles of 750 mg powder (to prepare 150 mL suspension) NDC 24478-205-25
Bottles of 900 mg powder (to prepare 180 mL suspension) NDC 24478-210-30
Storage And Handling
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]
Dispense in original container.
Comply with local laws and regulations on drug disposal of CNS stimulants. Dispose of remaining, unused, or expired QUILLIVANT XR by a medicine take-back program or by an authorized collector registered with the Drug Enforcement Administration. If no take-back program or authorized collector is available, mix QUILLIVANT XR with an undesirable, nontoxic substance to make it less appealing to children and pets. Place the mixture in a container such as a sealed plastic bag and discard QUILLIVANT XR in the household trash.
Distributed by: NextWave Pharmaceuticals, Inc., A subsidiary of Pfizer Inc., New York, NY 10017. Manufactured by: Tris Pharma, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852. Revised: Jun 2017.
The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Known hypersensitivity to methylphenidate products or other ingredients of QUILLIVANT XR[ see CONTRAINDICATIONS]
- Hypertensive Crisis When Used Concomitantly with Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS]
- Drug Dependence [see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Drug Abuse And Dependence]
- Serious Cardiovascular Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Increases [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Psychiatric Adverse Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Priapism [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Peripheral Vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Long-Term Suppression of Growth [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Clinical Trials Experience With Other Methylphenidate Products In Children, Adolescents, And Adults With ADHD
Commonly reported (≥2% of the methylphenidate group and at least twice the rate of the placebo group) adverse reactions from placebo-controlled trials of methylphenidate products include: appetite decreased, weight decreased, nausea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, dry mouth, vomiting, insomnia, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, affect lability, agitation, irritability, dizziness, vertigo, tremor, blurred vision, blood pressure increased, heart rate increased, tachycardia, palpitations, hyperhidrosis, and pyrexia.
Clinical Trials Experience With QUILLIVANT XR In Children And Adolescents With ADHD
There is limited experience with QUILLIVANT XR in controlled trials. Based on this limited experience, the adverse reaction profile of QUILLIVANT XR appears similar to other methylphenidate extended-release products. The most common (≥2% in the QUILLIVANT XR group and greater than placebo) adverse reactions reported in the Phase 3 controlled study conducted in 45 ADHD patients (ages 6–12 years) were affect lability, excoriation, initial insomnia, tic, decreased appetite, vomiting, motion sickness, eye pain, and rash.
Table 2: Common Adverse Reactions occurring in
≥2% of subjects on QUILLIVANT XR and greater than placebo during the
controlled cross-over phase
|Adverse reaction||QUILLIVANT XR
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of methylphenidate products. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These adverse reactions are as follows:
General Disorders: Chest pain, Chest discomfort, Hyperpyrexia
Hepatobiliary Disorders: Severe hepatocellular injury
Immune System Disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions such as Angioedema, Anaphylactic reactions, Auricular swelling, Bullous conditions, Exfoliative conditions, Urticarias, Pruritus NEC, Rashes, Eruptions, and Exanthemas NEC
Investigations: Alkaline phosphatase increased, Bilirubin increased, Hepatic enzyme increased, Platelet count decreased, White blood cell count abnormal
Urogenital System: Priapism
Vascular Disorders: Raynaud's phenomenon
Clinically Important Drug Interactions
Do not administer QUILLIVANT XR concomitantly with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or within 14 days after discontinuing MAOI treatment. Concomitant use of MAOIs and CNS stimulants can cause hypertensive crisis. Potential outcomes include death, stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, ophthalmological complications, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, and renal failure.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
QUILLIVANT XR contains methylphenidate, a Schedule II controlled substance.
CNS stimulants including QUILLIVANT XR, other methylphenidate-containing products, and amphetamines have a high potential for abuse. Abuse is characterized by impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving.
Signs and symptoms of CNS stimulant abuse include increased heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and/or sweating, dilated pupils, hyperactivity, restlessness, insomnia, decreased appetite, loss of coordination, tremors, flushed skin, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain. Anxiety, psychosis, hostility, aggression, suicidal or homicidal ideation have also been observed. Abusers of CNS stimulants may chew, snort, inject, or use other unapproved routes of administration which can result in overdose and death [see OVERDOSAGE].
To reduce the abuse of CNS stimulants including QUILLIVANT XR, assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing. After prescribing, keep careful prescription records, educate patients and their families about abuse and on proper storage and disposal of CNS stimulants, monitor for signs of abuse while on therapy, and re-evaluate the need for QUILLIVANT XR use.
Tolerance (a state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug results in a reduction of the drug's desired and/or undesired effects over time) can occur during chronic therapy with CNS stimulants including QUILLIVANT XR.
Physical dependence (a state of adaptation manifested by a withdrawal syndrome produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, or administration of an antagonist) can occur in patients treated with CNS stimulants including QUILLIVANT XR. Withdrawal symptoms after abrupt cessation following prolonged high-dosage administration of CNS stimulants include dysphoric mood; fatigue; vivid, unpleasant dreams; insomnia or hypersomnia; increased appetite; and psychomotor retardation or agitation.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Potential For Abuse and Dependence
CNS stimulants, including QUILLIVANT XR, other methylphenidate-containing products, and amphetamines, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy [see Drug Abuse And Dependence].
Serious Cardiovascular Reactions
Stroke and myocardial infarction have occurred in adults treated with CNS stimulants at recommended doses. Sudden death has occurred in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities and other serious cardiac problems, and in adults taking CNS stimulants at recommended doses for ADHD. Avoid use in patients with known structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Further evaluate patients who develop exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or arrhythmias during treatment with QUILLIVANT XR.
Blood Pressure And Heart Rate Increases
CNS stimulants cause an increase in blood pressure (mean increase approximately 2 to 4 mmHg) and heart rate (mean increase approximately 3 to 6 bpm). Individuals may have larger increases. Monitor all patients for hypertension and tachycardia.
Psychiatric Adverse Reactions
Exacerbation Of Pre-Existing Psychosis
CNS stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a pre-existing psychotic disorder.
Induction Of A Manic Episode In Patients With Bipolar Disorder
CNS stimulants may induce a manic or mixed episode in patients. Prior to initiating treatment, screen patients for risk factors for developing a manic episode (e.g., comorbid or history of depressive symptoms or a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, or depression).
New Psychotic Or Manic Symptoms
CNS stimulants, at recommended doses, may cause psychotic or manic symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania) in patients without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania. If such symptoms occur, consider discontinuing QUILLIVANT XR. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies of CNS stimulants, psychotic or manic symptoms occurred in approximately 0.1% of CNS stimulant-treated patients, compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.
Prolonged and painful erections, sometimes requiring surgical intervention, have been reported with methylphenidate products in both pediatric and adult patients. Priapism was not reported with drug initiation but developed after some time on the drug, often subsequent to an increase in dose. Priapism has also appeared during a period of drug withdrawal (drug holidays or during discontinuation). Patients who develop abnormally sustained or frequent and painful erections should seek immediate medical attention.
Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud's Phenomenon
CNS stimulants, including QUILLIVANT XR, used to treat ADHD are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown. Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon, were observed in post-marketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. Careful observation of digital changes is necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.
Long-Term Suppression Of Growth
CNS stimulants have been associated with weight loss and slowing of growth rate in pediatric patients. Careful follow-up of weight and height in pediatric patients ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or nonmedication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and nonmedicationtreated pediatric patients over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated pediatric patients (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development.
Closely monitor growth (weight and height) in pediatric patients treated with CNS stimulants, including QUILLIVANT XR. Patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise patients to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide and Instructions for Use).
Controlled Substance Status/Potential For Abuse And Dependence
Advise patients and their caregivers that QUILLIVANT XR is a federally controlled substance, and it can be abused and lead to dependence [see Drug Abuse and Dependence]. Instruct patients that they should not give QUILLIVANT XR to anyone else. Advise patients to store QUILLIVANT XR in a safe place, preferably locked, to prevent abuse. Advise patients to comply with laws and regulations on drug disposal. Advise patients to dispose of remaining, unused, or expired QUILLIVANT XR through a medicine take-back program if available [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Abuse and Dependence].
Instructions For Using The Enclosed Oral Dosing Dispenser
Provide the following instructions on administration to the patient or caregiver:
- The pharmacist should provide this medicine in its original packaging (bottle within carton) with the bottle adapter fully inserted and the accompanying oral dosing dispenser. Use only with the oral dosing dispenser provided with this product.
- Check and make sure that the QUILLIVANT XR bottle contains liquid medicine. If QUILLIVANT XR is in powder form, do not use it. Return it to your pharmacist.
- VIGOROUSLY SHAKE the bottle of QUILLIVANT XR for at least 10 seconds before each dose, to ensure that the proper dose is administered.
- Remove the bottle cap. Confirm that the bottle adapter has been inserted into top of the bottle.
- Insert the tip of the oral dosing dispenser provided with this product into the bottle adapter.
- Turn bottle upside down and withdraw prescribed amount of QUILLIVANT XR into the oral dosing dispenser.
- Remove filled oral dosing dispenser from bottle and dispense QUILLIVANT XR directly into mouth.
- Replace bottle cap and store bottle as directed.
- Wash oral dosing dispenser after each use (components are dishwasher-safe).
Serious Cardiovascular Risks
Advise patients, caregivers, and family members that there is a potential for serious cardiovascular risks including sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke with QUILLIVANT XR use. Instruct patients to contact a health care provider immediately if they develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Blood Pressure And Heart Rate Increases
Advise patients that QUILLIVANT XR can elevate blood pressure and heart rate [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients that QUILLIVANT XR, at recommended doses, can cause psychotic or manic symptoms, even in patients without a prior history of psychotic symptoms or mania [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients, caregivers, and family members of the possibility of painful or prolonged penile erections (priapism). Instruct the patient to seek immediate medical attention in the event of priapism [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Circulation Problems In Fingers And Toes [Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud's Phenomenon]
- Instruct patients beginning treatment with QUILLIVANT XR about the risk of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon, and associated signs and symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red.
- Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes.
- Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking QUILLIVANT XR.
- Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.
Suppression Of Growth
Advise patients, families, and caregivers that QUILLIVANT XR can cause slowing of growth and weight loss[ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients should be advised to avoid alcohol while taking QUILLIVANT XR Oral Suspension. Consumption of alcohol while taking QUILLIVANT XR may result in a more rapid release of the dose of methylphenidate [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
This product's label may have been updated. For current full prescribing information, please visit www.pfizer.com.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In a lifetime carcinogenicity study carried out in B6C3F1 mice, methylphenidate caused an increase in hepatocellular adenomas and, in males only, an increase in hepatoblastomas, at a daily dose of approximately 60 mg/kg/day. This dose is approximately 4 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m² basis. Hepatoblastoma is a relatively rare rodent malignant tumor type. There was no increase in total malignant hepatic tumors. The mouse strain used is sensitive to the development of hepatic tumors, and the significance of these results to humans is unknown.
Methylphenidate did not cause any increase in tumors in a lifetime carcinogenicity study carried out in F344 rats; the highest dose used was approximately 45 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 5 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m² basis.
Methylphenidate was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay or in the in vitro mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations were increased, indicative of a weak clastogenic response, in an in vitro assay in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Methylphenidate was negative in an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Impairment Of Fertility
Methylphenidate did not impair fertility in male or female mice that were fed diets containing the drug in an 18-week Continuous Breeding study. The study was conducted at doses of up to 160 mg/kg/day, approximately 8-fold the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m² basis.
Use In Specific Populations
There are limited published studies and small case series that report on the use of methylphenidate in pregnant women; however, the data are insufficient to inform any drug-associated risks. There are clinical considerations [see Clinical Considerations]. No teratogenic effects were observed in embryo-fetal development studies with oral administration of methylphenidate to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses 2 and 11 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). However, spina bifida was observed in rabbits at a dose 40 times the MRHD [see Data].
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
CNS stimulant medications, such as QUILLIVANT XR, can cause vasoconstriction and thereby decrease placental perfusion. No fetal and/or neonatal adverse reactions have been reported with the use of therapeutic doses of methylphenidate during pregnancy; however, premature delivery and low birth weight infants have been reported in amphetamine-dependent mothers.
In studies conducted in rats and rabbits, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 75 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Teratogenic effects (increased incidence of fetal spina bifida) were observed in rabbits at the highest dose, which is approximately 40 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m² basis. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rabbits was 60 mg/kg/day (11 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). There was no evidence of specific teratogenic activity in rats, although increased incidences of fetal skeletal variations were seen at the highest dose level (7 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis), which was also maternally toxic. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rats was 25 mg/kg/day (2 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).
Limited published literature reports that methylphenidate is present in human milk, which resulted in infant doses of 0.16% to 0.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 1.1 and 2.7. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breastfed infant and no effects on milk production. Long-term neurodevelopmental effects on infants from CNS stimulant exposure are unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for QUILLIVANT XR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from QUILLIVANT XR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor breastfeeding infants for adverse reactions, such as agitation, insomnia, anorexia, and reduced weight gain.
The safety and effectiveness of QUILLIVANT XR have been established in pediatric patients ages 6 to 17 years. Use of QUILLIVANT XR in pediatric patients 6 to 12 years of age is supported by one adequate and well-controlled study [see Clinical Studies]. Use in 12 to 17 year olds is supported by the adequate and well-controlled studies of QUILLIVANT XR in younger pediatric patients and additional pharmacokinetic data in adolescents, along with safety information from other methylphenidate-containing products. The long-term efficacy of methylphenidate in pediatric patients has not been established. Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients below the age of 6 years have not been established.
Long Term Suppression Of Growth
Growth should be monitored during treatment with CNS stimulants, including QUILLIVANT XR. Children who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Juvenile Animal Data
Rats treated with methylphenidate early in the postnatal period through sexual maturation demonstrated a decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity in adulthood. A deficit in acquisition of a specific learning task was observed in females only. The doses at which these findings were observed are at least 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m² basis.
In the study conducted in young rats, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks, starting early in the postnatal period (postnatal day 7) and continuing through sexual maturity (postnatal week 10). When these animals were tested as adults (postnatal weeks 13–14), decreased spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in males and females previously treated with 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m² basis) or greater, and a deficit in the acquisition of a specific learning task was observed in females exposed to the highest dose (12 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). The no effect level for juvenile neurobehavioral development in rats was 5 mg/kg/day (half the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). The clinical significance of the long-term behavioral effects observed in rats is unknown.
QUILLIVANT XR has not been studied in patients over the age of 65 years.
Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) for up-to-date guidance and advice on the management of overdosage with methylphenidate. Signs and symptoms of acute methylphenidate overdosage, resulting principally from overstimulation of the CNS and from excessive sympathomimetic effects, may include the following: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, restlessness, anxiety, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, convulsions (may be followed by coma), euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, sweating, flushing, headache, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, hypotension, tachypnea, mydriasis, dryness of mucous membranes, and rhabdomyolysis.
Hypersensitivity To Methylphenidate Or Other Components Of QUILLIVANT XR
QUILLIVANT XR is contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to methylphenidate, or other components of QUILLIVANT XR. Hypersensitivity reactions such as angioedema and anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients treated with other methylphenidate products [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
QUILLIVANT XR is contraindicated during treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and also within 14 days following discontinuation of treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), because of the risk of hypertensive crisis [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Mechanism Of Action
Methylphenidate HCl is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant.
Methylphenidate is a racemic mixture comprised of the d- and l-isomers. The d-isomer is more pharmacologically active than the l-isomer. The mode of therapeutic action in ADHD is not known. Methylphenidate blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increases the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.
Following a single, 60 mg oral dose of QUILLIVANT XR in 28 healthy adult subjects in a crossover study under fasting conditions, d-methylphenidate (d-MPH) mean ( ± SD) peak plasma concentrations of 13.6 ( ± 5.8) ng/mL occurred at a median time of 5.0 hours after dosing (Figure 2). The relative bioavailability of QUILLIVANT XR compared to Methylphenidate IR oral solution (2x30 mg, q6h) is 95%.
Figure 2: Mean d-Methylphenidate Plasma
The single dose pharmacokinetics of d-MPH under fed conditions are summarized (Table 3) from studies in children and adolescents with ADHD, and healthy adults following an oral dose of 60 mg QUILLIVANT XR.
Table 3: d-MPH PK Parameters (mean ± SD) after 60 mg oral
dosing of QUILLIVANT XR*
|T½ (hr)||5.2 ± 0.1||5.0 ± 0.2||5.2 ± 1.0|
|Cmax (ng/mL)||34.4 ± 14.0||21.1 ± 5.9||17.0 ± 7.7|
|AUCinf (hr*ng/mL)||378 ± 175||178 ± 54.2||163.2 ± 80.3|
|Cl (L/hr/kg)||4.27 ± 0.70||5.06 ± 1.42||5.66 ± 2.15|
|*Breakfast was given 30 min prior to drug administration
†total MPH measured in children (9-12 years old) and adolescents (13-15 years old), l-MPH <2% of d- MPH in circulation
‡data presented as median (range)
In a study in adult volunteers to investigate the effects of a high-fat meal on the bioavailability of QUILLIVANT XR at a dose of 60 mg, the presence of food reduced the time to peak concentration by approximately 1 hour (fed: 4 hours vs. fasted: 5 hours). Overall, a high-fat meal increased the average C of QUILLIVANT XR by about 28% and the AUC by about 19%. These changes are not considered clinically significant.
Following a single 60 mg oral dose of QUILLIVANT XR in 28 healthy adult subjects under fasting conditions, the mean plasma terminal elimination half-life of d-methylphenidate was 5.6 ( ± 0.8) hours.
In humans, methylphenidate is metabolized primarily via deesterification to alpha-phenyl-piperidine acetic acid (PPAA). The metabolite has little or no pharmacologic activity.
After oral dosing of radiolabeled methylphenidate in humans, about 90% of the radioactivity was recovered in urine. The main urinary metabolite was PPAA, accounting for approximately 80% of the dose.
An in vitro study was conducted to explore the effect of alcohol on the release characteristics of methylphenidate from QUILLIVANT XR Oral Suspension. At alcohol concentrations of 5% and 10%, there was no effect of alcohol on the release characteristics of methylphenidate. At 20% alcohol concentration, there was on average a 20% increase in drug exposure [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
There is insufficient experience with the use of QUILLIVANT XR to detect gender variations in pharmacokinetics.
There is insufficient experience with the use of QUILLIVANT XR to detect ethnic variations in pharmacokinetics.
The pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate after QUILLIVANT XR administration were studied in pediatric patients with ADHD between 9 and 15 years of age. After a single oral dose of 60 mg QUILLIVANT XR, plasma concentrations of methylphenidate in children (9-12 years old; n=3) were approximately twice the concentrations observed in adults. The plasma concentrations in adolescent patients (13-15 years old; n=4) were similar to those in adults.
There is no experience with the use of QUILLIVANT XR in patients with renal insufficiency. After oral administration of radiolabeled methylphenidate in humans, methylphenidate was extensively metabolized and approximately 80% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine in the form of PPAA. Since renal clearance is not an important route of methylphenidate clearance, renal insufficiency is expected to have little effect on the pharmacokinetics of QUILLIVANT XR.
There is no experience with the use of QUILLIVANT XR in patients with hepatic insufficiency.
The efficacy of QUILLIVANT XR was evaluated in a laboratory classroom study conducted in 45 pediatric patients (ages 6 to 12 years) with ADHD. Patients in the trial met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases, 4th edition (DSM-IV®) criteria for ADHD. The study began with an open-label dose optimization period (4 to 6 weeks) with an initial QUILLIVANT XR dose of 20 mg once daily in the morning. The dose could be titrated weekly in increments of 10 or 20 mg until a therapeutic dose or the maximum dose of 60 mg/day was reached. At the end of the dose optimization period, approximately 5% of subjects were receiving 20 mg/day; 39%, 30 mg/day; 31%, 40 mg/day; 10%, 50 mg/day; and 15%, 60 mg/day. Subjects then entered a 2-week randomized, double-blind, crossover treatment with the individually optimized dose of QUILLIVANT XR or placebo. At the end of each week, school teachers and raters evaluated the attention and behavior of the subjects in a laboratory classroom using the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) rating scale. The primary efficacy endpoint was the SKAMP-Combined score at 4 hours post-dosing. The key secondary efficacy endpoints were the SKAMPCombined scores at 0.75, 2, 8, 10, and 12 hours post-dosing.
Results from the first double-blind, placebo-controlled week of the study are summarized in Figure 3. SKAMP-Combined scores were statistically significantly lower (improved) at all time points (0.75, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 hours) post-dosing with QUILLIVANT XR compared to placebo.
Figure 3: Absolute SKAMP-Combined Score after
treatment with QUILLIVANT XR or Placebo during Period 1.
(methylphenidate hydrochloride) for Extended-Release Oral Suspension
What is the most important information I should know about QUILLIVANT XR?
QUILLIVANT XR is a federally controlled substance (CII) because it can be abused or lead to dependence. Keep QUILLIVANT XR in a safe place to prevent misuse and abuse. Selling or giving away QUILLIVANT XR may harm others, and is against the law.
Tell your health care provider if you or your child have (or have a family history of) ever abused or been dependent on alcohol, prescription medicines or street drugs.
The following have been reported with use of methylphenidate hydrochloride and other stimulant medicines.
1. Heart-related problems:
- sudden death in patients who have heart problems or heart defects
- stroke and heart attack in adults
- increased blood pressure and heart rate
Tell your health care provider if you or your child have any heart problems, heart defects, high blood pressure, or a family history of these problems.
Your health care provider should check you or your child carefully for heart problems before starting QUILLIVANT XR.
Your health care provider should check your or your child's blood pressure and heart rate regularly during treatment with QUILLIVANT XR.
Call your health care provider right away if you or your child has any signs of heart problems such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fainting while taking QUILLIVANT XR.
2. Mental (Psychiatric) problems:
- new or worse behavior and thought problems
- new or worse bipolar illness
- new psychotic symptoms (such as hearing voices, believing things that are not true, are suspicious) or new
- manic symptoms
Tell your health care provider about any mental problems you or your child have, or about a family history of suicide, bipolar illness, or depression.
Call your health care provider right away if you or your child have any new or worsening mental symptoms or problems while taking QUILLIVANT XR, especially seeing or hearing things that are not real, believing things that are not real, or are suspicious.
3. Circulation problems in fingers and toes [Peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon]:
- Fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful
- Fingers or toes may change color from pale, to blue, to red
Tell your health care provider if you have or your child has numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in the fingers or toes.
Call your health care provider right away if you have or your child has any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking QUILLIVANT XR.
What is QUILLIVANT XR?
QUILLIVANT XR is a central nervous system stimulant prescription medicine. QUILLIVANT XR is a liquid medicine that you take by mouth.
It is not known if QUILLIVANT XR is safe and effective in children under 6 years of age.
Do not take QUILLIVANT XR if you or your child:
- are allergic to methylphenidate hydrochloride, or any of the ingredients in QUILLIVANT XR. See the end of this Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in QUILLIVANT XR.
- are taking or have taken within the past 14 days a type of anti-depression medicine called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).
QUILLIVANT XR may not be right for you or your child. Before starting QUILLIVANT XR tell your or your child's health care provider about all health conditions (or a family history of) including:
- heart problems, heart defects, high blood pressure
- mental problems including psychosis, mania, bipolar illness, or depression
- circulation problems in fingers and toes
- if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if QUILLIVANT XR will harm your unborn baby. Talk to your health care provider if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant.
- if you are breastfeeding or plan to breast feed. QUILLIVANT XR passes into your breast milk. You and your doctor should decide if you will take QUILLIVANT XR or breast feed.
Tell your health care provider about all of the medicines that you or your child take including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. QUILLIVANT XR and some medicines may interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Sometimes the doses of other medicines will need to be adjusted while taking QUILLIVANT XR.
Your health care provider will decide whether QUILLIVANT XR can be taken with other medicines.
Especially tell your health care provider if you or your child takes:
- anti-depression medicines including MAOIs
Know the medicines that you or your child takes. Keep a list of your medicines with you to show your health care provider and pharmacist.
Do not start any new medicine while taking QUILLIVANT XR without talking to your health care provider first.
How should QUILLIVANT XR be taken?
- Read the step-by-step instructions for using QUILLIVANT XR extended-release suspension at the end of this Medication Guide.
- Take QUILLIVANT XR exactly as prescribed. Your health care provider may adjust the dose, if needed, until it is right for you or your child. During dose adjustment, you or your child may still have ADHD symptoms.
- QUILLIVANT XR should be used with the oral dosing dispenser provided with the product. If the oral dosing dispenser is missing or not provided, please contact your pharmacist for a replacement.
- Check and make sure that the QUILLIVANT XR bottle contains liquid medicine. If QUILLIVANT XR is in powder form, do not use it. Return it to your pharmacist.
- Check and make sure that the bottle adapter was fully inserted into the bottle by the pharmacist. If the bottle adapter is not fully inserted, insert the adapter into the bottle.
- Take QUILLIVANT XR 1 time each day in the morning. QUILLIVANT XR is an extended-release suspension. It releases medicine into your body throughout the day.
- QUILLIVANT XR can be taken with or without food. Taking QUILLIVANT XR with food may shorten the time it takes for the medicine to start working.
- From time to time, your health care provider may stop QUILLIVANT XR treatment for a while to check ADHD symptoms.
- Your health care provider may do regular checks of the blood, heart, and blood pressure while taking QUILLIVANT XR.
- Children should have their height and weight checked often while taking QUILLIVANT XR. QUILLIVANT XR treatment may be stopped if a problem is found during these check-ups.
- In case of poisoning call your poison control center at 1-800-222-1222 right away, or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.
- If a dose is missed, you or your child should talk to your health care provider about dosing.
What should I avoid while taking QUILLIVANT XR?
- QUILLIVANT XR should not be taken with MAOI medicines. Do not start taking QUILLIVANT XR if you stopped taking an MAOI in the last 14 days.
- Do not drink alcohol while taking QUILLIVANT XR. This may cause a faster release of your methylphenidate dose.
What are the possible side effects of QUILLIVANT XR?
QUILLIVANT XR may cause serious side effects, including:
- See “What is the most important information I should know about QUILLIVANT XR?” for information on reported heart and mental problems.
Other serious side effects include:
- painful and prolonged erections (priapism) have occurred with methylphenidate. If you or your child develop priapism seek medical help right away. Because priapism can cause long lasting damage, it should be checked by a health care provider right away.
- slowing of growth (height and weight) in children
The most common side effects of QUILLIVANT XR include:
- decreased appetite
- increased blood pressure
- trouble sleeping
- stomach pain
- weight loss
- mood swings
- fast heart beat
These are not all the possible side effects of QUILLIVANT XR.
Call your health care provider for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA- 1088.
How should I store QUILLIVANT XR?
- Store QUILLIVANT XR in a safe place at 59°F to 86°F (15°C to 30°C).
- Keep QUILLIVANT XR and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about the safe and effective use of QUILLIVANT XR
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use QUILLIVANT XR for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give QUILLIVANT XR to other people, even if they have the same condition. It may harm them.
You can ask your pharmacist or health care provider for information about QUILLIVANT XR that was written for health care professionals.
What are the ingredients in QUILLIVANT XR?
Active Ingredient: methylphenidate hydrochloride
Inactive Ingredients: sodium polystyrene sulfonate, povidone, triacetin, polyvinyl acetate, sucrose, anhydrous trisodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid, sodium benzoate, sucralose, poloxamer 188, corn starch, xanthan gum, talc, banana flavor, and silicon dioxide.
For more information, go to www.quillivantxr.com or call 1-800-438-1985.
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration.
This product's label may have been updated. For current full prescribing information, please visit www.pfizer.com.
Instructions for Use
(methylphenidate hydrochloride) for extended-release oral suspension
Read this Instructions for Use before using QUILLIVANT XR and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This leaflet does not take the place of talking with the health care provider about your or your child's medical condition or treatment.
Step 1. Remove the QUILLIVANT XR bottle and oral dosing dispenser from the box (See Figure A). If the oral dosing dispenser is missing or not provided, please contact your pharmacist for a replacement.
Step 2. Check and make sure that the QUILLIVANT XR bottle contains liquid medicine (See Figure B). If QUILLIVANT XR is still in powder form, do not use it. Return it to your pharmacist.
Step 3. Shake the bottle well (up and down) for at least 10 seconds before each use (See Figure C).
Step 4. Uncap the bottle and check that the bottle adapter has been fully inserted into the bottle (See Figure D).
Step 4 (continued). If bottle adapter (See Figure E) has not been inserted by the pharmacist into the bottle, insert adapter into the bottle as shown (See Figure F and Figure G).
After the bottle adapter has been fully inserted into the bottle (See Figure G), it should not be removed. If the bottle adapter has not been inserted and is missing from the box, contact your pharmacist.
The bottle adapter must be fully inserted and should be even with the mouth of the bottle and must remain in place to allow the child resistant cap to work the right way.
Step 5. Check the QUILLIVANT XR dose in milliliters (mL) as prescribed by your health care provider. Locate this number on the oral dosing dispenser (See Figure H).
Step 6. Insert tip of the oral dosing dispenser into the upright bottle and push the plunger all the way down (See Figure I).
Step 7. With the oral dosing dispenser in place, turn the bottle upside down. Pull the plunger to the number of mL you need (the amount of liquid medicine in Step 5 – See Figure J).
Step 7 (continued). Measure the number of mL of medicine from the white end of the plunger (See Figure K)
Step 8. Remove the oral dosing dispenser from the bottle adapter.
Step 9. Slowly squirt QUILLIVANT XR directly into your or your child's mouth (See Figure L).
Step 10. Cap the bottle tightly. Store the bottle upright at 59°F to 86°F (15°C to 30°C) (See Figure M)
Step 11. Clean the oral dosing dispenser after each use by placing in the dishwasher, or by rinsing with tap water (See Figure N).
These Instructions for Use have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
This product's label may have been updated. For current full prescribing information, please visit www.pfizer.com.
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